American Philosophical Society
Member History

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101. Astronomy (44)
102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry (67)
103. Engineering (35)
104. Mathematics (46)
105. Physical Earth Sciences (48)
106. Physics (101)
107 (17)
200 (1)
201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (64)
202. Cellular and Developmental Biology (35)
203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology (38)
204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology (32)
205. Microbiology (23)
206. Physiology, Biophysics, and Pharmacology (13)
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208. Plant Sciences (32)
209. Neurobiology (35)
210. Behavioral Biology, Psychology, Ethology, and Animal Behavior (14)
301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology (57)
302. Economics (75)
303. History Since 1715 (109)
304. Jurisprudence and Political Science (77)
305 (20)
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408 (3)
500 (1)
501. Creative Artists (47)
502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions (51)
503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors (206)
504. Scholars in the Professions (12)
[405] (2)
101Name:  Dr. Joyce Appleby
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  December 23, 2016
One of the most important historians of early America of her generation, Joyce Appleby was born in Omaha, Nebraska in 1929 and taught at the University of California, Los Angeles for twenty years. After graduating from Stanford University in 1950, she worked in the field of newspaper and magazine writing, including a stint for Mademoiselle magazine in New York City. She later returned to California, where she raised her family while earning a Ph.D. in history from Claremont Graduate School. Despite a late career start, Dr. Appleby has, through her books and about 25 important articles, reshaped perspectives on the ideological dimensions of early American life. She published a presidential biography of Thomas Jefferson in 2003, a collection of her essays, A Restless Past: History and the American Public, in 2005, and also recently edited a volume of the writings of Thomas Paine. Her latest book, The Relentless Revolution (2010), traces Capitalism through its various twists and turns and analyses its function as an extension of culture. She has served as president of the Organization of American Historians and as Harmsworth Professor at Oxford University. Dr. Appleby co-directed the History News Service, wrote op-ed essays and worked on the living wage movement in Los Angeles. She died December 23, 2016, at the age of 87.
102Name:  William H. Appleton
 Year Elected:  1893
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1842
 Death Date:  4/3/26
103Name:  John Arbo
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1/6/1713
 Death Date:  12/11/1772
John Arbo (6 January 1713–11 December 1772) was a religious administrator and civil engineer, and a member of the American Philosophical Society via his 1768 election to the American Society. Born in Soerup near Flensburg on the Baltic Sea, he was appointed head of a local school by age eighteen. Six years later, in 1737, he became an instructor in the German writing and arithmetic school of the Marienkirche in Flensburg. By 1742, however, he had left this position and travelled to Herrnhut, where he committed himself to the Moravian Brotherhood. Arbo served the church as a clerk and bookkeeper at Marienborn and Lindheim, taught at Hennersdorf, and in 1756 became secretary of the Administrations-Collegium in Herrnhut before being called to America. In 1760 he immigrated to Pennsylvania, where he was ordained a deacon. He then took on a major administrative role in Bethlehem, assisting in the expansion of the town’s waterworks and helping to design and erect a larger oil mill. His work in hydraulics solicited the approval of John Adams while his experiments in the extraction of oil from sunflower, laurel, and peach seeds were encouraged by the APS. Arbo served as an agent for the missionaries of the United Brethren among the Indians and as steward of the Moravian Brethren’s House at Bethlehem. He was naturalized as a British subject in 1768 and died in 1772, leaving behind a sizeable library containing works on mathematics, mineralogy, medicine, history, religion, geography, and engineering. (PI)
104Name:  Edward C. Armstrong
 Year Elected:  1932
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1872
 Death Date:  3/5/44
105Name:  Hamilton F. Armstrong
 Year Elected:  1940
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1893
 Death Date:  4/24/73
106Name:  Mr. Neil Armstrong
 Institution:  NASA
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  August 25, 2012
