American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  The Honorable Shirley S. Abrahamson
 Institution:  Supreme Court of the State of Wisconsin
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Shirley S. Abrahamson is the Chief Justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court. She was initially appointed to that body by Governor Patrick Lucey in 1976 and was subsequently elected in 1979, 1989 and 1999. She became the Chief Justice on August 1, 1996 and is the first woman to serve as either Justice or as Chief Justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court. Born and raised in New York City, Chief Justice Abrahamson received a bachelor's degree from New York University in 1953, a law degree from Indiana University Law School in 1956 and a doctor of law in American legal history in 1962 from the University of Wisconsin Law School. She is the recipient of 15 honorary doctor of laws degrees and the Distinguished Alumni Award of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Prior to joining the court, Chief Justice Abrahamson practiced law in Madison, Wisconsin and taught at the University of Wisconsin Law School. She is the past president of the National Conference of Chief Justices and past chair of the board of directors of the National Center for State Courts. She also served as chair of the National Institute of Justice's National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence. She is a member of the Council of the American Law Institute and the board of directors of New York University School of Law Institute of Judicial Administration.
 
2Name:  Mr. Saul Bellow
 Institution:  Boston University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  April 5, 2005
   
3Name:  Dr. Paul D. Boyer
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  June 2, 2018
   
 
Paul Delos Boyer was born July 31, 1918 in Provo, Utah. He received his B.S. in chemistry from Brigham Young University in 1939 and a Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1943. He served at Stanford University with a war research project on stabilization of human serum albumin from 1943-45 and with the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, MD in 1946. From 1946-63 he was a faculty member at the University of Minnesota and from 1963 to 1999 a faculty member at the University of California, Los Angeles, becoming emeritus in 1999. In 1965 he became founding director of UCLA's Molecular Biology Institute. Dr. Boyer received the American Chemical Society Award in Enzyme Chemistry in 1955 and during that year he was a Guggenheim Fellow for studies in Sweden. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1968) and the National Academy of Sciences (1970). He has received the Rose Award of the American Society of Biochemistry (1989) and honorary doctorates from the University of Stockholm (1974), the University of Minnesota (1996) and the University of Wisconsin (1998). In 1997 he shared a Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Walker and Skou for their studies with ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Throughout nature ATP serves for the capture and use of energy. Dr. Boyer also served as editor of the 18-volume treatise "The Enzymes" (1971-90) and has published over 300 papers, mostly about enzymes. About half of these relate to the mechanism of the complex membrane-bound ATP synthase. With his associates Boyer discovered that during ATP synthesis the three catalytic sites, even though they have identical amino acid sequences, proceed sequentially through strikingly different conformations. They obtained the first evidence that this occurs by a novel rotational catalysis. The rotational movement of a multi-subunit portion in the membrane drives the rotation of a single subunit in the center of the catalytic site cluster, resulting in the sequential conformational changes necessary for the binding, formation, and release of ATP. Dr. Paul D. Boyer died June 2, 2018, at the age of 99 at home in Los Angeles, California.
 
