American Philosophical Society
Member History

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International (3)
Resident (9)
Class
2. Biological Sciences[X]
1Name:  Dr. Paul D. Boyer
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  June 2, 2018
   
 
Paul Delos Boyer was born July 31, 1918 in Provo, Utah. He received his B.S. in chemistry from Brigham Young University in 1939 and a Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1943. He served at Stanford University with a war research project on stabilization of human serum albumin from 1943-45 and with the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, MD in 1946. From 1946-63 he was a faculty member at the University of Minnesota and from 1963 to 1999 a faculty member at the University of California, Los Angeles, becoming emeritus in 1999. In 1965 he became founding director of UCLA's Molecular Biology Institute. Dr. Boyer received the American Chemical Society Award in Enzyme Chemistry in 1955 and during that year he was a Guggenheim Fellow for studies in Sweden. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1968) and the National Academy of Sciences (1970). He has received the Rose Award of the American Society of Biochemistry (1989) and honorary doctorates from the University of Stockholm (1974), the University of Minnesota (1996) and the University of Wisconsin (1998). In 1997 he shared a Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Walker and Skou for their studies with ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Throughout nature ATP serves for the capture and use of energy. Dr. Boyer also served as editor of the 18-volume treatise "The Enzymes" (1971-90) and has published over 300 papers, mostly about enzymes. About half of these relate to the mechanism of the complex membrane-bound ATP synthase. With his associates Boyer discovered that during ATP synthesis the three catalytic sites, even though they have identical amino acid sequences, proceed sequentially through strikingly different conformations. They obtained the first evidence that this occurs by a novel rotational catalysis. The rotational movement of a multi-subunit portion in the membrane drives the rotation of a single subunit in the center of the catalytic site cluster, resulting in the sequential conformational changes necessary for the binding, formation, and release of ATP. Dr. Paul D. Boyer died June 2, 2018, at the age of 99 at home in Los Angeles, California.
 
2Name:  Dr. Harald zur Hausen
 Institution:  German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum)
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Harald zur Hausen is a world renowned virologist who has made pioneering discoveries on viruses that cause human tumors. He made major contributions to our knowledge of the Epstein-Barr virus, the agent involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. His most important discovery, for which he was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine, is the causative role of papillomaviruses in human anogenital cancer. His work has far-reaching implications for human health and well-being and provides the basis for antiviral vaccines that could prevent some of the most common human malignancies. As Director of the German Cancer Research Center since 1983, Dr. zur Hausen has had a major influence on the organization, development and support of science. He has turned this institution into a leading center for biological and clinical research. A graduate of the University of Dusseldorf (M.D., 1960), Dr. zur Hausen is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (1976); the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences (1986); the German Academy of Natural Sciences (1986); the Academia Europaea (1990); the Polish Academy of Sciences (foreign member) (1991); and the Venezuelan National Academy of Medicine (1993).
 
3Name:  Dr. Thomas J. Kelly
 Institution:  Sloan-Kettering Institute; Cornell University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Thomas Kelly has been a world leader in unraveling how complex DNA viruses are replicated, thereby providing important understanding into control of the growth of animal cells. As a fellow in Hamilton Smith's laboratory, he identified the first recognition sequence of a restriction enzyme: a major and critical milestone in recombinant DNA technology. Dr. Kelly was the first to devise cell-free systems that faithfully replicated eukaryotic DNA and successfully copied the complete adenovirus genome in vitro. This led to an important technique: DNA recognition-site affinity chromatography which is widely used for the isolation of proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences. In a major advance he developed a system (and identified many of the catalytic components) for the replication of the oncogenic simian virus SV 40. Analysis of this system has revealed how DNA replication is initiated, including a tightly regulated phosphorylation which controls DNA unwinding. Dr. Kelly is deeply respected for his scientific originality and his incisive contributions to DNA replication. He currently directs the Sloan-Kettering Institute and previously built a world-class department of molecular biology and genetics during his tenure at Johns Hopkins University. He has fostered the careers of numerous young scientists and been an important spokesperson for science.
 
4Name:  Dr. Ho-Wang Lee
 Institution:  National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Korea
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1928
   
 
As a medical virologist, Ho-Wang Lee studied Japanese encephalitis (JE) and Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF), now called Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The first of these was the success of tissue culture of JE virus, immune mechanism of JE and overwintering mechanisms of JE virus in Korea from 1955-68. The second of these was the isolation of etiologic agents, epidemiology and prevention of HFRS from 1969-o 2004. He isolated etiologic agents of HFRS from Apodemus mice and urban rats and named the virus Hantaan and Seoul in 1976 and 1980, respectively. He elucidated epizootiology and epidemiology of HFRS in 1979-85. Hantaan virus is the origin of genus Hantavirus and he proved world-wide distribution of hantaviruses from 1977-2000. In 1990, he and his colleagues developed a simple rapid diagnostic kit and an inactivated vaccine against HFRS. This vaccine was distributed in Asia and thereafter the number of HFRS patients decreased significantly.
 