Neil A. Armstrong will always be known as the first man to walk on the moon, saying "One small step for (a) man. One giant step for mankind." as he stepped onto the surface. As a naval aviator, he flew combat missions from the aircraft carrier USS Essex in the Korean action, and subsequently spent 17 years with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as an engineer, research pilot, astronaut and administrator. As a research pilot for NASA's Flight Research Center at Edwards, CA, Mr. Armstrong was project pilot on many pioneering high speed aircraft, including the rocket powered X-1 and the hypersonic X-15. He was selected as an astronaut in 1962. He was commander of the Gemini 8 flight in 1966 when he performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space. As spacecraft commander for Apollo 11, he, with colleagues Mike Collins and Buzz Aldrin, completed the first landing mission to the moon. Neil Armstrong subsequently was responsible for the management of overall NASA research and technology work related to aeronautics. During the years 1971 through 1979, he was the University Professor of Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. He was the Chairman of the EDO Corporation, an engineering systems manufacturing firm. He received his engineering education at Purdue University and the University of Southern California. Mr. Armstrong was a Fellow of the Experimental Test Pilots and the Royal Aeronautical Society, and Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the International Aeronautical Federation. He was a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the Academy of the Kingdom of Morocco. He served as Chairman of the Presidential Advisory Committee for the Peace Corps (1971-73), as Vice Chairman of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (1986), and as a member of the National Commission on Space (1985-86). Mr. Armstrong's explorations on earth include reaching the North Pole and, with the British Army, mapping caves in the Oriente of Ecuador. He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2011 and was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2001. Neil Armstrong died on August 25, 2012, at the age of 82.
107Name:  Dr. Frances H. Arnold
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at Caltech, Frances Arnold pioneered protein engineering by directed evolution, with applications in alternative energy, chemicals, and medicine. She uses evolution augmented with machine learning to circumvent our profound ignorance of how DNA encodes function and create new biological molecules. She has been recognized by induction into the US National Academies of Science, Medicine, and Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Inventors Hall of Fame, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Her awards include the Charles Stark Draper Prize of the National Academy of Engineering (2011), the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2011), the Millennium Technology Prize (2016), the National Academy of Sciences’ Sackler Prize in Convergence Research (2017), and the Franklin Institute's Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science (2019). Frances Arnold won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work on directed evolution of enzymes. Arnold pioneered the 'directed evolution' technique, which is now used by hundreds of laboratories and companies to produce more useful enzymes. Dr. Arnold chairs the Advisory Panel of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowships in Science and Engineering and is a Trustee of the Gordon Research Conferences. She co-founded Gevo, Inc. in 2005 to make fuels and chemicals from renewable resources and Provivi, Inc. in 2014 to develop non-toxic modes of agricultural pest control.
108Name:  Dr. Kenneth J. Arrow
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1968
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  February 21, 2017
Kenneth Arrow was born in 1921 and brought up in New York City and its surroundings. He graduated from City College of New York in 1940 and went for graduate study in mathematics and economics at Columbia University, receiving an M.A. in mathematics in 1941 and a Ph.D. in economics in 1951. He served as a weather officer in the United States Army Air Forces (1942-46), retiring with the rank of captain. Dr. Arrow's academic career started as Research Associate at the Cowles Commission for Research in Economics (1947-49) and continued as Assistant Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago (1948-49). In 1949 he moved to Stanford University, serving as Assistant, Associate and full Professor of Economics, Statistics, and Operations Research through 1968 when he joined the Harvard University faculty as Professor of Economics and then James Bryant Conant University Professor (1968-79). In 1979 Dr. Arrow returned to Stanford as Professor of Economics and Operations Research at Stanford University (1979-91) and, subsequently, Emeritus Professor (1991- ). He had written, alone or with collaborators, 22 books, 254 technical papers, and 31 non-technical articles, edited or co-edited 22 books, and participated in 11 collective studies on policy issues. His particular interests included the theory of social choice and justice, general equilibrium theory, medical economics, the economics of individual choice, risk-bearing, the economics of information, inventory analysis, capital and growth theory, economics of social interaction, environmental economics, sequential statistical analysis, and the use of winds in flight planning. Dr. Arrow received several honors, including the John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association (1957), the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science (1972), the von Neumann Prize (1986), the 2nd Class Order of the Rising Sun (1984), the National Medal of Science (2004), and a number of honorary degrees. He had also been president of several learned societies and served as member and Chair of the Stanford University Senate and the Stanford Faculty Advisory Board. Kenneth Arrow died February 21, 2017, at age 95 at home in Palo Alto, California.
