American Philosophical Society
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1Name:  Dr. Ben Bernanke
 Institution:  Brookings Institution
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
Ben S. Bernanke is a Distinguished Fellow in Residence with the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. He served two terms as chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States from 2006 to 2014. He is a leading economist who has carried out important research on macroeconomic and monetary history and policy. In a 1983 article in the American Economic Review he noted and analyzed the non-monetary effects of the financial crisis in the Great Depression, and in a 1991 article in the Journal of Political Economy he critically examined competing theories of the business cycle and the phenomenon of pro-cyclical movements in labor productivity. He returned to the analysis of the Great Depression in 1995, and in an influential 2001 article in the American Economic Review he tackled the question of whether central banks should respond to asset prices (i.e., financial bubbles). His analysis of deflation and its consequences in the Japanese economy was very influential in recent policy-making. Ben Bernanke was nominated to succeed Alan Greenspan as the fourteenth chairman of the Federal Reserve in 2005, and he was easily confirmed in 2006. He was confirmed for a second term in January 2010. He served on the Federal Reserve Board of Governors from 2002-05 and also held the chairmanship of the White House Council of Economic Advisors. A graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1979), he has served on the faculties of Stanford (1979-85) and Princeton (1985-2005) Universities, chairing the latter's economics department from 1996-2005. He was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2001 and a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2006.
 
2Name:  Dr. Robert J. Birgeneau
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Robert J. Birgeneau became the ninth chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley, on September 22, 2004. An internationally distinguished physicist, he is a leader in higher education and is well known for his commitment to diversity and equity in the academic community. He stepped down from the Chancellorship in May 2013 and returned to the faculty in the Department of Physics at Berkeley. Before coming to Berkeley, Birgeneau served four years as president of the University of Toronto. He previously was Dean of the School of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he spent 25 years on the faculty. He is a fellow of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society of London, the American Philosophical Society and other scholarly societies. He has received many awards for teaching and research and is one of the most cited physicists in the world for his work on the fundamental properties of materials. In 2006, Birgeneau received a special Founders Award from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences along with President John Hennessy of Stanford University and filmmaker George Lucas. Established in the 225th anniversary year of the Academy, this award honors men, women and institutions that have advanced the ideals and embody the spirit of the Academy founders - a commitment to intellectual inquiry, leadership and active engagement. In 2008, Birgeneau and President Nancy Kantor of Syracuse University received the 2008 Carnegie Corporation Academic Leadership Award as "Champions of Excellence and Equity in Education." The American Institute of Physics awarded him the Karl Taylor Compton Medal for Leadership in Physics in 2012. In 2015 he was honored with the 2015 Darius and Susan Anderson Distinguished Service Award of the Institute of Governmental Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. In 2016 he was chosen as the National Science Board's Vannevar Bush Awardee. A Toronto native, Birgeneau received his B.Sc. in mathematics from the University of Toronto in 1963 and his Ph.D. in physics from Yale University in 1966. He served on the faculty of Yale for one year, spent one year at Oxford University, and was a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories from 1968 to 1975. He joined the physics faculty at MIT in 1975 and was named Chair of the Physics Department in 1988 and Dean of Science in 1991. He became the 14th president of the University of Toronto on July 1, 2000. He and his wife, Mary Catherine, have four grown children and eight grandchildren.
 
3Name:  Ms. Denise Scott Brown
 Institution:  Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1931
   
