American Philosophical Society
Member History

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21Name:  Dr. Thomas J. Kelly
 Institution:  Sloan-Kettering Institute; Cornell University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Thomas Kelly has been a world leader in unraveling how complex DNA viruses are replicated, thereby providing important understanding into control of the growth of animal cells. As a fellow in Hamilton Smith's laboratory, he identified the first recognition sequence of a restriction enzyme: a major and critical milestone in recombinant DNA technology. Dr. Kelly was the first to devise cell-free systems that faithfully replicated eukaryotic DNA and successfully copied the complete adenovirus genome in vitro. This led to an important technique: DNA recognition-site affinity chromatography which is widely used for the isolation of proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences. In a major advance he developed a system (and identified many of the catalytic components) for the replication of the oncogenic simian virus SV 40. Analysis of this system has revealed how DNA replication is initiated, including a tightly regulated phosphorylation which controls DNA unwinding. Dr. Kelly is deeply respected for his scientific originality and his incisive contributions to DNA replication. He currently directs the Sloan-Kettering Institute and previously built a world-class department of molecular biology and genetics during his tenure at Johns Hopkins University. He has fostered the careers of numerous young scientists and been an important spokesperson for science.
 
22Name:  Dr. Randall Kennedy
 Institution:  Harvard Law School
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Randall Kennedy is a creative thinker whose work reaches beyond the usual boundaries of legal scholarship into the social sciences and the analysis of contemporary American society. In the noisy thicket of the Harvard Law School these last years, he remains balanced, constructive, and civil, detached from the ideologies of the far left and right. On issues of race and of the relationship between the states and the federal government in this country, his is an analytical and increasingly influential voice. His legal and historical studies in the Harvard Law Review and the Yale Law Journal are supplemented by his book, Race, Crime and the Law, in which he discusses highly complex issues of the greatest importance to our country in a manner that the New York Times characterized as "all encompassing in its transracial humanity." Dr. Kennedy is also the author of Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word (2002); Interracial Intimacies: Sex, Marriage, Identity and Adoption (2003); Sellout: The Politics of Racial Betrayal (2008); The Persistence of the Color Line: Racial Politics and the Obama Presidency (2011); and For Discrimination: Race, Affirmative Action, and the Law (2013). He has served on the Harvard Law School faculty since 1984 and has been Michael R. Klein Professor of Law since 2005.
 
23Name:  Dr. Patrick Vinton Kirch
 Institution:  University of Hawai'I at Manoa; University of California, Berkeley & P.A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  403. Cultural Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Unsurpassed as a prehistorian of the Pacific, Patrick Kirch was curator of the P. A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology and Class of 1954 Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is now Chancellor's Professor Emeritus and Professor of the Graduate School, Class of 1954 Professor of Anthropology and Integrative Biology Emeritus. In 2019 he moved to the University of Hawai'i as a professor of anthropology. In a succession of outstanding contributions, he has shown how Pacific islanders have made changing adaptations to life in the islands over 3,000 years, exemplifying regional archaeology at its best and greatly clarifying our knowledge of the important Lapita cultural horizon of the first and second millennia BC. His book The Wet and the Dry makes a convincing case for recognizing the importance of intensification of agriculture in connection with shifting cultivation and tree crops as well as through irrigation in environments where irrigation is not feasible. He also demonstrates that, contrary to widely held theory, irrigation systems do not require centralized state authority for their development, maintenance, and management. Dr. Kirch's intellectual interests are broad, incorporating geology, botany, and cultural anthropology into his archaeological research. A native of Hawaii, Dr. Kirch has published numerous other works relating to the Pacific, including Marine Explorations in Prehistoric Hawaii (1979), Tikopia: The Prehistory and Ecology of a Polynesian Outlier (1982); The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms (1984); and Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology Prehistory (1985). He holds a Ph.D. from Yale University (1975).
 
