American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. Francisco José Ayala
 Institution:  University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Francisco J. Ayala is a retired Professor of Biological Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. On June 12, 2002, President George W. Bush awarded him the National Medal of Science at the White House, and in 2010, Dr. Ayala won the Templeton prize. From 1994-2001, Dr. Ayala was a member of the U.S. President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. He has been president and chairman of the board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993-96) and of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society of the U.S (2004-05). Dr. Ayala is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and numerous foreign academies and has received many prizes and honorary degrees. Born in Madrid, Spain, he has lived in the United States since 1961 and became a U.S. citizen in 1971. He has published more than 1,000 articles and is author or editor of 37 books. His scientific research focuses on population and evolutionary genetics, including the origin of species, genetic diversity of populations, the origin of malaria, the population structure of parasitic protozoa, and the molecular clock of evolution. He also writes about the interface between religion and science and on philosophical issues concerning epistemology, ethics, and the philosophy of biology.
 
2Name:  Dr. Jacques Barzun
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1907
 Death Date:  October 25, 2012
   
 
Jacques Barzun was born in France in 1907. He grew up in Paris and, at twelve years old, was sent by his father to the United States to receive an American university education. In 1923 he entered Columbia College and graduated four years later at the top of his class, having been a prize-winning president of the prestigious Philolexian Society. He went on to lecture at Columbia, where he earned his Ph.D in 1932, became a full professor in 1945, and later became Dean of the Graduate School, Dean of Faculties, and Provost. In 1967 he resigned from his administrative duties to focus on teaching and writing until his retirement in 1975. Over seven decades, Barzun had written and edited more than forty books touching on an unusually broad range of subjects, including science and medicine; psychiatry from Robert Burton through William James to modern methods; art; and classical music - he was one of the all-time authorities on Hector Berlioz. After a period of poor health, he was advised that he had several years of life ahead, and this encouraged him to complete his last and largest book, From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, 1500 to the Present (2000), which became an unexpected bestseller and critically acclaimed success. Dr. Barzun was widely known in America and in Europe as a trenchant critic of modern trends in education, music and the arts, and he is also a specialist in musical history. Among his many commendations, he had been featured on the cover of Time magazine (1956); he was awarded the Gold Medal for Criticism from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, to which society he was elected in 1952 and twice served as its president; and he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2003 and he was awarded the 2010 National Humanities Medal by President Obama. Jacques Barzun died October 25, 2012, at the age of 104 in San Antonio, Texas.
 
3Name:  Dr. K. Sune D. Bergström
 Institution:  Karolinska Institutet
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  August 15, 2004
   
4Name:  Dr. Kurt Bittel
 Institution:  German Archaeological Institute
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1907
 Death Date:  1/30/91
   
5Name:  Dr. Alfred D. Chandler
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  May 9, 2007
   
6Name:  Dr. Allen Verne Cox
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  105. Physical Earth Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  1/27/87
   
7Name:  Dr. Lawrence A. Cremin
 Institution:  Columbia University & The Spencer Foundation
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  9/4/90
   
8Name:  Dr. Gerard Debreu
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  December 31, 2004
   
9Name:  Mr. J. Richardson Dilworth
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study & Metropolitan Museum of Art & Yale & Colonial Williamsburg
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  12/29/97
   
10Name:  Dr. Robert H. Dyson
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  February 14, 2020
   
 
Robert H. Dyson, Jr., was educated at Harvard University, where he obtained his A.B. (magna cum laude) in 1950 and his Ph.D. in 1966 in the field of Anthropology, specializing in Near Eastern Archaeology. From 1951 to 1954 he served as an elected Junior Fellow in Harvard’s prestigious Society of Fellows. From 1955 through 1995, Dr. Dyson served as Curator of Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and as Professor of Anthropology at the University. From 1979 to 1982 he served as Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. From July 1, 1982 through June 30, 1994 he served as Director of the University Museum. He retired from the University in June 1995. In 1956 Dr. Dyson became Director of the Museum’s Hasanlu Project in northwestern Iran in which capacity he directed joint excavations with the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City. He also worked in Jordan, Iraq, Turkey, the Persian Gulf, Pakistan, Guatemala, and South Africa. He was a Guggenheim Fellow, and President of the Archaeological Institute of America, and was a founder and past president of the American Institute of Iranian Studies. He was an elected member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the German Archaeological Institute. He was a corresponding member of the Istituto per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente in Rome and from 1990 to 1995 he was an elected member of the Societas Iranologica Europae of Rome. He was honored by the government of France as a Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, and by the Shah of Iran with Houmayounfar Medal, IVth Class, both of which were in recognition of archaeological work in Iran. In July 1990 Dr. Dyson was invited to give the Second Annual Vladimir G. Lukonin Lecture at the British Museum. In 1972 he co-chaired the University of Pennsylvania’s Development Commission which recommended to the President and Trustees a $300 million fund drive for the University. He was a member of the Visiting Committee of the Ancient Near East Department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and served as member and Chair of the Committees to Visit the Anthropology Department and the Peabody Museum at Harvard University. For many years he was Vice Chairman of the Columbia University Seminar on Eastern Mediterranean and Near Eastern Archaeology. He published numerous articles in scholarly journals and books on Near Eastern Archaeology.
 