 
As an architect, planner, author and educator, Denise Scott Brown has helped to redirect the mainstream of modern architecture since the mid-1960s. No architect studying or in practice can have avoided her work or missed her call to broaden architecture to include ideas on pluralism and multiculturalism; social concern and activism; Pop Art, popular culture, and the everyday landscape; symbolism, iconography and context; the uses and misuses of history; electronic communication; the patterns of activities; the doctrine of functionalism; the relevance of mannerism; the role of generic building; and uncomfortably direct and uncomfortably indirect design--all these, in the making of architecture and urbanism today. Ms. Scott Brown feels she owes her views to a childhood and first architecture training at Witwatersrand University in South Africa in the 1940s and early 1950s, followed by London and the Architectural Association, 1952-55, and the University of Pennsylvania, 1958-1965. She received masters degrees in city planning and architecture from Penn and spent five years on the faculty while the social planning movement was being initiated there. She has also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, UCLA and Yale, Harvard and Princeton Universities and has lectured and advised world wide on architecture, urbanism and education. When she joined Robert Venturi in practice, she was well known for her contributions to theoretical research and education on the nature of cities. The early fruits of their collaboration were the research studies, "Learning from Las Vegas" and "Learning from Levittown." These projects and the book "Learning from Las Vegas (1972 by Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour) challenged architects to study the human use and social context of architecture, the role of perception and memory in architecture, and the communicative possibilities of architecture. A primary focus had to do with symbolism and iconography. This turned the authors once again to history, to rediscover facets of architecture forgotten by the Modern Movement. Since 1967, as a leader of the firm now called Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, Denise has participated in a broad range of the firm's projects, including the Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery in London, the Conseil Général complex in Toulouse, and the Mielparque Nikko Kirifuri hotel and spa near Nikko, Japan. As principal-in-charge for urban planning, urban design, and campus planning, her work has included urban planning for South Street, Philadelphia, Miami Beach, and Memphis, Tennessee; programming for the National Museum of the American Indian; and a plan for the Bouregreg Valley in Morocco. Today, Scott Brown focuses on urban university planning and design, where she employs tools evolved by melding the methods of planning and architecture. Her projects have included campus planning for Dartmouth College, the University of Pennsylvania, Williams College, the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies at Harvard and the University of Kentucky. She directed the University of Michigan campus master plan and plans for several of its sub-campuses. In this role, she evolved the design concepts for the Baker-Berry Library at Dartmouth, the Perelman Quadrangle precinct at the University of Pennsylvania, and the Life Sciences complex at the University of Michigan, and was able to exert guidance over these projects from campus planning, through design and construction, to successful use. Scott Brown has recently written on urban planning and design for the World Trade Center site, Philadelphia's Penn's Landing, and New Orleans and has a new book of collected essays out: Having Words. She has worked on a campus life plan and campus center for Brown University, a master plan update for Tsinghua University in Beijing, and a proposal for rehabilitating the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Among her awards are the Anne d'Harnoncourt Award for Artistic Excellence from the Arts & Business Council of Philadelphia (with Robert Venturi, 2010); the Vilcek Prize, awarded to a foreign-born American for outstanding achievement in the arts (architecture) and for contributions to society in the U.S., from the Vilcek Foundation (2007); the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum's National Design Mind Award (with Robert Venturi, 2007); the ACSA-AIA Topaz Medallion for distinguished teaching in architecture (1996); the Royal Society for the Encouragement of the Arts' Benjamin Franklin Medal (1993); the National Medal of Arts (1992); the Republic of Italy's Commendatore of the Order of Merit (1987); the Chicago Architecture Award (1987); the AIA Gold Medal (with Robert Venturi, 2016); and the Jane Drew Prize (2017).
 
4Name:  Dr. Stanley N. Cohen
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
In the early 1970s, Stanley N. Cohen and Herbert W. Boyer discovered a multi-step methodology for isolating individual genes by cloning them in live cells, and showed that genetic material can be propagated and expressed in biological species other than its natural host. They thus invented DNA cloning, also known as "recombinant DNA" or "genetic engineering", a singularly important advance that forms the foundation for much of contemporary biological research, has revolutionized biotechnology, and has led directly to the extraordinary progress currently being made in the field of medicine. In 1978, Dr. Cohen achieved the first production of a biologically active eukaryotic protein encoded by DNA transferred into bacteria from mammalian cells, yet another crucial contribution that underlies modern biomedical research. Cohen's laboratory continues to be a major leader both in microbiological studies (which his early work has literally transformed) and in studies of growth control and chromosome dynamics in mammalian cells. Since 1993 he has been Kwoh-Ting Li Professor of Genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine, on whose faculty he has served since 1968. Dr. Cohen has won the Mattia Award (1977) and the National Medal of Science (1988) as well as election to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1978), the National Academy of Sciences (1979) and the Institute of Medicine (1988). He received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1960.
 
5Name:  Dr. Jonathan Culler
 Institution:  Cornell University
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402b
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Jonathan Culler is Class of 1916 Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Cornell University. He received his D. Phil. from St. John's College, Oxford University in 1972 and served on the faculties of Cambridge and Oxford Universities prior to joining the Cornell University faculty in 1977. Dr. Culler also directed Cornell's Society for Humanities for ten years and served as senior associate dean of the College of Arts and Sciences from 2000-03. An expert on French literature, Jonathan Culler is the author of the classic Flaubert study The Uses of Uncertainty (1974). His most visible contribution, however, has been the interpretation to the English-speaking world of the French critical tradition of structuralism from de Saussure to Derrida. Where others have lost themselves, and their readers, in a thicket of obfuscations and misunderstood concepts, Dr. Culler has maintained an exemplary clarity. His writing has the limpid elegance of a Mozart piano sonata. He has probably done more than anyone else in the United States to keep comparative literature and literary criticism both accessible to new ideas and readable to wider audiences. Jonathan Culler lives and works in France, England, and the United States. His other published works include Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature (1975); Ferdinand de Saussure (1976); The Pursuit of Signs: Semiotics, Literature, Deconstruction; (1981); On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism (1982); Roland Barthes (1983); Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions (1988); Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction (1997); and The Literary in Theory (2007). Cornell University Press issued the 25th anniversary edition of On Deconstruction in 2008. Dr. Culler is the recipient of a Rhodes Scholarship (1966-69) and the James Russell Lowell Prize of the Modern Language Association of America (1975). He was appointed as a member of the board of directors of the New York State Council for the Humanities in 2007. He was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2001, the American Philosophical Society in 2006, and the British Academy in 2020.
 