24Name:  Dr. Ho-Wang Lee
 Institution:  National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Korea
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1928
   
 
As a medical virologist, Ho-Wang Lee studied Japanese encephalitis (JE) and Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF), now called Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The first of these was the success of tissue culture of JE virus, immune mechanism of JE and overwintering mechanisms of JE virus in Korea from 1955-68. The second of these was the isolation of etiologic agents, epidemiology and prevention of HFRS from 1969-o 2004. He isolated etiologic agents of HFRS from Apodemus mice and urban rats and named the virus Hantaan and Seoul in 1976 and 1980, respectively. He elucidated epizootiology and epidemiology of HFRS in 1979-85. Hantaan virus is the origin of genus Hantavirus and he proved world-wide distribution of hantaviruses from 1977-2000. In 1990, he and his colleagues developed a simple rapid diagnostic kit and an inactivated vaccine against HFRS. This vaccine was distributed in Asia and thereafter the number of HFRS patients decreased significantly.
 
25Name:  Dr. John Nichols Loeb
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
John N. Loeb is Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Special Lecturer in Medicine at Columbia University. He graduated summa cum laude from both Harvard College and Harvard Medical School and after a year of internship at the Massachusetts General Hospital moved to New York City in 1962 for a year as an assistant resident on the Medical Service of the Presbyterian Hospital. After two years as a Research Associate with Gordon M. Tomkins in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases at the National Institutes of Health, he returned to New York as Chief Resident in Medicine at the Presbyterian Hospital and Instructor in Medicine at the College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia University. He has remained affiliated with both institutions, where since 2005 he has been Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Special Lecturer in Medicine at Columbia University and continues as an Attending Physician at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. Dr. Loeb's research was principally focused on mechanisms of hormone action, the physical chemistry of receptor-ligand interactions and their quantitative relationship to biological response, and the regulation of glucose and monovalent cation transport. In pursuing these studies he chose to maintain only a small laboratory so that he could devote substantial time himself to benchwork, and his work was continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health from 1967 to 1999, support for the final ten years coming from an NIH MERIT award. From 1997 until 2003 he served as Associate Chairman for Research in the Department of Medicine and, from 2003 until his retirement, as Vice Chairman for Academic Affairs. Throughout his career Dr. Loeb has had an abiding interest in teaching both medical students and house staff, and in particular in bedside teaching. He has received numerous awards as a teacher at Columbia and additionally has devoted substantial time to teaching abroad. He received a Distinguished Service Award from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 2007. Major non-scientific interests include nineteenth-century English and French literature and playing chamber music. Dr. Loeb was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
26Name:  Dr. Jane Lubchenco
 Institution:  Oregon State University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Jane Lubchenco is an environmental scientist and marine ecologist who is actively engaged in teaching, research, synthesis and communication of scientific knowledge. She grew up in Colorado, received her Ph.D. and taught at Harvard University, then moved to Oregon State University, where she is Valley Professor of Marine Biology and Distinguished Professor of Zoology. In 2008 President Obama chose her to head the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. She was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 19, 2009. She stepped down from NOAA in February 2013 and spent the 2013 Spring quarter at Stanford University as the Mimi and Peter E. Haas Distinguished Visitor. In 2015 she was awarded the John and Alice Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement and in 2017 she was awarded the National Academy of Sciences' Public Welfare Medal and the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy. In 2019 the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences awarded her its highest honor, the Centennial Medal, which "honors alumni who have made contributions to society that emerged from their graduate study at Harvard." Dr. Lubchenco actively promotes science and communicates scientific knowledge in international and national arenas. Dr. Lubchenco is past president of the International Council for Science (the first woman president in the 75 year-old organization) and has also served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and of the Ecological Society of America. She is serving a second term on the National Science Board, having been twice nominated by President Clinton and twice confirmed by the U.S. Senate. She is often invited to testify before Congress, address the United Nations, or provide scientific advice to the White House, federal and international agencies, non-governmental organizations, religious leaders and leaders of business and industry. She co-chaired Oregon Governor Ted Kulongoski's Advisory Group on Global Warming that recommended actions the state should take to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. She also founded and co-leads the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program that teaches outstanding academic environmental scientists to be more effective communicators of scientific information to the public, policy makers, the media and the private sector.
 