5Name:  Dr. John Nichols Loeb
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
John N. Loeb is Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Special Lecturer in Medicine at Columbia University. He graduated summa cum laude from both Harvard College and Harvard Medical School and after a year of internship at the Massachusetts General Hospital moved to New York City in 1962 for a year as an assistant resident on the Medical Service of the Presbyterian Hospital. After two years as a Research Associate with Gordon M. Tomkins in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases at the National Institutes of Health, he returned to New York as Chief Resident in Medicine at the Presbyterian Hospital and Instructor in Medicine at the College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia University. He has remained affiliated with both institutions, where since 2005 he has been Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Special Lecturer in Medicine at Columbia University and continues as an Attending Physician at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. Dr. Loeb's research was principally focused on mechanisms of hormone action, the physical chemistry of receptor-ligand interactions and their quantitative relationship to biological response, and the regulation of glucose and monovalent cation transport. In pursuing these studies he chose to maintain only a small laboratory so that he could devote substantial time himself to benchwork, and his work was continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health from 1967 to 1999, support for the final ten years coming from an NIH MERIT award. From 1997 until 2003 he served as Associate Chairman for Research in the Department of Medicine and, from 2003 until his retirement, as Vice Chairman for Academic Affairs. Throughout his career Dr. Loeb has had an abiding interest in teaching both medical students and house staff, and in particular in bedside teaching. He has received numerous awards as a teacher at Columbia and additionally has devoted substantial time to teaching abroad. He received a Distinguished Service Award from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 2007. Major non-scientific interests include nineteenth-century English and French literature and playing chamber music. Dr. Loeb was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
6Name:  Dr. Jane Lubchenco
 Institution:  Oregon State University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Jane Lubchenco is an environmental scientist and marine ecologist who is actively engaged in teaching, research, synthesis and communication of scientific knowledge. She grew up in Colorado, received her Ph.D. and taught at Harvard University, then moved to Oregon State University, where she is Valley Professor of Marine Biology and Distinguished Professor of Zoology. In 2008 President Obama chose her to head the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. She was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 19, 2009. She stepped down from NOAA in February 2013 and spent the 2013 Spring quarter at Stanford University as the Mimi and Peter E. Haas Distinguished Visitor. In 2015 she was awarded the John and Alice Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement and in 2017 she was awarded the National Academy of Sciences' Public Welfare Medal and the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy. In 2019 the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences awarded her its highest honor, the Centennial Medal, which "honors alumni who have made contributions to society that emerged from their graduate study at Harvard." Dr. Lubchenco actively promotes science and communicates scientific knowledge in international and national arenas. Dr. Lubchenco is past president of the International Council for Science (the first woman president in the 75 year-old organization) and has also served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and of the Ecological Society of America. She is serving a second term on the National Science Board, having been twice nominated by President Clinton and twice confirmed by the U.S. Senate. She is often invited to testify before Congress, address the United Nations, or provide scientific advice to the White House, federal and international agencies, non-governmental organizations, religious leaders and leaders of business and industry. She co-chaired Oregon Governor Ted Kulongoski's Advisory Group on Global Warming that recommended actions the state should take to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. She also founded and co-leads the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program that teaches outstanding academic environmental scientists to be more effective communicators of scientific information to the public, policy makers, the media and the private sector.
 
7Name:  Dr. Elliot M. Meyerowitz
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
A member of the Caltech faculty since 1980, Elliot Meyerowitz is the George Beadle Professor of Biology and chair of the Division of Biology. He studies the genetics of flowering plants, especially Arabidopsis thaliana. His laboratory has identified and cloned homeotic flower development genes, leading to the "ABC Model" of floral organ specification, and was the first to clone plant hormone receptors. Their current work combines studies of gene expression and cell division patterns with computation to understand plant growth. Among his honors are the Pelton Award of the Botanical Society of America and the Conservation Research Foundation; the American Society of Plant Physiologists' Gibbs Medal; the Genetics Society of America Medal; and the International Prize for Biology from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Professor Meyerowitz is past president of the Genetics Society of America, the International Society for Plant Molecular Biology, and the Society of Development Biology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (recipient, Lounsbery Award) and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and a foreign associate of the Academie des Sciences of France, and a foreign member of the Royal Society.
 
