American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. Robert Heinz Abeles
 Institution:  Brandeis University
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  June 18, 2000
   
2Name:  Dr. Allen J. Bard
 Institution:  University of Texas at Austin
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
In a career spanning more than 40 years at the University of Texas, Allen J. Bard has a distinguished research record in physical chemistry and electrochemistry. Currently the Hackerman-Welch Regents Chair of Chemistry, he has made fundamental contributions to photoelectrochemistry and heterogeneous photocatalysis and has been a pioneer in electrochemiluminescence. He has also been a major contributor to the physical characterization of electrodes modified with polymers, clays, and other multicomponent arrays. His work in basic science constitutes the underpinning of many industrial processes dealing with corrosion, electrolysis, and electrolytic purification, the production of photoelectrochemical diodes, electrochemistry in novel solvents under extreme conditions, electrochemical microscopy, and photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopy. Dr. Bard is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Bruno Breyer Memorial Award of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, the Luigi Galvani Medal of the Societá Chimica Italiana, the Sigillum Magnum of the Università di Bologna, the Award in Chemical Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences, the Welch Foundation Award in Chemistry, and the 2012 National Medal of Science. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
3Name:  Dr. Jacqueline K. Barton
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Jacqueline K. Barton is the Arthur and Marian Hanisch Memorial Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. Barton was awarded the B.A. degree summa cum laude at Barnard College in 1974 and went on to receive a Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry at Columbia University in 1979 in the laboratory of S. J. Lippard. After a postdoctoral fellowship at Bell Laboratories and Yale University in the laboratory of R. G. Shulman, she became assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Hunter College, City University of New York. In 1983, she returned to Columbia University, becoming associate professor of chemistry and biological sciences in 1985 and professor in 1986. In the fall of 1989, she joined the faculty at Caltech. Professor Barton has pioneered the application of transition metal complexes as tools to probe recognition and reactions of double helical DNA. These synthetic transition metal complexes have been useful in elucidating fundamental chemical principles which govern the recognition of nucleic acids, in developing luminescent and photochemical reagents as new diagnostic tools, and in laying a foundation for the design of novel chemotherapeutics and biosensors. Dr. Barton has received numerous awards including the Alan T. Waterman Award of the National Science Foundation, awarded to an outstanding young scientist in the United States, the American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry, the 2011 National Medal of Science, the 2015 American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal, the Royal Society of Chemistry's Centenary Prize for 2018, and the 2019 National Academy of Sciences Award in Chemical Sciences. The recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, she has been elected a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences and was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
4Name:  Dr. Wm. Theodore de Bary
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  July 14, 2017
   
 
Wm. Theodore de Bary began his career as a teacher at Columbia in 1949 when he undertook to develop the undergraduate general education program in Asian Studies. For this he developed basic source readings in Asian Civilizations for India, China, Japan and now Korea. These volumes dealing with the major traditions of Asia, published in 1958-60, have seen wide use in colleges and universities throughout the United States and abroad. They have now been supplemented by over 140 other texts and translations for use in general educations on Asia. As chair of the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures from 1960-66 and as first director of the National Defense Languages and Area Center he led a major expansion of the language programs in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. From 1969-70 he was President of the Association for Asian Studies. From 1969-71 he served as the first chair of the Executive Committee of the University Senate. From 1971-78 as Provost of the University, among other duties, Dr. de Bary assisted in the renovation and expansion of the East Asian Library and established the Heyman Center for the Humanities, which includes among other programs, offices and a reading room for the Human Rights Program. In 1974, Dr. de Bary was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and in 1999 to the American Philosophical Society. He had received honorary degrees from St. Lawrence University, Loyola University in Chicago, and Columbia. Professor de Bary's scholarly work focused on the major religious and intellectual traditions of East Asia, especially Confucianism in China, Japan and Korea. Among the more than twenty-five works authored by him, he has dealt principally with the issues of civil society and human rights in China. They include Asian Values and Human Rights (1998) and Nobility and Civility: Asian Ideals of Leadership and the Common Good (2004). In 2014 he was awarded the National Humanities Medal. Wm. Theodore de Bary died July 14, 2017, at age 97, in Tappan, New York.
 