6Name:  Ms. Joan Didion
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  December 23, 2021
   
 
Joan Didion was born in Sacramento, California, on December 5, 1934, and in 1956 received a B.A. degree in English from the University of California, Berkeley. Her novels include "Run River," 1963; "Play It as It Lays" (1970); "A Book of Common Prayer" (1977); "Democracy" (1984); and "The Last Thing He Wanted" (1996). Her nonfiction includes "Slouching Towards Bethlehem" (1968); "The White Album" (1978); "Salvador" (1983), "Miami" (1987); "After Henry" (1992); "Political Fictions" (2001); "Fixed Ideas" (2003); "Where I Was From" (2003); and "Blue Nights" (2011). In 1964 she married John Gregory Dunne (May 25, 1932 - December 30, 2003). Their only child, Quintana Roo Dunne, was born March 3, 1966 and died August 26, 2005. Her best selling memoir "The Year of Magical Thinking" (2005) was borne of this blindsiding by death. A dramatic adaption, written by Ms. Didion and starring Vanessa Redgrave, opened on Broadway in 2007. For her "distinctive blend of spare, elegant prose and fierce intelligence," Ms. Didion was honored with the National Book Foundation's 2007 Medal for Distinguished Contribution in American Letters and the 2012 National Humanities Medal.
 
7Name:  Dr. Howard Gardner
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Howard Gardner is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. A developmental psychologist by training, he has conducted research and written books in several areas, including developmental psychology, neuropsychology, cognitive science, arts education, structuralism, leadership, intelligence, ethics, creativity, and precollegiate education. Dr. Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists a single general intelligence that can be adequately assessed by psychometric instruments. Part of the original team of researchers at Project Zero when it was established by Nelson Goodman in 1967, Gardner went on to become co-director, then senior director. His research with Project Zero includes The Good Project (formerly the GoodWork Project), which promotes "excellence, engagement, and ethics in education, preparing students to become good workers and good citizens who contribute to the overall well-being of society," and Higher Education in the 20th Century, a large-scale national study of college today. Recently, he and colleagues on The Good Project have been studying the fate of professions during a time of rapid change and enormous market pressures. The recipient of 31 honorary degrees, Dr. Gardner received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship in 1981. He is the author of 30 books, notably Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983); the most recent of which are Extraordinary minds: Portraits of exceptional individuals and an examination of our extraordinariness (1997), The disciplined mind: What all students should understand (1999), Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st Century (1999), Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people’s minds (2004), and The App Generation (2013). Among his many awards are the Grawemeyer Award in Education, University of Louisville (1990), Presidential Citation, American Educational Research Association (1996), Presidential Citation, American Psychological Association (1998), George Ledlie Prize, President and Fellows of Harvard College (2000), Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, Pio Manzù (2001), Prince of Asturias Prize in Social Science (2011), Brock International Prize in Education (2015), and the Distinguished Contributions to Research in Education Award, the premier honor from the American Educational Research Association (2020).
 
8Name:  The Honorable Ruth Bader Ginsburg
 Institution:  United States Supreme Court
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  September 18, 2020
   
 
Ruth Bader Ginsburg's remarkable career in the law encompassed three distinct roles: law professor; Supreme Court advocate; and jurist. In 1963 - four years after graduating from Columbia Law School - Justice Ginsburg was appointed to the faculty of the Rutgers Law School. In 1972 her Columbia teachers persuaded her to return as a colleague. A year after joining the Columbia faculty, Justice Ginsburg took on the added duties of counsel to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). From then until 1980 she was concurrently a scholar/teacher at Columbia and the architect-plus-field commander of the ACLU's campaign to establish gender equality under law. In furtherance of that campaign Justice Ginsburg won a series of major victories in the Supreme Court. In 1980 President Carter appointed her to the bench as a Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1993, President Clinton appointed her to the Supreme Court. In Justice Ginsburg's more than fifteen years of service on the highest court, her luminous opinions have brought sharper definition to the interconnections and inter-independencies of the three branches of the national government, and to the relations between the nation and the states, and have measurably strengthened the constitutional rights and freedoms of us all. Her recent awards include: the Radcliffe Medal (2015), the Genesis Prize (2017), the American Law Institute's Henry J. Friendly Medal (2018), University of Chicago's Harris Dean's Award (2019), the Berggruen Prize (2019), and the Liberty Medal of the National Constitution Center (2020). She died at her home in Washington DC at the age of 87 on September 18, 2020.
 