27Name:  Dr. Richard W. Lyman
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  May 27, 2012
   
 
Richard W. Lyman was President Emeritus and J.E. Wallace Sterling Professor of Humanities Emeritus in the History Department at Stanford University at the time of his death on May 27, 2012 at the age of 89. He became a member of the Stanford faculty in 1958 and held positions as Professor of History, Associate Dean of the School of Humanities and Sciences, and Vice President and Provost before serving as Stanford's President from 1970-80. From 1980-88 he was President of the Rockefeller Foundation and from 1988 to his retirement in 1991, Director of the Institute for International Studies at Stanford. Dr. Lyman received a B.A. in history from Swarthmore College, and M.A. and PhD degrees in history from Harvard University. From 1951-52, he studied at the London School of Economics as a Fulbright Fellow. He held eight honorary degrees, was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the Royal Historical Society and an Honorary Fellow of the London School of Economics and an Officer of the (French) Legion of Honor. Dr. Lyman served as director of the Council on Foundations and chaired the board of Independent Sector. He was a Chairman of the Association of American Universities, and he had served as a director of the International Business Machines Corporation and the Chase Manhattan Corporation and as a member of the Board of the World Affairs Council of Northern California and the association of Governing Boards of Colleges and Universities. He was a member of the American Historical Association and the Council on Foreign Relations. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
28Name:  Professor Jack F. Matlock
 Institution:  Duke University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1929
   
 
Jack F. Matlock, Jr., a retired diplomat, has held academic posts since 1991: Adjunct Professor, Columbia University, 2007- ; Cyrus Vance Professor of International Relations, Mount Holyoke College, 2007; Sol Linowitz Professor of International Relations, Hamilton College, 2006; visiting professor and lecturer in public and international affairs at Princeton University, 2001-04; George F. Kennan Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, 1996 to July 2001; Senior Research Fellow and then Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Professor in the Practice of International Diplomacy at Columbia University, 1991-96. In 2015 he joined the faculty of Duke University as a Rubenstein Fellow. He will spend two years on campus based in the Center for Slavic, Eurasian and East European Studies, teaching courses, collaborating with students and faculty, engaging journalists and policymakers, and delivering lectures both on and off campus. In the 2016-2017 academic year he will travel to St. Petersburg, Russia, where he will lecture on U.S.-Russia relations as part of the Russia summer program. During his 35 years in the American Foreign Service (1956-1991) he served as Ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1987-91, Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director for European and Soviet Affairs on the National Security Council Staff from 1983 until 1986, and Ambassador to Czechoslovakia from 1981-83. Before his appointment to Moscow as Ambassador, Mr. Matlock served three tours at the American Embassy in the Soviet Union, as Vice Consul and Third Secretary (1961-63), Minister Counselor and Deputy Chief of Mission (1974-78), and Charge d'Affaires ad interim in 1981. His other Foreign Service assignments were in Vienna, Munich, Accra, Zanzibar and Dar es Salaam, in addition to tours in Washington as Director of Soviet Affairs in the State Department (1971-74) and as Deputy Director of the Foreign Service Institute (1979-80). Before entering the Foreign Service, Mr. Matlock was Instructor in Russian Language and Literature at Dartmouth College (1953-56). During the 1978-79 academic year he was Visiting Professor of Political Science at Vanderbilt University. He is the author of Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended (2004); Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union (1995); and a handbook to the thirteen-volume Russian edition of Stalin's Collected Works (1955, 1971). Mr. Matlock was born in Greensboro, North Carolina, on October 1, 1929, and was educated at Duke University (A.B., summa cum laude, 1950) and at Columbia University (M.A. and Certificate of the Russian Institute, 1952). He has been awarded honorary doctorates by four institutions. In addition to the books noted, he is the author of numerous articles on foreign policy, international relations, and Russian literature and history. He and his wife, the former Rebecca Burrum, divide their time between Booneville, Tennessee, and Durham, North Carolina. They have five children and three grandchildren.
 
29Name:  Dr. Elliot M. Meyerowitz
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
A member of the Caltech faculty since 1980, Elliot Meyerowitz is the George Beadle Professor of Biology and chair of the Division of Biology. He studies the genetics of flowering plants, especially Arabidopsis thaliana. His laboratory has identified and cloned homeotic flower development genes, leading to the "ABC Model" of floral organ specification, and was the first to clone plant hormone receptors. Their current work combines studies of gene expression and cell division patterns with computation to understand plant growth. Among his honors are the Pelton Award of the Botanical Society of America and the Conservation Research Foundation; the American Society of Plant Physiologists' Gibbs Medal; the Genetics Society of America Medal; and the International Prize for Biology from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Professor Meyerowitz is past president of the Genetics Society of America, the International Society for Plant Molecular Biology, and the Society of Development Biology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (recipient, Lounsbery Award) and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and a foreign associate of the Academie des Sciences of France, and a foreign member of the Royal Society.
 