11Name:  Dr. A. McGehee Harvey
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1911
 Death Date:  5/8/98
   
12Name:  Dr. Stephen William Hawking
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1942
 Death Date:  March 13, 2018
   
 
Stephen William Hawking was born in 1942 in Oxford, England. He attended St. Albans School at age eleven and went on to University College, Oxford, where he studied physics, and Cambridge, where he conducted research in cosmology. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Dr. Hawking came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and from 1979 held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, a position previously held by, among others, Isaac Barrow and Isaac Newton. Stephen Hawking had long studied the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great scientific development of the first half of the 20th century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science. Dr. Hawking's many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime (with G. F. R. Ellis); General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey ; and 300 Years of Gravity (both with W. Israel). Dr. Hawking also published several popular books: his best seller A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, and The Grand Design (2010). Professor Hawking held twelve honorary degrees, was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honour in 1989. He was the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009) and the Fundamental Physics Prize (2012), and was a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences. He became the first distinguished research chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Canada's leading scientifc trust, in 2008. Stephen Hawking died March 13, 2018, at age 76, in Cambridge, England.
 
13Name:  Dr. Roald Hoffmann
 Institution:  Cornell University
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Roald Hoffmann was born in Zloczow, Poland in 1937. Having survived the Nazi occupation, he arrived in the U.S. in 1949 after several years of post-war wandering in Europe. He graduated from Stuyvesant High School and Columbia University and proceeded to take his Ph.D. in 1962 at Harvard University, working with W. N. Lipscomb and Martin Gouterman. Dr. Hoffmann stayed on at Harvard University from 1962-1965 as a Junior Fellow in the Society of Fellows. Since 1965, he has been at Cornell University, where he is now the Frank H. T. Rhodes Professor of Humane Letters and Professor of Chemistry. 'Applied theoretical chemistry' is the way Roald Hoffmann characterizes the particular blend of computations stimulated by experiment and the construction of generalized models, of frameworks for understanding, that is his contribution to chemistry. In more than 450 scientific articles and two books he has taught the chemical community new and useful ways to look at the geometry and reactivity of molecules, from organic through inorganic to infinitely extended structures. Professor Hoffmann is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and has been elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society, the Indian National Science Academy and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, among others. He has received numerous honors, including over twenty five honorary degrees and is the only person ever to have received the American Chemical Society's awards in three different specific subfields of chemistry: the A. C. Cope Award in Organic Chemistry, the Award in Inorganic Chemistry, and the Pimentel Award in Chemical Education. In 2009, in addition to being elected to fellowship, he received the American Chemical Society's James T. Grady-James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public as well as the Public Service Award from the National Science Board of the National Science Foundation. In 1981, he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Kenichi Fukui.
 
14Name:  Dr. Eric R. Kandel
 Institution:  Columbia University; Howard Hughes Medical Institute
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1929
   
 
Eric Kandel received his M.D. from New York University School of Medicine in 1956. He was a resident in psychiatry and staff psychiatry at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center, 1960-65, before turning his attention to neurobiology. In 1965 he returned to New York University, serving as associate professor in the department of physiology and psychiatry. He moved to Columbia University in 1974 as professor in the departments of physiology and psychiatry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He also directed the Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, 1974-83, and was appointed University Professor in 1983. He has also been professor in the departments of biochemistry and molecular biophysics at Columbia and senior investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Renowned for his pathbreaking contributions to our knowledge of mind, Eric Kandel shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. Through studies of invertebrates such as the giant marine snail, Aplysia, he has succeeded in reframing memory and other mental processes as series of molecular events determined by the physicochemical qualities of cellular life. Well-known for his contributions to textbooks such as Principles of Neural Science, Dr. Kandel is the author of In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind (2006) and The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconsccious in Art, Mind and Brain, From Vienna 1900 to the Present (2012). The recipient of the Karl Spencer Lashley Prize in Neurobiology (1981) and the Wolf Prize in Biology and Medicine (1999), Eric Kandel is a member of the National Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Sciences (1974), and the Royal Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1984. In 2006 Dr. Kandel was awarded the American Philosophical Society's Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences. The citation read "in recognition of his leadership in the study at the cellular and molecular levels of the biology of the mental processes, and especially the character of learning and memory. The American Philosophical Society salutes Eric Kandel for advancing the study of learning and memory - long the provinces of philosophy and psychology - into the "empirical language of biology." Kandel is the author of The Disordered Mind: what Unusual Brains Tell Us About Ourselves (2018).
 