9Name:  Dr. Walter B. Hewlett
 Institution:  William and Flora Hewlett Foundation; Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities, Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Walter Hewlett is a gifted musician and has made numerous contributions of a scholarly nature to the study of music. Over the years, he has become a well-respected figure in the development of computer technology to the elucidation of a broad variety of key topics in music. He has also been active in philanthropic organizations, notably as an officer and director of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, one of the major non-profit foundations in the United States, which he founded with his parents. Hewlett succeeded his father as chairman of the board, and he has a very active role in defining the direction for the foundation's programs for the years ahead. The Foundation currently concentrates on education, the environment, global development, performing arts, and reproductive health care. Concomitantly, he has also been actively concerned with the governance of two of the country's leading universities: Harvard University and Stanford University. At the latter, he has held a faculty appointment and is a well-respected teacher. Hewlett plays several musical instruments, including the piano, cello, and organ, and he is a member of the Bohemian Club Orchestra. He is a director of numerous organizations, including the Packard Humanities Institute; the Stanford Theatre Foundation; and the Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities. He currently serves as Chairman of the Board of the Public Policy Institute of California.
 
10Name:  Dr. William H. Hooke
 Institution:  American Meteorological Society
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  105. Physical Earth Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
William H. Hooke was a senior policy fellow at the American Meteorological Society from 2000-2022, and director of the Policy Program from 2001-2022. His current policy research interests include: natural disaster reduction; historical precedents as they illuminate present-day policy; and the nature and implications of changing national requirements for weather and climate science and services. He also directs AMS policy education programs, including the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium, and the AMS-UCAR Congressional Science Fellowship Program. From 1967-2000, Dr. Hooke worked for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and antecedent agencies. After six years of research in fundamental geophysical fluid dynamics and its application to the ionosphere, the boundary layer, air quality, aviation, and wind engineering, he moved into a series of management positions of increasing scope and responsibility. From 1973-80, he was Chief of the Wave Propagation Laboratory Atmospheric Studies Branch; from 1980-83 he rotated through a series of management development assignments; and from 1984-87 he directed NOAA's Environmental Sciences Group (now the Forecast Systems Lab), responsible for much of the systems R&D for the NWS Modernization, as well as a range of other weather and climate research activities. From 1987-93 he served as the Deputy Chief Scientist and Acting Chief Scientist of NOAA, setting policy and direction for $300M/year of NOAA R&D in oceanography, atmospheric science, hydrology, climate, marine biology, and associated technologies. Between 1993 and 2000, he held two national responsibilities: Director of the U.S. Weather Research Program Office, and Chair of the interagency Subcommittee for Natural Disaster Reduction of the National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Resources. Dr. Hooke was an adjunct faculty member at the University of Colorado from 1969-87 and served as a fellow of two NOAA Joint Institutes (CIRES, 1971-1977; CIRA 1987-2000). The author of over fifty refereed publications and co-author of one book, Dr. Hooke holds a B.S. (Physics Honors) from Swarthmore College (1964) and S.M. (1966) and Ph.D (1967) degrees from the University of Chicago. He is a Fellow of the AMS and a member of the American Philosophical Society. Currently, he chairs the NAS/NRC Disasters Roundtable and serves on the ICSU Planning Group on Natural and Human-Induced Environmental Hazards and Disasters.
 
11Name:  Dr. Michael Hout
 Institution:  New York University; University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Michael Hout's research is highly influential not only in his own field of sociology, but also in demography, political science and that part of economics concerned with inequality. In a continuing series of heavily cited papers and books in such disparate problem areas as stratification, demography, religion and methodology, he has demonstrated a keen sense for important (and socially significant) problems and has deployed highly sophisticated skills in empirical research and modeling. Much of his work has focused on using demographic methods to study intergenerational social mobility, especially as it is affected by educational attainment, not only in the United States but also in Ireland, Russia, and Sweden, as well as the effects of intermarriage and subjective identification on the size of ethnic groups, and the importance of religious identification in the United States. His methodological contributions have been in modeling social processes such as delinquency. His Mobility Tables has instructed generations of researchers in stratification. As a co-author of Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth, he judiciously but effectively dismantled the claim that differences in social standing and achievement are primarily the result of innate differences in intelligence. A graduate of Indiana University (Ph.D., 1976), Dr. Hout served as Professor of Sociology and Chair of the Joint Program in Demography and Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley, where he had taught since 1985. He became Natalie Cohen Professor of Sociology and Demography Emeritus in June 2013 and moved to New York University where is Professor of Sociology.
 