4Name:  Dr. Steven Chu
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
Steve Chu became Berkeley Lab's sixth director on August 1, 2004 and served in that capacity through 2008, when he was named Secretary of Energy in the incoming Obama Administration. He was confirmed as Secretary on January 20, 2009 and returned to Stanford in 2013 as William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of Humanities and Sciences, Professor of Physics, and Professor of Molecular and Cellular Physiology. A Nobel Prize-winning scholar and international expert in atomic physics, laser spectroscopy, biophysics and polymer physics, Dr. Chu oversaw the oldest and most varied of the Department of Energy's multi-program research laboratories, the Berkeley Lab. Berkeley Lad has an annual budget of over $600 million and a workforce of about 4,000. His distinguished career in laboratory research began as a postdoctoral fellow in physics at the University of California's Berkeley campus from 1976-78, during which time he also utilized the facilities of Berkeley Lab. His first career appointment was as a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J. where, from 1978-87, his achievements with laser spectroscopy and quantum physics became widely recognized. During the last four years there, he was Head of the Quantum Electronics Research Department, during which time much of his groundbreaking work in cooling and trapping atoms by laser took place. That work eventually led to the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997, an honor he shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji of France and United States colleague William D. Phillips. Their discoveries, focusing on the so-called "optical tweezers" laser trap, were instrumental in the study of fundamental phenomena and in measuring important physical quantities with unprecedented precision. At the time, Dr. Chu was the Theodore and Frances Geballe Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University, where he remained for 17 years as a highly decorated scientist, teacher and administrator. While at Stanford, he chaired the physics department from 1990-93 and from 1999-2001. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and l'Academica Sinica. He is also a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Korean Academy of Sciences and Technology. Dr. Chu has won dozens of awards in addition to the Nobel Prize, including the Science for Art Prize, the Herbert Broida Prize for Spectroscopy, the Richtmeyer Memorial Prize Lecturer, the King Faisal International Prize for Science, the Arthur Schawlow Prize for Laser Science, and the William Meggers Award for Laser Spectroscopy. He was a Humboldt Senior Scientist and a Guggenheim Fellow. In 2008 he delivered the Hans Bethe Lecture at Cornell University entitled "The World's Energy Problem and What We Can Do About It." Born in St. Louis and raised in New York, Dr. Chu earned an A.B. in mathematics and a B.S. in physics at the University of Rochester and a Ph.D. in physics at UC Berkeley. He is author or co-author of more that 200 articles and professional papers, and over two dozen former members of his group are now professors at leading research universities around the world.
 
5Name:  Dr. Elizabeth Cropper
 Institution:  National Gallery of Art
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Elizabeth Cropper received her B.A. with honors from Cambridge University, England, and her Ph.D. from Bryn Mawr College. Before joining The Johns Hopkins University as professor in 1985, she was a professor at Temple University's Tyler School of Art. In 2000 she succeeded Henry Millon as Dean of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts at the National Gallery of Art, one of the world's leading centers for advanced research in the history of art. In 2019 it was announced that she would retire from her role as dean in 2020. In addition to professorships at Cambridge University and CASVA, her visiting appointments include tenures as directeur d'Etudes Associé at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales, Paris (1990-1991 and 1997); as Samuel H. Kress Fellow, CASVA, National Gallery of Art (1984-1985); and as professor at the Collège de France in 1996. Among Dr. Cropper's postdoctoral research awards are positions as visiting scholar and fellow at the Harvard Center for Renaissance Studies, Villa I Tatti, Florence; Andrew W. Mellon Professor at CASVA; and visiting member, School of Historical Studies, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Her publications include Pontormo: Portrait of a Halberdier (1997), Nicolas Poussin: Friendship and the Love of Painting, with Charles Dempsey (1996); and The Domenichino Affair (2005).
 
6Name:  Dr. Charles Till Davis
 Institution:  Tulane University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  4/10/98
   
7Name:  Dr. Charles G. Dempsey
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Charles Dempsey's work is distinguished by superlative critical engagement with issues central to the history of Renaissance and Baroque art. He has written pivotal books on the beginnings of the Baroque style and on Botticelli's Primavera. Deeply imbued with the classical heritage and equally immersed in cultures of the arts he studies, he is a humanist faithful to the past and concerned for the present. It was he who during the war in Yugoslavia inspired the conference on that land's contributions to the Renaissance in the hope of helping protect the art, and he who with a colleague has made his department at Johns Hopkins University one of the best in the land. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1993), Dr. Dempsey was Professor of Italian Renaissance and Baroque Art at Johns Hopkins since 1980, becoming emeritus in 2007. He earned his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1963.
 