109Name:  Joseph C. Arthur
 Year Elected:  1919
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1850
 Death Date:  4/30/42
110Name:  Charles A. Ashburner
 Year Elected:  1880
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1854
 Death Date:  12/24/1889
111Name:  Dr. Orley Ashenfelter
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2017
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
Orley Ashenfelter's areas of specialization include labor economics, econometrics, and law and economics. His current research includes the cross-country measurement of wage rates, and many other issues related to the economics of labor markets. Professor Ashenfelter has been the director of the Industrial Relations Section at Princeton University, director of the Office of Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Labor, a Guggenheim Fellow, and the Benjamin Meeker Visiting Professor at the University of Bristol. He is a recipient of the IZA Prize in Labor Economics, the Mincer Award for Lifetime Achievement of the Society of Labor Economists, and the Karel Englis Medal awarded by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Society of Labor Economics, and a Corresponding Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He edited the Handbook of Labor Economics, was editor of the American Economic Review, and the co-editor of the American Law and Economics Review. In 2018 he was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. He is a past president of the American Economics Association, the American Law and Economic Association, and the Society of Labor Economics. Orley Ashenfelter was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2017.
112Name:  John Ashhurst
 Year Elected:  1884
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1840
 Death Date:  7/4/1900
113Name:  Richard L. Ashhurst
 Year Elected:  1884
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1839
 Death Date:  1/30/11
114Name:  John Ashhurst
 Year Elected:  1928
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Death Date:  4/22/32
115Name:  Dr. Babak Ashrafi
 Institution:  Consortium for History of Science, Technology, and Medicine
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1960
Under Babak Ashrafi’s leadership, PACHS (Philadelphia Area Consortium for the History of Science) established a collaboration among repositories and universities for the purposes of promoting scholarly and public understanding of the history of science, technology and medicine. Beginning with a 12-member consortium of Philadelphia-region institutions, he has been highly productive and innovative, successfully establishing, for example, an on-line union catalogue of the history of science holdings of PACHS members, and deploying a unique and universally admired search facility. PACHS has been so successful it was one of the models used to establish the Chicago Collections Consortium (to which Ashrafi served as a key consultant). PACHS evolved from a regional to a national/international collaborative, and in January 2015 became the Consortium for History of Science, Technology and Medicine. In its expansion beyond its regional focus, the current 12 members are joined by the University of Toronto, Yale University, Columbia University, The New York Academy of Medicine, the American Institute of Physics, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Linda Hall Library. Ashrafi uniquely combines the talents of scholar, non-profit entrepreneur, development officer, and executive administrator, and has improved productivity prospects for an entire discipline by changing the way historians of science interact, exchange ideas and collaborate, and by providing new Fellowship and grant opportunities for both young scholars and for those engaged in more advanced research.
116Name:  Matthias Aspden
 Year Elected:  
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1756
 Death Date:  8/-/1824
117Name:  Allen V. Astin
 Year Elected:  1958
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1904
 Death Date:  2/4/84
118Name:  George F. Atkinson
 Year Elected:  1913
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Death Date:  11/14/18
119Name:  Dr. Richard C. Atkinson
 Institution:  University of California
 Year Elected:  1980
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1929
Richard C. Atkinson served from 1995-2003 as the seventeenth president of the University of California system. His eight-year tenure was marked by innovative approaches to admissions and outreach, research initiatives to accelerate the University’s contributions to the state’s economy, and a challenge to the country’s most widely used admissions examination "the SAT 1" that paved the way to major changes in the way millions of America’s youth now are tested for college admissions. Before becoming president of the UC System he served for fifteen years as chancellor of UC San Diego, where he led that campus’s emergence as one of the leading research universities in the nation. He is a former director of the National Science Foundation, past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was a long-term member of the faculty at Stanford University. His research in the field of cognitive science and psychology has been concerned with problems of memory and cognition. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Education, the American Philosophical Society, and a mountain in Antarctica has been named in his honor.
120Name:  William W. Atterbury
 Year Elected:  1916
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Death Date:  10/20/35
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