12Name:  Dr. Tony Hunter
 Institution:  The Salk Institute
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Tony Hunter was born in Ashford, Kent, England. He attended Caius College at the University of Cambridge, receiving his B.A. in 1965. Subsequently, he did his graduate studies in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Cambridge under the supervision of Asher Korner, receiving his Ph.D. in 1969 for work on mammalian protein synthesis. In 1968 he was appointed as a Research Fellow of Christ's College at the University of Cambridge, and then worked for three years in the Department of Biochemistry doing independent research on the initiation of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. In 1971 he joined the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, as a Research Associate working under Walter Eckhart on polyoma virus DNA synthesis. He spent 1973-75 back at the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Cambridge where he discovered how tobacco mosaic virus expresses its coat protein, before joining the Salk Institute as an assistant professor in 1975. At that time he set out to identify tumor virus transforming gene products, starting with the tumor (T) antigens of polyoma virus and then turning his attention to Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the course of studying the polyoma virus middle T antigen and the RSV v-src gene product, he discovered that these proteins both exhibit a previously unknown protein kinase activity that phosphorylates tyrosine. He has spent most of the last thirty years studying tyrosine kinases and their role in cell growth, oncogenesis and the cell cycle. A major current research interest is to elucidate mechanisms of transmembrane signaling by tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. His group also studies the cyclin-dependent protein kinases and other protein kinases that regulate progression through the cell cycle, and how protein ubiquitylation and degradation is used as a means of regulating signaling pathways and the cell cycle. He is currently a professor in the Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory at the Salk Institute, the director of the Salk Institute Cancer Center, and an adjunct professor in the Division of Biology at the University of California, San Diego. Currently he is on the editorial boards of several journals, including Cell, Molecular Cell, the EMBO Journal and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. He serves on a number of scientific review and advisory committees. He has been an organizer for many scientific meetings. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1987, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1992, an Associate Member of the European Molecular Biology Organization in 1992, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1998 and a member of the Institute of Medicine in 2004. He was appointed as an American Cancer Society Research Professor in 1992. He has received a number of awards for his work in the area of growth control, oncogenesis and protein phosphorylation, including the 1994 General Motors Cancer Research Foundation Mott Prize, a 1994 Gairdner Foundation International Award, the Biochemical Society 1994 Hopkins Memorial Lectureship and Medal, the 2001 Keio Medical Science Prize, the 2003 Sergio Lombroso Award in Cancer Research, the 2003 City of Medicine Award, the 2004 American Cancer Society Medal of Honor, the 2004 Kirk A. Landon-AACR Prize for Basic Cancer Research, the Prince of Asturias Award for Scientific and Technical Research, 2004, the 2004 Louia Gross Horwitz Prize, the 2005 Wolf Prize in Medicine, the 2006 Pasarow Award in Cancer Research, in 2017 the inaugural Sjoeberg Prize cancer research; the 2018 Pezcoller-AACR International Award for Extraordinary Achievement in Cancer Research, and the 2018 Tang Prize in Biopharmaceutical Science. His hobbies include white water rafting and desert camping.
 