5Name:  Dr. Sheila E. Blumstein
 Institution:  Brown University
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Sheila E. Blumstein is the Albert D. Mead Professor of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences at Brown University. A 1965 graduate of the University of Rochester, she received a Ph.D. in linguistics from Harvard University in 1970, and came to Brown one month later as assistant professor of linguistics. She was promoted to associate professor in 1976, became a full professor in 1981, and was named the Albert D. Mead Professor of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences in 1991. She is also a research associate at the Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center. Dr. Blumstein has held a number of administrative positions at Brown including chair of the Department of Linguistics, founding chair of the Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences, dean of the college, interim provost, and interim president. Dr. Blumstein's research is focused on the processes and mechanisms involved in language speaking and understanding and its neural basis. An internationally recognized expert in neurolinguistics and speech processing, Dr. Blumstein has received numerous academic honors, including a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Claude Pepper Investigator Award, a Radcliffe Institute Fellowship, and election as a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She has served on a wide range of advisory and review committees for the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation and has been an officer and member of the Academy of Aphasia and of the Linguistics section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has served on the editorial boards of Cognition and Brain and Language and is currently an advisory editor to Brain and Language.
 
6Name:  Dr. Phyllis Pray Bober
 Institution:  Bryn Mawr College
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  June 1, 2002
   
7Name:  Dr. John Cairns
 Institution:  Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  November 5, 2017
   
 
John Cairns spent his research life studying natural ecosystems and how perturbations of various types affect them. His most widely acclaimed publications discussed factors causing stressed ecosystems and their restoration. He made extensive use of statistics and validation predictive models. For decades he used complex multivariant systems in his studies of microcosms and mesacosms. His work on reestablishment of damaged habitats is particularly important today because of the damage done to our planet. Dr. Cairns received his Ph.D. and M.S. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania and completed a postdoctoral course in isotope methodology at Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia. He was Curator of Limnology at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 18 years and has taught at various universities and field stations, including Virginia Polytechnic University, where was Professor Emeritus beginning in 1995. Dr. Cairns' professional certifications included Qualified Fishery Administrator by the American Fisheries Society, Senior Ecologist by the Ecological Society of America, and the Academy of Board Certified Environmental Professionals. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences; the American Academy of Arts & Sciences; the Linnean Society of London; and the American Microscopical Society, of which he was president. He has over 1,500 publications to his credit. John Cairns died on November 5, 2017 at age 94, in Blacksburg, Virginia.
 
8Name:  Dr. James Watson Cronin
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  August 25, 2016
   
