American Philosophical Society
Member History

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[405] (2)
41Name:  Dr. Leslie C. Aiello
 Institution:  Wenner-Gren Foundation; University College London
 Year Elected:  2014
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
Leslie Aiello served as President of the Wenner-Gren Foundation of Anthropological Research, a private international foundation devoted to the support of broad-based anthropological research, from 2005 to 2017. She is currently President of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Her academic interests focus on the evolution of human adaptation as well as on the broader issues of evolutionary theory, life history and the evolution of the brain and cognition. She is perhaps best known for the introduction of the Expensive Tissue Hypothesis (with Peter Wheeler), which addresses energetic trade-offs in the evolution of the human brain. She received her BA and MA in Anthropology from the University of California (Los Angeles) and her PhD in human evolution and anatomy from the University of London. She spent the majority of her 30-year academic career at University College London where she was Professor of Biological Anthropology (1995-2005), Head of the UCL Anthropology Department (1996-2002), and Head of the UCL Graduate School (2002-2005). She also served as the co-managing editor of the Journal of Human Evolution (1993-1999), has been the primary supervisor for 23 PhD students, has published books and a number of articles in academic journals and has been active with the media in the public dissemination of science and particularly human evolution. She is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. She has served as an officer for a number of anthropological and scientific societies and as a consultant and advisor to a variety of international anthropological institutions and initiatives. She was the 2006 Huxley Memorial Medalist and Lecturer, received an Honorary Fellowship from University College London (2007), was awarded the ‘2007 Musa Urania (Science) from the city of Florence, Italy, and in 2018 she was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. She is also Professor Emerita (Biological Anthropology) at University College London. Leslie Aiello was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2014.
42Name:  Robert G. Aitken
 Year Elected:  1919
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1865
 Death Date:  10/29/51
43Name:  Dr. Joanna Aizenberg
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1960
Joanna Aizenberg pursues a broad range of research interests that include biomimetics, smart materials, wetting phenomena, bio-nano interfaces, self-assembly, crystal engineering, surface chemistry, structural color and biomineralization. She received the B.S. degree in Chemistry in 1981, the M.S. degree in Physical Chemistry in 1984 from Moscow State University, and the Ph.D. degree in Structural Biology from the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1996. After spending nearly a decade at Bell Labs, Joanna joined Harvard University, where she is the Amy Smith Berylson Professor of Materials Science, Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Director of the Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology and Platform Leader in the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. The Aizenberg lab's research is aimed at understanding some of the basic principles of biological architectures and the economy with which biology solves complex problems in the design of multifunctional, adaptive materials. She then uses biological principles as guidance in developing new, bio-inspired synthetic routes and nanofabrication strategies that would lead to advanced materials and devices, with broad implications in fields ranging from architecture to energy efficiency to medicine. Aizenberg is elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science; and she is a Fellow of American Physical Society and Materials Research Society. Dr. Aizenberg received numerous awards from the American Chemical Society and Materials Research Society, including Fred Kavli Distinguished Lectureship in Nanoscience, Ronald Breslow Award for the Achievement in Biomimetic Chemistry, Arthur K. Doolittle Award in Polymeric Materials, ACS Industrial Innovation Award, and was recognized with two R&D 100 Awards for best innovations in 2012 and 2013 for the invention of a novel class of omniphobic materials and watermark ink technologies. In 2015 she received Harvard’s most prestigious Ledlie Prize that is awarded for the most valuable contribution to science made by a Harvard scientist. Joanna has served at the Board of Directors of the Materials Research Society and at the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Academies. She served on the Advisory Board of Langmuir and Chemistry of Materials, on Board of Reviewing Editors of Science Magazine, and is an Editorial Board Member of Advanced Materials.