30Name:  Dr. Francis D. Moore
 Institution:  Harvard Medical School & Brigham & Women's Hospital
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1913
 Death Date:  November 24, 2001
   
31Name:  Dr. Wataru Mori
 Institution:  Japanese Association of Medical Sciences; University of Tokyo; International Association of Universities; Japan Academy
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  April 1, 2012
   
 
Wataru Mori was a former president of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences; former president and professor emeritus at the University of Tokyo; president emeritus of the International Association of Universities; a member of the Japan Academy, and Chairman of the Health Care Science Institute in Tokyo. One of two permanent members of the Prime Minister's Council (the senior advisory body in Japan on matters of science and technology), he served as chair of the Committee on Policy Matters, the function of which was the council's executive committee. Dr. Mori was also the Japanese member of the Carnegie Group of Ministers of Science (for some member countries including the U.S., the scientific advisor to the president) of the G-7 countries and Russia and the European Union. His major field of study was liver pathology, and he maintained an active interest in the pineal hormone melatonin, publishing more than 500 papers in medical literature. He held M.D. (1951) and Ph.D. (1957) degrees from the University of Tokyo. He was a foreign member of Institute of Medicine, U.S.A., and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998. Wataru Mori died in April 2013 at the age of 87 in Tokyo.
 
32Name:  Dr. Barbara B. Oberg
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Until her retirement in 2014, Barbara Oberg was the General Editor of The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, a comprehensive edition of Jefferson's writings and correspondence (a project begun by the late Jefferson scholar and member of the Society, Julian P. Boyd). She was also a Lecturer with the rank of Professor in the Department of History at Princeton University, and is now Senior Research Scholar in the Department of History. She is a graduate of Wellesley College and received her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of California, where her primary fields of study were eighteenth-century British intellectual history and American history of the early republic. Her academic endeavors have centered on the transatlantic enlightenment, beginning with the English materialist philosopher David Hartley and then moving across the ocean to two of his American scientific correspondents, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Dr. Oberg also served as the editor of The Papers of Benjamin Franklin at Yale University from 1986-99, during which time seven volumes of Franklin's correspondence were published. She has co-edited two collections of essays, Benjamin Franklin, Jonathan Edwards and the Representation of American Culture and Federalists Reconsidered, and is the author of numerous articles and reviews. She has served as president of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic, the Society for Textual Scholarship, and the Association for Documentary Editing. In 2004 she received the Julian P. Boyd Award for distinguished contributions to American History and Culture from the Association for Documentory Editing. In 2018 she was elected to membership in the Society of American Historians. Dr. Oberg was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
33Name:  The Honorable Colin L. Powell
 Institution:  America's Promise - Alliance for Youth & U.S. Army
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Colin L. Powell served as the 65th United States Secretary of State from 2001-05. Prior to and after this appointment, he worked as the chairman of America's Promise - The Alliance for Youth, a national nonprofit organization dedicated to mobilizing people from every sector of American life to build the character and competence of young people. Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held myriad command and staff positions and rose to the rank of 4-star General. His last assignment, from 1989-93, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf war. Following his retirement, Powell wrote his best-selling autobiography, My American Journey, which was published in 1995. Additionally, he pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad. Powell was born in New York City in 1937 and was raised in the South Bronx. He was educated in the New York City public schools, graduating from the City College of New York (CCNY), where he earned a bachelor's degree in geology. He also participated in ROTC at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. His further academic achievements include a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University. Powell is the recipient of numerous U.S. and foreign military awards and decorations. His civilian awards include two Presidential Medals of Freedom, the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, and the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal.
 