15Name:  Dr. George A. Kennedy
 Institution:  University of North Carolina
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  July 28, 2022
   
 
George A. Kennedy taught classics and comparative literature at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill for thirty years. He earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1954 and taught at Harvard, Haverford College and the University of Pittsburgh before being named Paddison Professor of Classics (now Emeritus) at UNC in 1972. Dr. Kennedy is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and has served as a member of the National Humanities Council and as president of the American Philological Association and the International Society for the History of Rhetoric. He is author of 13 books on the history of rhetoric and literary criticism, including The Art of Persuasion in Greece (1963), Art and Rhetoric in the Roman World (1972) and Classical Rhetoric and its Christian and Secular Tradition (1980). He is a widely recognized authority on the arts of persuasion in the classical world and on the style of Greek, Latin and early Christian literature.
 
16Name:  Professor Stroud F. C. Milsom
 Institution:  University of Cambridge & St. John's College
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  February 24, 2016
   
 
A learned and highly original legal historian, Stroud F.C. Milsom is a fellow of St. John's College and professor emeritus of law at Cambridge University, where he has taught since 1976. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the bar in 1947 and since that time has served as fellow and lecturer at Trinity College (1948-55); fellow, tutor and dean at New College, Oxford (1956-64); professor of legal history at the University of London (1964-76); and literary director of the Selden Society (1964-80). Mr. Milsom has also held frequent visiting lectureships at American universities, including Yale, Harvard and New York Universities. His book Historical Foundations of the Common Law (1976) is considered a classic and perhaps the finest work on English legal history since Maitland.
 
17Name:  Dr. Ray D. Owen
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  September 21, 2014
   
 
Ray David Owen was born in 1915 on a dairy farm in Wisconsin and remembers that a farm was a great place to grow up. He attended Genesee State Graded School (two teachers, eight grades) and then commuted to Waukesha High School, doing farm chores before and after school. Then he went to Carroll College, a Presbyterian Church-connected liberal arts college also in Waukesha, majoring in biology and minoring in chemistry, math, English and French. In 1937, he entered graduate school at the University of Wisconsin and took his Ph.D. in genetics in 1941. He joined the work in dairy cattle blood group inheritance that was to shape his research career in the fields of immunology and genetics. In 1946, on leave from the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, he went to Caltech as a Gosney Fellow; in 1947 he accepted appointment as an Associate Professor of Biology at Caltech, and with the exception of a year's leave at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1956-57, he had been at Caltech ever since. He has published numerous research papers, mainly in the fields of mammalian genetics and immunology and in such areas as tissue and organ transplantations and developmental studies, some with relation to cancer. General Genetics, the textbook he wrote with Adrain Srb of Cornell University, was for many years the most-used textbook in the field. He values several honorary degrees and awards. During most of the 1960s he served as Chairman of the Division of Biology at Caltech. From 1975-80 he was Dean of Students and Vice President of Student Affairs as well as a Professor of Biology. He taught a freshman course, Current Research in Biology; a laboratory course in immunology; and courses in general biology and in genetics A member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and numerous other professional societies and organizations, he had served as President of the Genetics Society of America, as a member of the Board of directors of the American Society of Human Genetics, and as a member of the Editorial Board of the Annual Review of Genetics. He frequently held responsibilities at the national level - for example, as Chairman of the Genetics Study Section of the National Institutes of Health, of the Genetics Training Committee of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and of the advisory board in Biology and Medical Sciences of the National Science Foundation. For three years he was the "Scientist-Member" of the three-person President's Cancer Panel, acting in an advisory capacity to Presidents Nixon and Ford. He says that many aspects of his life have given him pleasure: his family, his home and garden (he specializes in camellia and chrysanthemums), his travels and his friends in the international community of scientists, his research, his teaching, and his students, in whose happy and productive lives he has found part of his own fulfillment. If he were to single out one particular activity he remembers with pride, it would probably be his chairmanship of an ad-hoc faculty committee on the freshman year at Caltech, whose work led to three good changes: the inauguration of pass/fail grading to make the adjustment to Caltech less traumatic for its freshman; the introduction of electives into a previously rigid freshman curriculum; and, especially, the admission of women to Caltech's freshman class. Ray D. Owen died September 21, 2014, at the age of 98 in Pasadena, California.
 
18Name:  Dr. Arthur L. Schawlow
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  4/28/99
   
19Name:  Dr. Gunther S. Stent
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1924
 Death Date:  June 12, 2008
   
20Name:  Mr. Thomas J. Watson
 Institution:  IBM & American Foreign Service
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  12/31/93
   
Election Year
1984[X]
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