44Name:  Dr. Bruce Alberts
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
Bruce Alberts is a molecular biologist of extraordinary breadth. His rigorous studies of the replication of the genome of a bacterial virus led to the concept of a complex "protein machine" that carries out the sequential steps of DNA replication. Along the way, he discovered novel proteins that unwind, stabilize or relax DNA as they participate in the replication process. Dr. Alberts is one of the principal authors of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, considered the field's leading advanced textbook and used widely in U.S. colleges and universities. Born in Chicago, he graduated from Harvard College with a degree in biochemical sciences and earned a doctorate from Harvard University in 1965. He joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1966 and after 10 years moved to the Medical School of the University of California, San Francisco, where he is now professor emeritus. He was awarded an American Cancer Society Lifetime Research Professorship in 1980. He served as president of the National Academy of Sciences from 1993 to 2005. Dr. Alberts has been a leader in efforts to improve science education in public schools and has guided policy studies as chairman of the Commission on Life Sciences of the National Research Council. He is the Editor-in-Chief of Science. In 2010 he was named winner of the George Brown Award for International Scientific Cooperation, in 2014 he was awarded the National Medal of Science, and in 2016 he was recognized by the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science.
45Name:  William F. Albright
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  1929
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1891
 Death Date:  9/19/71
46Name:  Edwin A. Alderman
 Institution:  University of Virginia
 Year Elected:  1925
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1862
 Death Date:  4/29/31
47Name:  James Alexander
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1691
 Death Date:  1756
James Alexander (27 May 1691–2 April 1756) was a lawyer, politician, and controversialist known for his role in the Zenger trial, and a member of the American Philosophical Society, elected in 1744. Born in Scotland, he received training in engineering, surveying, and astronomy and may have participated in the Jacobite uprising there before immigrating to Perth Amboy, New Jersey, in 1715. Soon after, he became Surveyor General of East Jersey, West Jersey, and New York, serving on the committees that surveyed New York’s borders with New Jersey and Connecticut. During this time he also acquired extensive land holdings, becoming one of the wealthiest men in the region. From 1720 on he practiced law, becoming Attorney General of New Jersey in 1723, and sat on the royal councils of both New York and New Jersey. In 1733, Alexander and others hired John Peter Zenger to print scathing attacks on New York Governor William Cosby in the New York Weekly Journal. When Zenger was prosecuted for seditious libel, Alexander and APS member William Smith served as his attorneys and, following their disbarment by Chief Justice and APS member James De Lancey, assisted with the defense behind the scenes. Alexander also corresponded with the Royal Society of London and Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris and published a letter to Benjamin Franklin concerning the impending Transit of Mercury in the APS Transactions. He was also a founder of King’s College and the New York Library Society. (PI, ANB, DNB, DAB)
48Name:  James Alexander
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
James Alexander (?–1778) was a gardener and seedsman, and a member of the American Philosophical Society via his 1768 election to the American Society. Little is known about his early life, but by adulthood he was employed as the gardener of Pennsylvania proprietor Thomas Penn’s country seat in Springettsbury, near Philadelphia. There, he laid out lawns, walks, and plant beds. When Penn returned to England in 1741, Alexander continued to oversee the property and provided his employer with plants. The garden’s visitors included APS members Ezra Stiles and William Shippen, and Alexander was well known for a variety of grape that still bears his name today. He also conducted a successful seed business, becoming APS founder John Bartram’s biggest competitor. In 1764 Chief Justice (and APS member) William Allen proposed a partnership with Alexander to make a medicinal tea more widely available. Alexander contributed to the Pennsylvania Hospital and signed the 1765 Non-Importation Agreement. He presented botanical specimens to the APS and served on the committee that observed the Transit of Venus. He was also a member of the Library Company of Philadelphia and a communicant of the First Presbyterian Church. (PI)
49Name:  Earl William Alexander
 Year Elected:  1770
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  12/25/1726
 Death Date:  1/15/1783
William Alexander (25 December 1726–15 January 1783) was a military officer during the Revolutionary War and a member of the American Philosophical Society, elected in 1770. Born to a wealthy and prominent family in New York City, William’s world revolved around social capital and status. He married Sarah Livingston in 1748, the daughter of an influential New York family. He believed that he was the rightful heir to the Scottish earldom of Stirling, and, while living in Britain during the 1750s, he spent an enormous amount of money attempting to prove it. Though the crown never accepted the claim officially, he went by the title “Lord Stirling” for the rest of his life. His parents shaped and aided his early career. As a young man, he began work as a clerk for his mother, a merchant, and eventually became her partner. His father was surveyor-general of New York and New Jersey, and William inherited this position upon his father’s death in 1756. In the run up to the American Revolutionary War, William seemed sympathetic to the British, but when fighting broke out he quickly announced his support for the patriot cause and became a colonel in the New Jersey militia. His military career included some crushing defeats and some notable acts of heroism, and he steadily rose through the ranks to become a major-general. He fought alongside George Washington at the battles of White Plains and Trenton and was briefly taken prisoner after the Battle of Long Island. In 1781, he was posted in Albany in anticipation of a possible attack at nearby Saratoga, but the area remained quiet and free from fighting. He died of gout in 1783 and was buried in Albany. (DNB, ANB)