 
James Watson Cronin received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He was an assistant physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory for three years before joining the faculty at Princeton University in 1955. In 1971 he became a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Chicago, where he remained for the rest of his career. In 1980, James Cronin and Val Fitch were awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering a violation of the laws of symmetry in connection with the K-mesons produced at the Brookhaven proton accelerator. Dr. Cronin led the most ambitious international project for detecting the highest energy cosmic rays. The Pierre Auger Project called for the construction of a pair of 3,000 sq. km. arrays, one in Utah, the other on the high desert of Argentina. Comprised of 3,200 large Cerenkov detectors, the array will be capable of sensing cosmic rays in an entirely new and exciting energy regime. Dr. Cronin was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
9Name:  Dr. William J. Cronon
 Institution:  University of Wisconsin--Madison
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
William Cronon studies American environmental history and the history of the American West. His research seeks to understand the history of human interactions with the natural world: how we depend on the ecosystems around us to sustain our material lives, how we modify the landscapes in which we live and work, and how our ideas of nature shape our relationships with the world around us. His first book, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England (1983), was a study of how the New England landscape changed as control of the region shifted from Indians to European colonists. In 1984, the work was awarded the Francis Parkman Prize of the Society of American Historians. In 1991, Cronon completed a book entitled Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, which examines Chicago's relationship to its rural hinterland during the second half of the nineteenth century. In 1991, Dr. Cronon was awarded the Chicago Tribune's Heartland Prize for the best literary work of non-fiction published during the preceding year; in 1992, it won the Bancroft Prize for the best work of American history published during the previous year, and was also one of three nominees for the Pulitzer Prize in History; and in 1993, it received the George Perkins Marsh Prize from the American Society for Environmental History and the Charles A. Weyerhaeuser Award from the Forest History Society for the best book of environmental and conservation history published during the preceding two years. In 1992, he co-edited Under an Open Sky: Rethinking America's Western Past, a collection of essays on the prospects of western and frontier history in American historiography. In 1995 he edited an influential collection of essays entitled Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, examining the implication of different cultural ideas of nature for modern environmental problems. He is currently at work on a history of Portage, Wisconsin, that will explore how people's sense of place is shaped by the stories they tell about their homes, their lives, and the landscapes they inhabit. He is also completing a book entitled Saving Nature in Time: The Past and the Future of Environmentalism (based on the Wiles Lectures which he delivered at Queens University in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in May 2001) on the evolving relationship between environmental history and environmentalism, and what the two might learn from each other. In July 1992, Dr. Cronon became the Frederick Jackson Turner Professor of History, Geography, and Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison after having served for more than a decade as a member of the Yale University History Department. In 2003, he was also named Vilas Research Professor at UW-Madison, the university's most distinguished chaired professorship. He has been President of the American Society for Environmental History and serves as general editor of the Weyerhaeuser Environmental Books Series for the University of Washington Press. During the spring of 1994, he organized and chaired a faculty research seminar on "Reinventing Nature" at the University of California's Humanities Research Institute in Irvine, California. In 1996, he became Director of the Honors Program for the College of Letters and Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a post he held until 1998, and from 1997-2000 he served as the founding Faculty Director of the new Chadbourne Residential College at UW-Madison. He has served on the Governing Council of the Wilderness Society since 1995, and on the National Board of the Trust for Public Land since 2003. Cronon has been elected president of the American Historical Association for the year 2012. Born September 11, 1954, in New Haven, Connecticut, Dr. Cronon received his B.A. (1976) from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He holds M.A. (1979), M.Phil. (1980), and Ph.D. (1990) degrees from Yale and a D.Phil. (1981) from Oxford University. Dr. Cronon has been a Rhodes Scholar, Danforth Fellow, Guggenheim Fellow, and MacArthur Fellow; has won prizes for his teaching at both Yale and Wisconsin; and in 1999 was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society.
 
10Name:  Dr. Mary Maples Dunn
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society & Smith College
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  March 19, 2017
   
 
Mary Maples Dunn earned her Ph.D. at Bryn Mawr College in 1959. Between 1960 and 1985 she served Bryn Mawr variously on the history department faculty, as Dean of the undergraduate college, and as Academic Deputy to the President. She became President of Smith College in 1985, a post she held for ten years. She was the author of William Penn: Politics and Conscience (1967), and co-editor of The Founding of Pennsylvania (1983), and of The World of William Penn (1986). She was also editor of Alexander von Humboldt: Political Essays on the Kingdom of New Spain (1972); and (with Richard S. Dunn) The Papers of William Penn (in four volumes, 1981-87). She has been secretary and president of the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians and a governing board member of the Humanities Research Institute, the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, Historic Deerfield, and the Marlboro School of Music. She was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1999. A witty and beloved teacher, capable administrator and highly respected American historian, Mary Maples Dunn became the Pforzheimer Foundation Director of the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College in 1995 and also served as Acting President of Radcliffe and Acting Dean of the Radcliffe Institute at Harvard. She served as Co-Executive Officer of the American Philosophical Society 2002-2007. In 2010, the William and Mary Quarterly established a new prize in her name to honor scholars in women's history. Mary Dunn died March 19, 2017, at age 85.
 
11Name:  Dr. Judah Folkman
 Institution:  Harvard Medical School & Children's Hospital
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  January 14, 2008
   
12Name:  Dr. John H. Gibbons
 Institution:  United States
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  July 17, 2015
   
 
John H. Gibbons served with distinction as an experimental physicist and expert in energy supply and conservation and environmental technology development. In 1973, at the start of the nation's first major energy crisis, he was appointed first director of the Federal Office of Energy Conservation. He returned to Washington in 1979 to direct the U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, and from 1993-1998 he served in the Clinton-Gore Administration as Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Dr. Gibbons received a Ph.D. (physics) from Duke University (1954) and six honorary doctorates. He received Distinguished Service Awards from both NASA (1997, 1998) and the National Science Foundation (1998). He was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for Advancement of Science. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1999. John H. Gibbons died July 17, 2015, at the age of 86, in Virginia.
 