8Name:  Dr. Richard S. Dunn
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society & University of Pennsylvania & McNeil Center for Early American Studies
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1928
   
 
Richard S. Dunn is a leading historian within the generation of scholars, working from the 1960s onward, who have collectively redefined the character and dimensions of early American history. He received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1955. He taught history at the University of Pennsylvania from 1957-96 and was the founder of the Philadelphia Center for Early American Studies, now the McNeil Center for Early American Studies, which he directed from 1978-2000. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1998. Dr. Dunn has written extensively on American, Caribbean and European history. Each of his major publications demonstrates his mastery of a different historical genre - Puritans and Yankees (New England family history); Sugar and Slaves (Caribbean social history); The Age of Religious Wars (early modern European political history); (with Mary Maples Dunn) The Papers of William Penn; and The Journal of John Winthrop (documentary editing). His book A Tale of Two Plantations (2015) compares the individual and group experiences of the thousand slaves who lived on a well-documented Jamaican plantation between 1760 and 1830 with the experiences of the thousand slaves who lived on a similarly well-documented Virginia plantation between 1800 and 1865. Dr. Dunn served as Co-Executive Officer of the American Philosophical Society from 2002-2007. In 2008 he received the Heisenberg Medal, awarded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in recognition of his efforts in fostering trans-Atlantic collaborations and dialogues in the humanities and in 2017 he received the American Historical Association's Award for Scholarly Distinction in recognition of lifetime achievement.
 
9Name:  Mr. Roger L. Easton
 Institution:  Naval Research Laboratory & KERNCO & New Hampshire Electric Cooperative
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  May 8, 2014
   
 
Roger Easton was born in a small village in northern Vermont to a town doctor and his school teacher wife. He and his older brothers and one younger sister went to local schools where they had very good teachers. He followed his older brother to Middlebury College where he was graduated during World War II. He went to work at the Naval Research Laboratory in 1943 with his initial work being on blind landing system for aircraft. In 1945 he was married to the former Barbara Coulter of Flint, Michigan. They had five children, three girls and two boys and five grandchildren. Two of the girls died in adulthood of two different cancers. When the development of rockets became important, he joined the Rocket Sonde branch and participated in the proposal that put NRL in the satellite launching business. He designed the Vanguard I satellite, now the oldest in space. Following the launch of the Russian Sputnik, he conceived the U.S. Navy Space Surveillance System, an electronic fence extending across the southern U.S. and detecting all satellites that crossed it. Later he added another fence parallel to the first one. With the two fences we were able to obtain near instantaneous orbital elements on all space objects crossing both fences. The second fence was a continuous wave radar type with timing signals sent by the transmitter and detected over the horizon and by reflection. With this fence it was possible to locate the satellites very accurately. However, the fence had one problem: that cesium-beam clocks had to be carried between the transmitter and the receiver in order to synchronize them. From this operation came the idea of having a satellite carry the clock and, since both the transmitter and the receiver would be visible simultaneously, the clock would not need to be a very stable device - a crystal oscillator would do. A few weeks later the idea appeared that this might be the basis of a navigation device with a great virtue of being capable of measuring range and of being passive so the user need not interrogate the satellite and hence the system would not be overloaded. Following these thoughts a simplified version was demonstrated to personnel from the Naval Air Systems Command. A work order followed and two satellites were used for the time transfer between England, Australia, New Zealand and the U.S. These satellites used crystal oscillators as their timing sources. The next satellite used a rubidium clock designed by E. Jechart of Germany. Two of them were modified at NRL for use in space, the first ones so used. The next satellite, called either TIMATIONS 4 or NDS 2 (for Navigations Development Satellite) was launched on June 23, 1977 into a 12 hour orbit with cesium beam clocks and almost all of the characteristics of the GPS satellites. With this satellite we were able to measure the change in frequency due to gravitation very well and very close to that predicted by Einstein's general theory of gravitation. In 1980 Roger and Mrs. Easton retired to Canaan, New Hampshire where he started a career in public service. In 1982, he was elected in the first of two terms to the New Hampshire General Court and he later ran, unsuccessfully, for Governor. He served three terms as director of the New Hampshire Electric Cooperative, and he has served on the Planning Board for the Town of Canaan. Awards he has received include the following: The Navy Distinguished Civilian Service Award; The Institute of Navigation Thurlow Award; and the Sigma Xi Applied Science Award. Two awards are named for him - one for Space Surveillance and one for Space Navigation. In 1996 Roger Easton was inducted into the GPS Hall of Fame and in 2010 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 1997 he was awarded the Magellanic Premium Award of the American Philosophical Society and, in 1998, he was elected to the Society.
 