34Name:  Dr. Stanley B. Prusiner
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Stanley B. Prusiner, M.D., is Director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Professor of Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco where he has worked since 1972. He received his undergraduate and medical training at the University of Pennsylvania and his postgraduate clinical training at UCSF. From 1969-72, he served in the U.S. Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health. Editor of 12 books and author of over 350 research articles, Prusiner's contributions to scientific research have been internationally recognized. Dr. Prusiner discovered an unprecedented class of pathogens that he named prions. Prions are infectious proteins that cause neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. Dr. Prusiner discovered a novel disease paradigm when he showed prions cause disorders in humans that can be manifest as (1) sporadic, (2) inherited and (3) infectious illnesses. Dr. Prusiner demonstrated that prions are formed when a normal, benign cellular protein acquires an altered shape. Dr. Prusiner's proposals of multiple shapes or conformations for a single protein as well as the concept of an infectious protein were considered heretical. Prior to Dr. Prusiner's discoveries, proteins were thought to possess only one biologically active conformation. Remarkably, the more common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases have been found over the past two decades to be, like the prion diseases, disorders of protein processing. Prusiner is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and is a foreign member of the Royal Society, London. He is the recipient of numerous prizes, including the Potamkin Prize for Alzheimer's Disease Research from the American Academy of Neurology (1991); the Richard Lounsberry Award for Extraordinary Scientific Research in Biology and Medicine from the National Academy of Sciences (1993); the Gairdner Foundation International Award (1993); the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research (1994); the Paul Ehrlich Prize from the Federal Republic of Germany (1995); the Wolf Prize in Medicine from the State of Israel (1996); the Keio International Award for Medical Science (1996); the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University (1997); the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1997); and the National Medal of Science (2010). Prusiner holds 50 issued or allowed United States patents all of which are assigned to the University of California. His memoir, Madness and Memory, was published in 2014.
 
35Name:  Dr. Michael C. J. Putnam
 Institution:  Brown University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Michael Putnam is W. Duncan MacMillan Professor of Classics and Professor of Comparative Literature, emeritus, at Brown University, where he has taught since 1960. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1959) and an honorary Ll. D from Lawrence University (1985). Putnam was acting director of the Center for Hellenic Studies (1961-62) and served as one of its Senior Fellows (1971-1986). He was Townsend Professor of Classics at Cornell University in 1985 and inaugurated the Townsend Lectures. For 1987-88 he was a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, and for 1994-95 a Visiting Scholar for Phi Beta Kappa. In 2004 he gave the Martin Classical Lectures at Oberlin College and in 2009 inaugurated the Amsterdam Virgil Lectures at the University of Amsterdam. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences as well as the American Philological Association, now the Society for Classical Studies, of which he was director (1972-73), president (1982), delegate to the American Council of Learned Societies (1984-87), financial trustee (1997-2004), and co-chair of its Gateway Campaign Committee (2005-12). He received the Society's Charles J. Goodwin Award of Merit in 1971 and its Distinguished Service Award in 2013. He has had a long association with the American Academy in Rome from which he received the Rome Prize (1963-4) and served as Mellon professor-in-charge of the Classical School (1989-9) and as trustee from 1991 to 2010 when he became Life Trustee. He received the Academy's Centennial Medal in 2009 and Trustees Medal in 2010. In 2019 he received the Arete Award from the Padeia Institute. He holds memberships in the Accademia Nazionale Virgiliana, and the Vergilian Society of America from which he received the McKay Prize in 2009 and which he served as Trustee from 2013-16. He was sole trustee of Lowell Observatory from 1967-87 and continues to serve on its board of advisors. From 1997-2014 he was a member of the Selections Committee of Fogg Museum of Art, and trustee of Bay Chamber Concerts from 1972-88 and 2010-16. He is the author of a number of books, including The Poetry of the Aeneid (1965); Virgil's Pastoral Art (1970); Tibullus: A Commentary (1973); Virgil's Poem of the Earth (1979); Essays on Latin Lyric, Elegy, and Epic (1982); Artifices of Eternity: Horace's Fourth Book of Odes (1986); Virgil's Aeneid: Interpretation and Influence (1995); Virgil's Epic Designs: Ekphrasis in the Aeneid (1998); Horace's Carmen Saeculare: Ritual Magic and the Poet's Art (2000); Maffeo Vegio: Short Epics (2004); Poetic Interplay: Catullus and Horace (2006); Jacopo Sannazaro: The Latin Poetry (2009); The Humanness of Heroes: Studies in the Conclusion of Virgil's Aeneid (2011); (with. Rodney Dennis): The Complete Poems of Tibullus: A En Face Edition (2012). He is co-editor of The Virgilian Tradition (2008) and of A Companion to Vergil's Aeneid and its Tradition (2010). He has held Guggenheim, ACLS and NEH fellowships. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
36Name:  Mr. John S. Reed
 Institution:  Citigroup
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
In April 2000, John S. Reed retired after a thirty-five year career with Citibank, Citicorp and Citigroup. He was elected Chairman and CEO of Citicorp and Citibank in September 1984. Citicorp merged with the Travelers Company in October 1998, subsequently he served as Chairman and Co-CEO of the new company: Citigroup. He served as Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange from September 2003 until April 2005, and was elected to Chair the M.I.T. Corporation in July of 2010 and served until 2014. Mr. Reed was born in Chicago in 1939. He was raised in Argentina and Brazil, where his father was an executive with Armour and Co. Mr. Reed studied at Washington & Jefferson College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a joint degree program, earning both the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 1961. He returned to M.I.T. to earn a Master of Science from the Sloan School in 1965, after a year as a trainee with the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. in Akron, Ohio, and two years as an officer in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Mr. Reed is on the Board of Altria, a trustee of MDRC and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
37Name:  Dr. Marshall N. Rosenbluth
 Institution:  University of California, San Diego & ITER
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  September 28, 2003
   