13Name:  Dr. Philip N. Johnson-Laird
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Philip N. Johnson-Laird was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1936. He left school at the age of 15 and spent ten years in a variety of occupations until he went to University College, London to read psychology. He later gained his Ph.D. there under the supervision of Peter Wason, and he joined the faculty in 1966. In 1971, he was a visiting member of the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, where he began a collaboration with George A. Miller. Subsequently, he held positions at the University of Sussex (1973-1981) and at the Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Unit (1981-1989) in Cambridge, where he was also a Fellow of Darwin College. He returned to Princeton in 1989 to be a member of the faculty at the University, where he is the Stuart Professor of Psychology. He has published 12 books and nearly 300 scientific articles. He has received the Spearman medal and the President's award of the British Psychology Society as well as six honorary degrees. He is a fellow of the Royal Society and the British Academy. He is married to Maureen Johnson-Laird (née Sullivan) and has two grown-up children. In his spare time, if he had any, he would compose music and play modern jazz piano. Research: Dr. Johnson-Laird's study of the psychology of reasoning began in a collaboration with Peter Wason. They discovered that people make systematic and predictable errors in reasoning, and that they are affected by the content of inferences (see their joint publications 1969-1973, his study with Paolo and Maria Sonino Legrenzi, and the book, Psychology of Reasoning, 1972). Effects of content are embarrassment to the thesis that there is a mental logic consisting of formal rules of inference. During the 1970s, his research also concerned psycholinguistics, and the representation of meaning and discourse (see, e.g., Miller and Johnson-Laird, Language and Perception, 1976). Later, he proposed that individuals reason, not from the logical form of assertions, but from their representation of discourse in the form of mental models. Each mental model represents a different possibility. The fundamental principle of human rationality is accordingly that an inference is valid if it has no counterexamples, i.e., models of possibilities in which the premises are true but the conclusion false. His experiments corroborated the prediction that the greater the number of models of possibilities, the longer inferences take and the more likely reasoners are to make errors. He also began the development of a series of computer programs implementing the model theory. This research led to the publication of his book, Mental Models, in 1983, which integrated the theory of discourse representation and the theory of human reasoning. One gap in the theory concerned reasoning based on sentential connectives, such as "if" and "or". In research at the MRC Applied Psychology Unit in Cambridge, Ruth Byrne and Johnson-Laird showed how to extend the theory to such inferences, implemented it in a computer program, and carried out a series of experiments corroborating the theory (see their book, Deduction, published in 1991). The computer program also solved a well-known problem in logic: the search for a maximally parsimonious circuit equivalent to a given circuit made up from Boolean units. In simple cases, naïve reasoners tend to draw the corresponding conclusions from premises containing sentential connectives. Since his move to Princeton, Dr. Johnson-Laird and his colleagues have extended the model theory to a number of novel domains, including temporal reasoning, causal reasoning, modal reasoning about what is possible and what is necessary, deontic reasoning about what is permissible and obligatory, and reasoning based on diagrams. This research has been carried out with many colleagues in different countries: Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, the UK, and the USA. He has also developed a theory of emotions with his colleague Keith Oatley at the University of Toronto. This theory postulates that emotions serve a quasi-rational function, enabling social mammals including primates to make adaptive responses to their social environment without the need for complex cognition. Johnson-Laird's main recent discovery is of a psychological principle that severely constrains human rationality: individuals normally represent what is true, but do not represent what is false (the principle of truth). In this way, they try to overcome the bottleneck of working memory, which has a limited processing capacity. To represent only what is true appears to be sensible, but, as a computer program revealed, inferences exist where the principle leads reasoners astray. His series of recent studies have shown that highly intelligent adults readily succumb to these so-called "illusory" inferences (see, e.g., the publication in Science, 2000, with his colleagues, Vittorio Girotto, and Paolo and Maria Legrenzi). Although the illusory problem are sparse in the set of all possible inferences, the illusions take many forms. One compelling instance arises from premises of the following sort: If my hand contains a king then it contains an ace, or else if it doesn't contain a king then it contains an ace. My hand does contain a king. What follows? The obvious conclusion is that my hand contains an ace. But the inference is fallacious, because the force of "or else" is that one of the conditionals at the very least may be false. In his most recent research, Johnson-Laird is examining the regions of the brain underlying deductive reasoning using functional magnetic resonance imaging. He and his colleagues have shown that deduction activates right hemisphere, and that a search for counterexamples appears to depend on the right frontal pole. A separate series of brain -imaging studies has corroborated his behavioral findings that materials that evoke visual imagery impede reasoning (see his study in Memory & Language, 2002, with Markus Knauff).
 
14Name:  Dr. Evelyn Fox Keller
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404c
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Evelyn Fox Keller received her Ph.D. in theoretical physics at Harvard University, worked for a number of years at the interface of physics and biology, and is now Professor of History and Philosophy of Science in the Program in Science, Technology and Society at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is the author of many articles and books, including: A Feeling for the Organism: The Life and Work of Barbara McClintock; Reflections on Gender and Science; Secrets of Life, Secrets of Death: Essays on Language, Gender and Science; Refiguring Life: Metaphors of Twentieth Century Biology; The Century of the Gene; and Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines. A new book, The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture, is forthcoming. Between Jan, 2006 and July, 2007, she held the Chaire Blaise Pascal in Paris at REHSEIS.
 
15Name:  Dr. Linda K. Kerber
 Institution:  University of Iowa
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Linda K. Kerber is the May Brodbeck Professor in the Liberal Arts and Professor of History at the University of Iowa, where she is also Lecturer in the College of Law. In 2006-07 she was Harmsworth Visiting Professor in American History at Oxford University. She received her AB from Barnard College in 1960, an M.A. from New York University in 1961, a Ph.D. in history from Columbia University in 1968. In 2006, she served as president of the American Historical Association; she served as president of the Organization of American Historians in 1996-97, and as president of the American Studies Association in 1988. In recent years she has served as Chair of the Executive Committee of the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture and - following her interest in strengthening academic exchange between the United States and Japan - has been a member of the Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission, a federal agency. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Her teaching has been recognized by the Iowa Regents Award for Faculty Excellence and she was awarded the Charles Homer Haskins Prize by the American Council of Learned Societies in 2020. In her writing and teaching Linda Kerber has emphasized the history of citizenship, gender, and authority. She is the author of No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (1998) for which she was awarded the Littleton-Griswold Prize for the best book in U.S. legal history and the Joan Kelley Prize for the best book in women's history (both awarded by the American Historical Association). Among her other books are Toward an Intellectual History of Women (1997), Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1980), and Federalists in Dissent: Imagery and Ideology in Jeffersonian America (1970). She is co-editor of U.S. History As Women's History, and of the widely used anthology Women's America: Refocusing the Past (6th edition, 2004), which has been translated into Japanese. She is now at work on a history of statelessness in America. Linda Kerber has held fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Humanities Center and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. She has served on many editorial boards and advisory committees; currently she serves as advisory editor to the "Gender and American Culture" series of the University of North Carolina Press and on the editorial boards of Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society and the Journal of Women's History.
 