13Name:  Dr. William H. Goetzmann
 Institution:  University of Texas at Austin
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  September 7, 2010
   
 
William H. Goetzmann received a Ph.D. in American Studies from Yale University in 1957. He served on the faculty of Yale University until 1964, then moved to the University of Texas, Austin where he was the Jack S. Blanton, Sr. Chair in History and American Studies. Pulitzer and Parkman prize winner, remarkable teacher (54 dissertations, 53 theses), writer of 18 books and some 145 reviews, designer of a major television show, Dr. Goetzmann, in the best Turner tradition, brought to the study of the West imagination, sophistication, and scholarship. He created an American Studies department at Texas and helped convert the university into a true multi-racial institution. He taught and lectured in a number of European institutions and helped make the American West a field not merely of regional antiquarianism but of study of the human condition in a remarkable setting. He is the author of many books, including Army Exploration in the American West 1803-63 (1959, 1991); Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West (1966); When the Eagle Screamed: The Romantic Horizon in American Diplomacy 1800-1865 (1966); The Mountain Man: Exploring the American West (1978); New Lands, New Men: America and the Second Great Age of Discovery (1986); The West of the Imagination (1986); The First Americans (1991); The Atlas of North American Exploration (1992); and Sam Chamberlin's Mexican War: The San Jacinto Paintings (1993). He has also been the editor of many books, including The American Hegelians (1973). His most recent work is entitled Beyond the Revolution: A History of American Thought from Paine to Pragmatism (2009). Dr. Goetzmann was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1999. He died on September 7, 2010, at the age of 80, in Austin, Texas.
 
14Name:  Dr. Corey S. Goodman
 Institution:  Pfizer Biotherapeutics and Bioinnovation Center; University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Corey Goodman was named president of Pfizer's Biotherapeutics and Bioinnovation Center in 2007. Prior to this appointment, he was president and CEO of Renovis, a neuroscience biopharmaceutical company he helped co-found in 2000. Dr. Goodman received his B.S. degree in biology from Stanford University in 1972, and his Ph.D. degree in neurobiology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1977. From 1977 to 1979 he was a Helen Hay Whitney Postdoctoral Fellow at U.C. San Diego. Beginning in 1979 he was a faculty member in the Department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University, receiving tenure in 1982. In 1987 he joined the faculty at the University of California at Berkeley, where he was an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Evan Rauch Professor of Neuroscience, and Director of the Wills Neuroscience Institute. Dr. Goodman is a world leader in the understanding of the molecules and mechanisms that control nerve growth and guidance, and their implications for nerve restoration and repair. In 2001, he became President and CEO of Renovis. He is also President of the McKnight Endowment Fund for Neuroscience, and Chair of the National Research Council's Board on Life Sciences. Prior to co-founding Renovis, Dr. Goodman co-founded Exelixis in 1994. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. Amongst his many scientific honors is the Alan T. Waterman Award for Achievement in Medical Sciences in 1997, and the March-of-Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology in 2001.
 
15Name:  Dr. Patricia Albjerg Graham
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Patricia Albjerg Graham is Charles Warren Professor of the History of Education Emerita at Harvard University. She holds a bachelor's degree from Purdue University and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. Professor Graham was dean of the Harvard School of Graduate Education from 1982 to 1991. She has taught nursery school and grades 5 through 12, chaired a high school history department, and served as a high school guidance counselor. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, she ran a program for beginning teachers in the New York City schools. Prior to coming to Harvard in 1974, Graham taught at Barnard College; Teachers College, Columbia University; Northern Michigan University; and Indiana University. She was dean of the Radcliffe Institute and vice president of Radcliffe College from 1974 to 1977, when she was appointed by President Carter director of the National Institute of Education, where she served from 1977-79. She served as the president of the Spencer Foundation in Chicago from 1991-2000. Dr. Graham is the author of four books on the history of education, coeditor of a book on women in higher education, and author of a number of articles dealing with historical and contemporary issues in American education. Dr. Graham also serves on several corporate, not-for-profit and foundation boards. She is past president of the National Academy of Education and former vice-president of the American Historical Association. She was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
16Name:  Dr. Oscar Handlin
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  September 20, 2011
   