38Name:  Dr. Jean-Pierre Serre
 Institution:  Collège de France
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1926
   
 
Jean-Pierre Serre is one of the leading mathematicians of the twentieth century, active in algebraic geometry, number theory and topology. He has received numerous awards and honors for his mathematical research and exposition, including the Fields Medal in 1954. Born in Bages, France, Dr. Serre was educated at the Lycée de Nîmes and then from 1945-48 at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. He was awarded his doctorate from the Sorbonne in 1951. From 1948-54 he held positions at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris. He is now a professor at the Collège de France (1956) and a leading member of "Bourbaki," the well-known group of French mathematicians.
 
39Name:  Dr. Irwin I. Shapiro
 Institution:  Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University & Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1929
   
 
Irwin Shapiro formerly directed the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, arguably the world's largest astronomical research institution, and has been Timken University Professor at Harvard since 1997 and Schlumberger Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1985. He proposed and, with colleagues, verified the fourth test of general relativity, now called the "Shapiro effect." With a former student he initiated the revolution in geodesy based on the use of GPS signals to determine via interferometry the vector distance between points on the Earth with errors at the millimeter level. Strongly advocating improved pre-college science teaching, he has sponsored a cutting-edge educational group at the Center for Astrophysics and has guided the preparation of imaginative new texts and hands-on materials. Dr. Shapiro holds a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard (1955) and is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1969); the National Academy of Sciences (1974); and the American Astronomical Society (division chairman, 1970-71) and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the American Geophysical Union; and the American Physical Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
40Name:  Dr. Thomas Sowell
 Institution:  Hoover Institution
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1930
   
 
Thomas Sowell has served as Rose and Milton Friedman Senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution since 1995. His books Say's Law and Knowledge and Decisions are important contributions to the literature of classical economics, and he has been a pioneer in analyzing the effect of racial and ethnic differences in terms of economic theory and based on evidence from a wide range of cultures. His many writings in the area are important statements of an absolutely independent mind. In addition, he has written widely for the public as a strong defender of personal freedom, private markets and free enterprise. Dr. Sowell received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1968 and has served on the faculties of Cornell University (1965-69), Brandeis University (1969-70) and the University of California, Los Angeles (1970-72). Among his other publications are Black Education: Myths and Tragedies (1972); Ethnic America (1981); Marxism: Philosophy and Economics (1985); A Conflict of Visions (1987); The Vision of the Self-Anointed: Self-Congratulation as a Basis for Social Policy (1995); Basic Economics: A Citizen's Guide to the Economy (2000); Affirmative Action Around the World: An Empirical Study (2004); Black Rednecks and White Liberals (2005); and On Classical Economics (2006).
 
Election Year
1998 (49)
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