16Name:  Dr. Paul LeClerc
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Paul LeClerc graduated from the College of the Holy Cross in 1963 and spent the next academic year studying at the Sorbonne. Returning to New York City, he completed a Ph.D. in French literature at Columbia University. He joined the faculty of Union College (1966-79), where he chaired the Department of Modern Languages and the Division of Humanities, and received research grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the American Philosophical Society to support his scholarly work on the French Enlightenment. Dr. LeClerc returned to New York City in 1979 to join the central administration of the City University of New York, the nation's third largest university and its largest urban university system. He served successively as University Dean for Academic Affairs and Acting Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs for CUNY, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs of Baruch College, and, in 1988, President of Hunter College. He also held the position of Professor of French and taught during nearly every semester of his presidency. Dr. LeClerc became President and Chief Executive Officer of the New York Public Library in late 1993. With collections now numbering some 55 million items, the New York Public consists of 89 libraries spread over 130 square miles of New York City. In 2005, there were 15 million physical reader visits to the library system and 20 million electronic visits. He retired in June 2011 and is now a Visiting Scholar in the Department of French and Romance Philology at Columbia University. Paul LeClerc is the author or co-editor of five scholarly volumes on writers of the French Enlightenment, and his contributions to French culture earned him the Order of the Academic Palms (Officier) in 1989, the French Légion d'honneur (Chevalier) in 1996, and the French Légion d'honneur (Officier) in 2012. He is presently a trustee of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and a Director of the National Book Foundation and the American Academy in Rome. He serves on the Editorial Board of The Complete Works of Voltaire (Oxford University) and on the Advisory Committee of The Papers of Benjamin Franklin (Yale University).
 
17Name:  Dr. Gene E. Likens
 Institution:  Institute of Ecosystem Studies
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Gene Likens' work established some of the key concepts, methods, and findings of ecosystem ecology. He founded the Institute for Ecosystem Studies in 1983 and led it through 2007, serving as Director, President and G. Evelyn Hutchinson Chair in Ecology. Dr. Likens' research focuses on the biogeochemistry of forest and aquatic ecosystems. His long-term studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which he co-founded in 1963, have shed light on critical links between ecosystem functions and land use practices. He and his colleagues were the first scientists to document the link between the fossil fuel combustion and an increase in the acidity of precipitation in North America. His findings have influenced policy makers, motivated scientific studies, and increased public awareness of Human-Accelerated Environmental Change. Winner of the 2001 National Medal of Science, Dr. Likens is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1979) and the National Academy of Sciences (1981). He has been awarded the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Ecology and Conservation Biology and the Franklin Institute's 2019 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Earth and Environmental Science. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1962.
 