10Name:  Dr. Richard N. Gardner
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  February 16, 2019
   
 
Richard N. Gardner was Professor of Law and International Organization at Columbia Law School and Senior Counsel to Morgan Lewis, a global law firm. He served as U.S. Ambassador to Italy from 1977-81 and as U.S. Ambassador to Spain from 1993-97. During his service in Spain, he received the Thomas Jefferson Award for his contributions to U.S. citizens abroad. From 1961-65 he served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. He was a member of the President's Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations (ACTPN) and of the U.S. delegation to the Ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organization held in Seattle at the end of 1999. He was later a member of the State Department's Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy. Professor Gardner held a Doctor of Jurisprudence from Yale Law School, a Doctor of Philosophy degree in economics from Oxford University, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar, and a B.A. degree in economics from Harvard University. His Oxford thesis, published by the Oxford University Press as Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy, has been described as the "classic" study of Anglo-American economic collaboration in the creation of the Bretton Woods institutions and GATT. He authored four other books on international affairs, including In Pursuit of World Order: US Foreign Policy and International Organization. His latest book, Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the Cold War, was published in Italian by Mondadori in September 2004 and presented in the Italian Parliament by two former Italian Prime Ministers. The U.S. edition was published in 2005. He was also the author of numerous articles in Foreign Affairs, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, and other publications. In 1992 the Council on Foreign Relations published his booklet entitled Negotiating Survival: Four Priorities After Rio. Professor Gardner was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the Council on Foreign Relations. He was a member of the International Advisory Board of Grupo Santander of Spain and served on the International Capital Markets Advisory Committee of the New York Stock Exchange. He was Vice President of the American Ditchley Foundation and a member of the Board of the Salzburg Seminar. In 2000, Professor Gardner served as a public delegate to the 55th "Millennium" United Nations General Assembly. He served as Special Advisor to the United Nations at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, as he did in 1972 to the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment. From 1982-93 he was Co-Chairman of the Aspen Institute Program on the United States and the World Economy. He also served from 1988-92 as chairman of the U.S. group in a joint Russian-American program on the United Nations and collective security, established under the auspices of the U.S. and Russian U.N. Associations. He was a member of a U.N. Association group engaged in a dialogue on multilateral issues with the Chinese Institute of International Studies. Professor Gardner married the former Danielle Almeida Luzzatto, a columnist for the Italian magazine Chi?. The Gardners had two children, Nina Gardner Olivieri, a lawyer and consultant in Paris, and Anthony Laurence Gardner, a former member of the staff of the National Security Council, a lawyer, and currently Executive Director of GE Commercial Finance-Europe in London. Richard N. Gardner died February 16, 2019 in New York, NY at the age of 91.
 
11Name:  Dr. Werner Gundersheimer
 Institution:  Folger Shakespeare Library
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Werner Gundersheimer, a highly respected French and Italian Renaissance scholar, is a major interpreter of Ferrara's cultural history who has brought unusual ingenuity and intellect to his directorship of The Folger Shakespeare Library, one of the world's great humanistic research centers. He succeeded in restructuring the Folger's operations and staff, increased the endowment and operating funds impressively, improved the physical environment, modernized the seminar program, organized both scholarly and popular conferences and lectures and created better lines of communication with the general public. Dr. Gundersheimer is a prominent leader in the study and interpretation of Renaissance history, and he continues to publish important articles in leading journals. He is a graduate of Amherst College and Harvard University (Ph.D., 1963). He has taught at the University of Wisconsin, the University of Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins University, Swarthmore College, and Tel Aviv University and presently lectures at several universities and colleges. Among his many honors is the Star of Italian Solidarity (Cavaliere della Stella Solidarieta Italiana) conferred by the Foreign Ministry of the Republic of Italy (1974).
 