50Name:  Alexander Anderson
 Year Elected:  1791
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
51Name:  Stephen Alexander
 Year Elected:  1839
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1807
 Death Date:  6/25/1883
52Name:  Joseph Addison Alexander
 Year Elected:  1845
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1810
 Death Date:  1/28/1860
53Name:  John H. Alexander
 Year Elected:  1852
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1813
 Death Date:  3/2/67
54Name:  James W. Alexander
 Year Elected:  1928
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1888
 Death Date:  10/23/71
55Name:  Francis Alison
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1705
 Death Date:  11/28/1779
Francis Alison (1705–28 November 1779) was a Presbyterian minister and educator and a member of the American Philosophical Society, elected in 1744. Born in Ireland and educated in Scotland, he immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1735. Ordained as the minister of the New London Presbyterian Church, Alison maintained his belief in the formal training and education of ministers during the series of revivals known as the Great Awakening. Alison’s commitment to education became manifest in 1743 when he chartered the New London Academy (a progenitor of the University of Delaware). There he taught Latin and logic and educated a number of students who would later become APS members and signers of the Declaration of Independence. He served in leadership positions at the Academy of Philadelphia and the College of Philadelphia and was the director of the Library Company from 1757 to 1765. In 1759, while serving as a minister to the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, Alison chartered two life insurance corporations to care for aging Presbyterian ministers and their widows and families. Though his intellectual strengths were in the classics, his interests also included natural history and botany. When British forces occupied the city during the American Revolution, Alison fled Philadelphia. Upon his return, he joined others in calling for the revival of APS meetings. (PI, ANB, DNB, DAB)
56Name:  Robert H. Alison
 Year Elected:  1878
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Death Date:  10/7/02
57Name:  Dr. A. Paul Alivisatos
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1959
Dr. A. Paul Alivisatos is President of the University of Chicago where he also serves as Chair of the Board of Governors of Argonne National Laboratory and Chair of the Board of Directors of Fermi Research Alliance LLC, the operator of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. He is also the John D. MacArthur Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Chemistry, the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, and the College. Previously he was Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost and Samsung Distinguished Professor of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at the University of California, Berkeley. He also direced the Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute (ENSI), and held professorships in UC Berkeley’s departments of materials science and chemistry. In addition, he is a founder of two prominent nanotechnology companies, Nanosys and Quantum Dot Corp, now a part of Life Tech. He also served as Director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) until accepting the Vice Chancellor position in 2016. Dr. Alivisatos received a Bachelor's degree in Chemistry in 1981 from the University of Chicago and Ph.D. in Chemistry from UC Berkeley in 1986. He began his career with UC Berkeley in 1988 and with Berkeley Lab in 1991. Groundbreaking contributions to the fundamental physical chemistry of nanocrystals are the hallmarks of Dr. Alivisatos’s distinguished career. His research breakthroughs include the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled nanoscrystals, and forefront studies of nanocrystal properties, including optical, electrical, structural and thermodynamic. In his research, he has demonstrated key applications of nanocrystals in biological imaging and renewable energy. He played a critical role in the establishment of the Molecular Foundry, a U.S. Department of Energy’s Nanoscale Science Research Center; and was the facility’s founding director. He is the founding editor of Nano Letters, a leading scientific publication in nanoscience. Dr. Alivisatos has been recognized for his accomplishments, with awards such as the Wolf Prize in Chemistry, the Linus Pauling Medal, the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award, the Eni Italgas Prize for Energy and Environment, the Rank Prize for Optoelectronics, the Wilson Prize, the Coblentz Award for Advances in Molecular Spectroscopy, the American Chemical Society Award for Colloid and Surface Science, the Von Hippel Award of the Materials Research Society, the 2014 ACS Materials Chemistry Award, and most recently, the National Medal of Science. In January 2017 he was awarded the National Academy of Sciences' Award in Chemical Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2015.