18Name:  Dr. Elizabeth F. Loftus
 Institution:  University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
For more than three decades, Elizabeth Loftus has been delving into the mysteries of human memory. Her fascination with memory began shortly after completing her undergraduate education at UCLA (where she majored in mathematics and psychology) when she was half way through her graduate education at Stanford, where she received a Ph.D. in psychology. That education helped to transform her from a puzzled, uncertain adolescent into a psychological scientist. Today, Elizabeth Loftus is Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Irvine. She holds positions in the Departments of Psychology & Social Behavior, and Criminology, Law & Society. She also holds appointments in the Department of Cognitive Sciences and the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. Formerly, she was Professor of Psychology and Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Washington, Seattle, where she taught for 29 years. Dr. Loftus's early studies were about semantic memory -- memory for language, concepts and general knowledge of the world. Soon she wanted to study some aspect of memory that had more obvious real-world applications. With a background in memory and a keen interest in legal issues, it was natural to turn to the study of witnesses to legally relevant events, like crimes and accidents. Her earliest studies of eyewitness testimony addressed several issues: When someone sees a crime or accident, how accurate is their memory? What happens when witnesses are questioned by police officers, and what if those questions are biased? Her early findings revealed that leading questions could contaminate or distort a witness's memory. Dr. Loftus began to apply these findings to issues in the justice system, where eyewitness testimony is often crucial evidence. Over the last several decades, she has published extensively on eyewitness memory, covering both its psychological and legal aspects. She has also investigated the issue of the accuracy of memories formed in childhood, and the possibility of recovery later in life of memories of traumatic events that had apparently been repressed. She has devoted much research effort to the possibility that recovered memories may be false, false memories that in some cases are due to therapeutic treatments designed to help patients dredge up memory. She has done scores of studies that show that memories can be distorted by suggestive influences, but also that entirely false memories can be planted in people's minds. She has succeeded in planting false memories of getting lost for an extended time as a child, facing a threat to one's life as a child, witnessing demonic possession as a child, seeing wounded animals as part of a traumatic bombing, and more. Because of the research, Dr. Loftus has been invited to consult or to testify in hundreds of cases, including the McMartin PreSchool Molestation case, the Hillside Strangler, the Abscam cases, the trial of Oliver North, the trial of the officers accused in the Rodney King beating, the Menendez brothers, the Michael Jackson case, the Bosnian War trials in the Hague, the Oklahoma bombing case, and the Martha Stewart case. Dr. Loftus also worked on numerous cases involving allegations of "repressed memories", such as the case involving Cardinal Bernardin of Chicago. The research also has given her opportunities to consult with many government agencies on problems of human memory, including the FBI, the U.S. Secret Service, the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Justice, and the Central Intelligence Agency. Dr. Loftus has received eight honorary doctorates for her research, the first in 1982 from Miami University (Ohio), and the most recent from Australian National University in 2020. She was the 1998-99 President of the Association of Psychological Science and also served twice as President of the Western Psychological Association. For her research, Dr. Loftus has received numerous awards. She received the two top scientific awards from the Association of Psychological Science: The James McKeen Cattell Fellow Award in 1997 ("for a career of significant intellectual contributions to the science of psychology in the area of applied psychological research") and, in 2001, the William James Fellow Award (for "ingeniously and rigorously designed research studies that yielded clear objective evidence on difficult and controversial questions"). In 2003, the same year that she received the APA Distinguished Scientific Award for Applications of Psychology, she was also elected to membership of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences. In 2004 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2005, she won the Grawemeyer Prize in Psychology (for Outstanding Ideas in the Science of Psychology), which came with a $200,000 monetary prize. That same year she was elected Corresponding Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (which is Scotland's National Academy of Science & Letters, Est 1783 - some 40 years after the establishment of the American Philosophical Society). Also that year, she was honored by her own university (UC- Irvine) with the Lauds & Laurels, Faculty Achievement Award, (for "great professional prominence in their field" in research, teaching and public service; 9th recipient in UCI history). Loftus received the Warren Medal from the Society of Experimental Psychologists in 2010, the UC Irvine Medal in 2012, the American Psychological Foundation Gold Medal Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2013, and the Cornell University Lifetime Achievement in Human Development, Law & Psychology Award in 2015. Perhaps one of the most unusual signs of recognition of the impact of Dr. Loftus's research came in a study published by the Review of General Psychology which identified the top 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. Well known names top the list: Freud, Skinner, and Piaget. Elizabeth Loftus was number 58, and the top ranked woman on the list.
 
19Name:  Dr. Alasdair MacIntyre
 Institution:  London Metropolitan University; University of Notre Dame
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1929
   
 
Alasdair MacIntyre was born in Scotland in 1929. Although his roots are in the North of Ireland and the West of Scotland, he was largely educated in England, doing his undergraduate work in classics at Queen Mary College (University of London) - of which he is now a Fellow - and his graduate work in philosophy at the University of Manchester. He taught at various British universities, including Oxford and Essex, until 1970, when he emigrated to the United States. In 1966, he published A Short History of Ethics and in 1967 Secularization and Moral Change, his Riddell lectures at the University of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Since 1970, he has taught at a number of American universities, including Duke University, where from 1995-2000 he was Arts and Sciences Professor of Philosophy, and the University of Notre Dame to which he returned in the Fall of 2000 as a Research Professor. Among his books are After Virtue (1981), Whose Justice? Which Rationality? (1988), First Principles, Final Ends and Contemporary Philosophical Issues (1990), his Aquinas Lecture at Marquette University in 1990, Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry (1990), his Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in 1988, and Dependent Rational Animals (1999). In 1984, he was the President of the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical Association. He has received honorary degrees from Swarthmore College, the Queen's University of Belfast, the University of Essex, Williams College, the New School for Social Research, Marquette University, the University of Aberdeen, and St. Patrick's University, Maynooth. He is an Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy, a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy, and a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
 
20Name:  Dr. Daniel L. McFadden
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
A very original and powerful thinker in the field of quantitative microeconomics, Daniel McFadden is the director of the Econometrics Laboratory and professor of economics and E. Morris Cox Chair at the University of California, Berkeley. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1962 and previously served on the faculties of the University of Pittsburgh, Yale University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the California Institute of Technology. With Melvyn Fuss, Dr. McFadden produced the definitive work on the theory and application of production economics, developing econometric techniques that he and others applied to the measurement of technical change, especially in the electricity generating industry. With Charles Manski he developed a whole new branch of econometrics to analyze the choice of mode of transportation, and this was applied to the BART project in the San Francisco Bay area. His recent work has been devoted to the problems of optimal choice of public works and the economics of aging. Winner of the 2000 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Dr. McFadden was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1977 and the National Academy of Sciences in 1981.
 
Election Year
2006[X]
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