American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. Harald zur Hausen
 Institution:  German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum)
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Harald zur Hausen is a world renowned virologist who has made pioneering discoveries on viruses that cause human tumors. He made major contributions to our knowledge of the Epstein-Barr virus, the agent involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. His most important discovery, for which he was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine, is the causative role of papillomaviruses in human anogenital cancer. His work has far-reaching implications for human health and well-being and provides the basis for antiviral vaccines that could prevent some of the most common human malignancies. As Director of the German Cancer Research Center since 1983, Dr. zur Hausen has had a major influence on the organization, development and support of science. He has turned this institution into a leading center for biological and clinical research. A graduate of the University of Dusseldorf (M.D., 1960), Dr. zur Hausen is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (1976); the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences (1986); the German Academy of Natural Sciences (1986); the Academia Europaea (1990); the Polish Academy of Sciences (foreign member) (1991); and the Venezuelan National Academy of Medicine (1993).
 
2Name:  Dr. J. D. Hawkins
 Institution:  School of Oriental and African Languages, University of London
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
John David Hawkins received an M.A. at Oxford University in 1965. He began his career at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London as a research fellow in 1964 and has been Professor of Ancient Anatolian Languages since 1993. At the beginning of the 20th century next to nothing was known about the eight or so different languages of the Hittite archives. Now we can read and understand most of the texts. The history of Anatolia, 1000-700 B.C., used to be known only from the point of view of the Assyrians (the future conquerors). Now that the local sources have been opened up in all their richness, everything is changed. These are discoveries that match in brilliance the most far-reaching scientific accomplishments in scholarly history, and in large measure they are due to David Hawkins and to his work of thirty years. J. D. Hawkins in the author of (with S. Dalley and C.B.F. Walker) Old Babylonian Tablets from Tell al-Rimah (1976); The Hieroglyphic Inscription of the Sacred Pool Complex at Bogazköy-Hattusa (1995); Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions (4 volumes, 1998). He was the editor of IRAQ (Journal of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq) from 1976-1995. J. D. Hawkins served as honorary secretary for the British School of Archaeology in Iraq from 1976-85. He is a member of the British Academy and was elected a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
3Name:  Dr. Ho-Wang Lee
 Institution:  National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Korea
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1928
   
 
As a medical virologist, Ho-Wang Lee studied Japanese encephalitis (JE) and Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF), now called Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The first of these was the success of tissue culture of JE virus, immune mechanism of JE and overwintering mechanisms of JE virus in Korea from 1955-68. The second of these was the isolation of etiologic agents, epidemiology and prevention of HFRS from 1969-o 2004. He isolated etiologic agents of HFRS from Apodemus mice and urban rats and named the virus Hantaan and Seoul in 1976 and 1980, respectively. He elucidated epizootiology and epidemiology of HFRS in 1979-85. Hantaan virus is the origin of genus Hantavirus and he proved world-wide distribution of hantaviruses from 1977-2000. In 1990, he and his colleagues developed a simple rapid diagnostic kit and an inactivated vaccine against HFRS. This vaccine was distributed in Asia and thereafter the number of HFRS patients decreased significantly.
 
4Name:  Dr. Wataru Mori
 Institution:  Japanese Association of Medical Sciences; University of Tokyo; International Association of Universities; Japan Academy
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  April 1, 2012
   
 
Wataru Mori was a former president of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences; former president and professor emeritus at the University of Tokyo; president emeritus of the International Association of Universities; a member of the Japan Academy, and Chairman of the Health Care Science Institute in Tokyo. One of two permanent members of the Prime Minister's Council (the senior advisory body in Japan on matters of science and technology), he served as chair of the Committee on Policy Matters, the function of which was the council's executive committee. Dr. Mori was also the Japanese member of the Carnegie Group of Ministers of Science (for some member countries including the U.S., the scientific advisor to the president) of the G-7 countries and Russia and the European Union. His major field of study was liver pathology, and he maintained an active interest in the pineal hormone melatonin, publishing more than 500 papers in medical literature. He held M.D. (1951) and Ph.D. (1957) degrees from the University of Tokyo. He was a foreign member of Institute of Medicine, U.S.A., and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998. Wataru Mori died in April 2013 at the age of 87 in Tokyo.
 
5Name:  Dr. Jean-Pierre Serre
 Institution:  Collège de France
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1926
   
 
Jean-Pierre Serre is one of the leading mathematicians of the twentieth century, active in algebraic geometry, number theory and topology. He has received numerous awards and honors for his mathematical research and exposition, including the Fields Medal in 1954. Born in Bages, France, Dr. Serre was educated at the Lycée de Nîmes and then from 1945-48 at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. He was awarded his doctorate from the Sorbonne in 1951. From 1948-54 he held positions at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris. He is now a professor at the Collège de France (1956) and a leading member of "Bourbaki," the well-known group of French mathematicians.
 
6Name:  Dr. Tzvetan Todorov
 Institution:  CNRS, Paris
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1939
 Death Date:  February 7, 2017
   
 
Tzvetan Todorov was a Bulgarian born historian, cultural critic and essayist who lived in France from 1963 until his death February 7, 2017, in Paris at age 77. After his pioneering early work on literary theory, he chose to explore issues of human diversity, of universalism vs. relativism and of human behavior in extreme situations. He did this with erudition, balance, and a sense of compassion - not to mention extraordinary productivity. Dr. Todorov published more than 30 books, including The Poetics of Prose (1971), Introduction to Poetics (1981), The Conquest of America (1982), Mikhail Bakhtin: The Dialogical Principle (1984), Facing the Extreme: Moral Life in the Concentration Camps (1991), On Human Diversity (1993), Hope and Memory (2000), and Imperfect Garden: The Legacy of Humanism (2002). He was a member of the Conseil National des Programmes au Ministère de l'Education Nationale and has served as visiting professor at several universities, including Harvard, Yale, Columbia and the University of California, Berkeley. His honors include the prizes Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1991), Charles Veillon (1998), Nonino (2002), Spinoza (2004), Grinzane Cavour (2007) and Prince of Asturias (2008); he also was an Officer of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. He was a Doctor honoris causa of the Universities of Sofia, Liège, Mannheim and the American University in Paris, a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur and an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Dr. Todorov held the title of Directeur de recherches honoraire at CNRS, Paris at the time of his death.
 
7Name:  Dr. Semir Zeki
 Institution:  University College London
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Semir Zeki is professor of neurobiology at University College London. His main research interest is the organization of the primate visual brain. His early studies on the monkey showed that different visual cortical areas are specialized for different tasks of motion, color and form. This led to the influential theory of functional specialization, not localization, in cortical areas. He then used Land's retinex techniques to study the relation of visual cortical neurons to wavelength and color, which led to the idea that color vision is a construction of the brain, not the retina. Recently he has used imaging methods to show that the principle of cortical area specialization is true also in the human brain. Dr. Zeki published his first scientific paper in 1967 and since then has written over 150 papers and three books, including A Vision of the Brain (1993), Inner Vision: an exploration of art and the brain (1999) and La Quête de l'essentiel, which he co-authored with the late French painter Balthus. In 1994, he began to study the neural basis of creativity and the aesthetic appreciation of art. In 2001, he founded the Institute of Neuroesthetics, based mainly in Berkeley, California. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (London), a member of the Academia Europeae and of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. His awards include the Minerva Foundation Prize, the LVMH Science pour l'art Prize, the Rank Prize in opto-electronics, the Electronic Imaging Award, the Koetser Prize and the King Faisal International Prize in Biology.
 
Election Year
1998 (7)