58Name:  Andrew Allen
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1740
 Death Date:  3/7/1825
Andrew Allen (June 1740–7 March 1825) was a lawyer and public official, and a member of the American Philosophical Society, elected in 1768. Born in Philadelphia, the second son of Chief Justice (and APS member) William Allen, he completed his coursework at the College of Philadelphia in 1758 before traveling to England to study law. Upon his return to Philadelphia he launched a successful legal practice and in 1765 was admitted to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, He then assumed a slew of public offices, including attorney-general, member of the Governor’s Council, and Recorder of Philadelphia. In addition to the APS, Allen was involved in a number of Philadelphia institutions: he was a trustee of the Academy at Newark, Delaware, and the College of Philadelphia and a subscriber to the Silk Society and City Tavern. While he was a moderate supporter of colonial resistance to imperial taxation, he chiefly promoted reconciliation with Britain. Leading up to the American Revolution, he held a number of positions that speak to patriot leaders’ confidence in his abilities, including serving as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in 1775. By 1776, he had ceased attending Congress, which aroused suspicion of disloyalty. Having left Philadelphia alongside evacuating British forces in 1778, Allen felt that exile was his only option and removed to England. Encouraged by a pardon from Pennsylvania’s governor, he briefly returned to Philadelphia in 1793 to attend the marriage of his daughter. But he would spend the remainder of his life in England trying to recover his property in America while living on a government pension. In addition to his father, his brothers James and John Allen, uncle James Hamilton, and brother-in-law John Penn were also APS members. (PI, DAB)
59Name:  James Allen
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1742
 Death Date:  9/18/1778
James Allen (c. 1742–18 September 1778) was a lawyer and public official, and a member of the American Philosophical Society, elected in 1768. Born in Philadelphia, the third son of Chief Justice (and APS member) William Allen, he completed his coursework at the College of Philadelphia in 1758 before traveling to England to study law with his brother, APS member Andrew Allen, in 1761. Returning from England in 1764, he eventually opened a law practice which produced the income to which he was accustomed. He then assumed a number of public offices, including alderman and member of the Philadelphia City Council. While he joined other moderate Whigs in opposing the Stamp Act, he primarily sought reconciliation between Britain and the colonies. He was elected as a delegate to the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1776, but true to form, he voted against a special convention to draft a new frame of government. With his career in politics concluded, he retired to his home, Trout Hall, in Allentown, Pennsylvania. But this withdrawal from the public arena failed to shield him from the suspicions generated by his brothers’ involvement with British officials. Allen was arrested and brought back to Philadelphia in late 1776. Personal connections to members of the Council of Safety later allowed him to return to Allentown, but financial troubles brought on by depreciating currency and attacks on his property made peace elusive. Save for the brief respite he enjoyed while living in Philadelphia during British occupation, his health declined during 1777 and he died in the fall of 1778. In addition to his father, his brothers Andrew and John Allen, uncle James Hamilton, and brother-in-law John Penn were also APS members. (PI)
60Name:  John Allen
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1739
 Death Date:  2/2/1778
John Allen (March 1739–2 February 1778) was a public official and a member of the American Philosophical Society, elected in 1768. Born in Philadelphia, the eldest son of Chief Justice (and APS member) William Allen, he enrolled in the College of Philadelphia. But rather than continue his studies, he then traveled abroad with his kinsman and APS member Joseph Shippen, Jr., and the artist Benjamin West, visiting Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, and England. Upon his return to Philadelphia in 1762, Allen was elected to the Common Council. He visited England again in 1766 and 1771 and frequently traveled elsewhere on business; these absences forced him to turn down a number of positions on charitable boards. Despite some gestures of support for the colonial cause early on in the Revolutionary War, Allen never condoned separation from Britain. In the mid-1770s, he moved to New Jersey, where he was elected to the Provincial Congress in 1776, but his increasingly unpopular aversion to independence ultimately led him to abandon his seat. Under the protection of the British army he fled to New York late in 1776 but returned to Philadelphia during the British occupation a year later. He died there in 1778. In addition to his father, his brothers Andrew and James Allen, uncle James Hamilton, and brother-in-law John Penn were also APS members. (PI)
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