 
Oscar Handlin ranks as one of the most prolific and influential American historians of the twentieth century, with pioneering works in the fields of immigration history, ethnic history, and social history. He began his long career at Harvard University in 1939, becoming a full professor in 1954. At a time when most historians of the U.S. were wholly absorbed by the frontier thesis of Professor F. J. Turner, Dr. Handlin turned his attention to another movement westward: that of Eastern Europeans, many of them Jews, to the United States. Dr. Handlin's best known work, The Uprooted, for which he received the Pulitzer Prize, is to some extent autobiographical. His many other books include The American People in the Twentieth Century; Race and Nationality in American Life; and Boston's Immigrants, 1790-1880. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences; the Massachusetts Historical Society; the Colonial Society of Massachusetts; and the American Jewish Historical Society. Oscar Handlin died on September 20, 2011, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at age 97.
 
17Name:  Dr. Elfriede Regina (Kezia) Knauer
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  June 7, 2010
   
 
Elfriede Knauer has an incredible range of knowledge in the ancient (and even somewhat modern) art world and history. She has travelled well beyond the normal compass of the archaeologist; she is expert in the culture of China, the Russian steppes, Persia and Iran and the ancient Greek and Roman world. She wrote a book on the Silk Road, which she has personally travelled. Dr. Knauer has written on such a variety of subjects that only a perusal of the titles of her publications can give an idea of what this scholar can control. Born in Germany, Dr. Knauer earned her Ph.D. from Frankfurt University and is currently a Consulting Scholar in the Mediterranean Section of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. She is a member of the Archaeological Institute of America and was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
18Name:  Dr. Thomas E. Lovejoy
 Institution:  George Mason University; The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1941
 Death Date:  December 25, 2021
   
