American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. K. Sune D. Bergström
 Institution:  Karolinska Institutet
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  August 15, 2004
2Name:  Dr. Kurt Bittel
 Institution:  German Archaeological Institute
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1907
 Death Date:  1/30/91
3Name:  Dr. Stephen William Hawking
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1942
 Death Date:  March 13, 2018
Stephen William Hawking was born in 1942 in Oxford, England. He attended St. Albans School at age eleven and went on to University College, Oxford, where he studied physics, and Cambridge, where he conducted research in cosmology. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Dr. Hawking came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and from 1979 held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, a position previously held by, among others, Isaac Barrow and Isaac Newton. Stephen Hawking had long studied the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great scientific development of the first half of the 20th century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science. Dr. Hawking's many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime (with G. F. R. Ellis); General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey ; and 300 Years of Gravity (both with W. Israel). Dr. Hawking also published several popular books: his best seller A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, and The Grand Design (2010). Professor Hawking held twelve honorary degrees, was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honour in 1989. He was the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009) and the Fundamental Physics Prize (2012), and was a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences. He became the first distinguished research chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Canada's leading scientifc trust, in 2008. Stephen Hawking died March 13, 2018, at age 76, in Cambridge, England.
4Name:  Professor Stroud F. C. Milsom
 Institution:  University of Cambridge & St. John's College
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  February 24, 2016
A learned and highly original legal historian, Stroud F.C. Milsom is a fellow of St. John's College and professor emeritus of law at Cambridge University, where he has taught since 1976. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the bar in 1947 and since that time has served as fellow and lecturer at Trinity College (1948-55); fellow, tutor and dean at New College, Oxford (1956-64); professor of legal history at the University of London (1964-76); and literary director of the Selden Society (1964-80). Mr. Milsom has also held frequent visiting lectureships at American universities, including Yale, Harvard and New York Universities. His book Historical Foundations of the Common Law (1976) is considered a classic and perhaps the finest work on English legal history since Maitland.
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