8Name:  Dr. Francis D. Moore
 Institution:  Harvard Medical School & Brigham & Women's Hospital
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1913
 Death Date:  November 24, 2001
   
9Name:  Dr. Stanley B. Prusiner
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Stanley B. Prusiner, M.D., is Director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Professor of Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco where he has worked since 1972. He received his undergraduate and medical training at the University of Pennsylvania and his postgraduate clinical training at UCSF. From 1969-72, he served in the U.S. Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health. Editor of 12 books and author of over 350 research articles, Prusiner's contributions to scientific research have been internationally recognized. Dr. Prusiner discovered an unprecedented class of pathogens that he named prions. Prions are infectious proteins that cause neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. Dr. Prusiner discovered a novel disease paradigm when he showed prions cause disorders in humans that can be manifest as (1) sporadic, (2) inherited and (3) infectious illnesses. Dr. Prusiner demonstrated that prions are formed when a normal, benign cellular protein acquires an altered shape. Dr. Prusiner's proposals of multiple shapes or conformations for a single protein as well as the concept of an infectious protein were considered heretical. Prior to Dr. Prusiner's discoveries, proteins were thought to possess only one biologically active conformation. Remarkably, the more common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases have been found over the past two decades to be, like the prion diseases, disorders of protein processing. Prusiner is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and is a foreign member of the Royal Society, London. He is the recipient of numerous prizes, including the Potamkin Prize for Alzheimer's Disease Research from the American Academy of Neurology (1991); the Richard Lounsberry Award for Extraordinary Scientific Research in Biology and Medicine from the National Academy of Sciences (1993); the Gairdner Foundation International Award (1993); the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research (1994); the Paul Ehrlich Prize from the Federal Republic of Germany (1995); the Wolf Prize in Medicine from the State of Israel (1996); the Keio International Award for Medical Science (1996); the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University (1997); the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1997); and the National Medal of Science (2010). Prusiner holds 50 issued or allowed United States patents all of which are assigned to the University of California. His memoir, Madness and Memory, was published in 2014.
 
10Name:  Dr. Larry R. Squire
 Institution:  University of California, San Diego & Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Larry R. Squire is Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry, Neurosciences, and Psychology at the University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, and Research Career Scientist at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego. He received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and did postdoctoral study at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine before coming to UCSD. Dr. Squire investigates the organization and neurological foundations of memory. His work involves the study of neurological patients, healthy volunteers, and rodents and combines the traditions of cognitive science and neuroscience. His publications include approximately 400 research articles and two books: Memory and Brain (1987) and Memory: From Mind to Molecules (with Eric Kandel, 2nd Edition, 2008). He is Editor-in-Chief of the textbook Fundamental Neuroscience (3rd Edition) and The Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. He served as President of the Society for Neuroscience and is also a William James Fellow of the American Psychological Society. He is a recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, the William Middleton Award from the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Charles A. Dana Award for Pioneering Achievements in Health, the McGovern Award, the Metropolitan Life Award, the Herbert Crosby Warren Medal, and the American Philosophical Society’s Karl Lashley Award. Dr. Squire was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
11Name:  Dr. Eric F. Wieschaus
 Institution:  Howard Hughes Medical Institute & Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Eric Wieschaus and Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (who was elected to the APS in 1995) were co-winners of the 1995 Nobel Prize for discovering genes that govern the earliest stages of embryonic development. They developed an ingenious genetic screen, used it to induce mutations in such genes, and then brilliantly deduced the role of each of the genes in setting up the major axes, and then the major subdivisions, of the embryo. Dr. Wieschaus is currently an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and a professor at Princeton University, on whose faculty he has served since 1981. He earned his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1974.
 
12Name:  Dr. Semir Zeki
 Institution:  University College London
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Semir Zeki is professor of neurobiology at University College London. His main research interest is the organization of the primate visual brain. His early studies on the monkey showed that different visual cortical areas are specialized for different tasks of motion, color and form. This led to the influential theory of functional specialization, not localization, in cortical areas. He then used Land's retinex techniques to study the relation of visual cortical neurons to wavelength and color, which led to the idea that color vision is a construction of the brain, not the retina. Recently he has used imaging methods to show that the principle of cortical area specialization is true also in the human brain. Dr. Zeki published his first scientific paper in 1967 and since then has written over 150 papers and three books, including A Vision of the Brain (1993), Inner Vision: an exploration of art and the brain (1999) and La Quête de l'essentiel, which he co-authored with the late French painter Balthus. In 1994, he began to study the neural basis of creativity and the aesthetic appreciation of art. In 2001, he founded the Institute of Neuroesthetics, based mainly in Berkeley, California. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (London), a member of the Academia Europeae and of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. His awards include the Minerva Foundation Prize, the LVMH Science pour l'art Prize, the Rank Prize in opto-electronics, the Electronic Imaging Award, the Koetser Prize and the King Faisal International Prize in Biology.
 
Election Year
1998 (12)