 
Thomas Lovejoy received his Ph.D. from Yale University. He served as program director, vice president for science, and executive vice president of the World Wildlife Fund before his appointment as Science Advisor to the Secretary, United States Department of Interior, in 1993. He later became Counselor to the Secretary on Biodiversity and Environmental Affairs at the Smithsonian Institution, and Chief Biodiversity Advisor and Lead for Environment for Latin America and Caribbean for the World Bank. In 2002 he became president of the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, and served until 2008. He currently serves as the Heinz Center Biodiviersity Chair. In 2010 he joined the faculty of George Mason University where he has a joint appointment as University Professor in the Environmental Science and Policy Department and the Department of Pulbic and International Affairs. Dr. Lovejoy is the recipient of numerous awards, including Commander, Order of Merit of Mato Grosso, Brazil; the Carr Medal of the Florida Museum of Natural History; the Frances K. Hutchinson Medal of The Garden Club of America; the Global 500 Roll of Honor of the United Nations Environment Program; the John Kimball Scott Award for International Health Leadership of the National Association of Physicians for the Environment; the Spirit of Defenders Award for Science from Defenders of Wildlife; and the 2014 Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service. He serves on the Board of Directors of the New York Botanical Garden, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the World Resources Institute, Woods Hole Research Center, the Tropical Foundation and the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. Thomas Lovejoy is one of the great modern pioneers of modern conservation biology and practice. In the late 1980s he conceived and initiated the Amazonian forest fragment project, "the world's largest biological experiment," which continues as a cornucopia of new information on tropical ecology and species extinction. In his work, among other advances, he discovered the "edge effect" of forest fragmentation, a key factor in ecological change, among other advances. Dr. Lovejoy is also an extraordinary integrator and leader in the intersection of science, government, and education, especially with reference to the global environment. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
19Name:  Mr. Yo-Yo Ma
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
The many-faceted career of cellist Yo-Yo Ma is testament to his continual search for new ways to communicate with audiences, and to his personal desire for artistic growth and renewal. Whether performing a new concerto, revisiting a familiar work from the cello repertoire, coming together with colleagues for chamber music or exploring musical forms outside of the Western classical tradition, Mr. Ma strives to find connections that stimulate the imagination. Yo-Yo Ma maintains a balance between his engagements as soloist with orchestras throughout the world and his recital and chamber music activities. He draws inspiration from a wide circle of collaborators, each fueled by the artists' interactions. One of Mr. Ma's goals is the exploration of music as a means of communication and as a vehicle for the migrations of ideas across a range of cultures throughout the world. Expanding upon this interest, in 1998 Mr. Ma established the Silk Road Project to promote the study of the cultural, artistic and intellectual traditions along the ancient Silk Road trade route that stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. By examining the flow of ideas throughout this vast area, the Project seeks to illuminate the heritages of the Silk Road countries and identify the voices that represent these traditions today. The Project's major activities have included the 2002 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, which included more than 400 artists from 25 countries and drew more than 1.3 million visitors, concerts at the 2005 World Expo in Aichi, Japan, and Silk Road Chicago, a city-wide year-long residency in partnership with the Art Institute of Chicago, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the City of Chicago. Mr. Ma and the Silk Road Ensemble performed at the Opening Ceremony of the 2007 Special Olympics in Shanghai. Continuing over the next few years, in collaboration with leading museums in Asia, Europe and North America, the Project will co-produce a series of performance, exhibition and educational events focusing on great works of art from each museum's collections. Mr. Ma is an exclusive Sony Classical artist, and his discography of over 75 albums (including more than 15 Grammy Award winners) reflects his wide-ranging interests. He has made several successful recordings that defy categorization, among them "Hush" with Bobby McFerrin, "Appalachia Waltz" and "Appalachian Journey" with Mark O'Connor and Edgar Meyer and two Grammy-winning tributes to the music of Brazil, "Obrigado Brazil" and "Obrigado Brazil - Live in Concert." Mr. Ma's most recent recordings include "Paris: La Belle Époque," with pianist Kathryn Stott, and "New Impossibilities," a live album recorded with the Silk Road Ensemble and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra; he also appears on John Williams' soundtrack for Rob Marshall's film "Memoirs of a Geisha." Across this full range of releases Mr. Ma remains one of the best-selling recording artists in the classical field. All of his recent albums have quickly entered the Billboard chart of classical best sellers, remaining in the Top 15 for extended periods, often with as many as four titles simultaneously on the list. Yo-Yo Ma is strongly committed to educational programs that not only bring young audiences into contact with music but also allow them to participate in its creation. While touring, he takes time whenever possible to conduct master classes as well as more informal programs for students, musicians and non-musicians alike. He has also reached young audiences through appearances on "Arthur," "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" and "Sesame Street." Yo-Yo Ma was born in 1955 to Chinese parents living in Paris. He began to study the cello with his father at age four and soon came with his family to New York, where he spent most of his formative years. Later, his principal teacher was Leonard Rose at the Juilliard School. He sought out a traditional liberal arts education to expand upon his conservatory training, graduating from Harvard University in 1976. He has received numerous awards, including the Avery Fisher Prize (1978), the Glenn Gould Prize (1999), the National Medal of the Arts (2001), the Dan David Prize (2006), the Sonning Prize (2006), the World Economic Forum's Crystal Award (2008), the 2010 Medal of Freedom, the 2015 Antonin Dvorak Prize, and the 2016 Getty Medal. In 2006, then Secretary General Kofi Annan named him a United Nations Messenger of Peace. In 2007, Secretary General Ban Ki-moon extended his appointment. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra brought him aboard as a Creative Consultant in 2009. Mr. Ma and his wife have two children. Mr. Ma plays two instruments, a 1733 Montagnana cello from Venice and the 1712 Davidoff Stradivarius.
 
20Name:  Dr. Robert MacPherson
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Robert MacPherson has done decisive research on a variety of problems in geometry, especially for manifolds with singularities. Previously mathematicians had understood only smooth varieties. Dr. MacPherson found he needed wholly new methods for treating those with singular points or singular curves. This has included his understanding of Chern classes; his development with Goresky of the "intersection" homology theory; his work with Fulton on coverings; and his introduction of the important concept of Perverse Sheaves. He has been especially effective in collaboration with other mathematicians, and his extraordinary mobilization of the American math community to rescue the poverty-stricken Russian mathematical community is a most admirable humanitarian act that displays his human concerns as well as his great energy and initiative. Dr. MacPherson received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1970, after which time he joined the faculty of Brown University. He moved to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1987 and to the Institute of Advanced Study in 1994. The recipient of the 1992 National Academy of Sciences Award in Mathematics and the 2009 Swiss Federal Institute of Rechnology Heinz Hopf Prize, Dr. Macpherson is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. He was elected to the membership of the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
Election Year
1999[X]
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