12Name:  Dr. William Happer
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Dr. William Happer, a Professor in the Department of Physics at Princeton University, is a specialist in modern optics, optical and radiofrequency of atoms and molecules, and spin-polarized atoms and nuclei. Born July 27, 1939 in Vellore, India, Dr. Happer's parents were Lt. Col. William Happer, a Scottish physician in the Indian Army, and Dr. Gladys Morgan Happer, a medical missionary from North Carolina. He received a B.S. degree in physics from the University of North Carolina in 1960 and his Ph.D. degree in physics from Princeton University in 1964. He began his academic career in 1964 at Columbia University as a member of the research and teaching staff of the physics department. While serving as a Professor of Physics he also served as Co-Director of the Columbia Radiation Laboratory from 1971-76, and as Director from 1976-79. In 1980 he joined the faculty at Princeton University. He was named the Class of 1909 Professor of Physics in 1988. On August 5, 1991, with the consent of the Senate, he was appointed Director of Energy Research in the Department of Energy by President George Bush. While serving in that capacity under Secretary of Energy James Watkins, he oversaw a basic research budget of some $3 billon, which included much of the federal funding for high energy and nuclear physics, material science, magnetic confinement fusion, environmental science, biology, the human genome project, and other areas. He remained at the DOE until May 31, 1993 to help during the transition to the Clinton Administration. He was reappointed Professor of Physics at Princeton University on June 1, 1993, and named Eugene Higgens Professor of Physics and Chair of the University Research Board in 1995. He has maintained an interest in applied as well as basic science, and he has served as a consultant to numerous firms, charitable foundations and governmental agencies. From 1987-90 he served as Chairman of the Steering Committee of JASON, a group of scientists and engineers who advise agencies of the Federal Government on matters of defense, intelligence, energy policy and other technical problems. He is a trustee of the MITRE Corporation, the Richard Lounsbery Foundation, and a co-founder in 1994 of Magnetic Imaging Technologies Incorporated (MITI), a small company specializing in the use of laser polarized noble gases for magnetic resonance imaging. MITI was purchased by Nycomed Amersham in 1999. He has published over 160 scientific papers. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. He was awarded an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in 1966, an Alexander von Humboldt Award in 1976, the 1997 Broida Prize and the 1999 Davisson-Germer Prize of the American Physical Society and the Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award in 2000. Dr. Happer was married in 1967 to the former Barbara Jean Baker of Rahway, New Jersey. They have two grown children, James William and Gladys Anne.
 
13Name:  Dr. Harald zur Hausen
 Institution:  German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum)
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Harald zur Hausen is a world renowned virologist who has made pioneering discoveries on viruses that cause human tumors. He made major contributions to our knowledge of the Epstein-Barr virus, the agent involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. His most important discovery, for which he was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine, is the causative role of papillomaviruses in human anogenital cancer. His work has far-reaching implications for human health and well-being and provides the basis for antiviral vaccines that could prevent some of the most common human malignancies. As Director of the German Cancer Research Center since 1983, Dr. zur Hausen has had a major influence on the organization, development and support of science. He has turned this institution into a leading center for biological and clinical research. A graduate of the University of Dusseldorf (M.D., 1960), Dr. zur Hausen is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (1976); the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences (1986); the German Academy of Natural Sciences (1986); the Academia Europaea (1990); the Polish Academy of Sciences (foreign member) (1991); and the Venezuelan National Academy of Medicine (1993).
 
14Name:  Dr. J. D. Hawkins
 Institution:  School of Oriental and African Languages, University of London
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
John David Hawkins received an M.A. at Oxford University in 1965. He began his career at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London as a research fellow in 1964 and has been Professor of Ancient Anatolian Languages since 1993. At the beginning of the 20th century next to nothing was known about the eight or so different languages of the Hittite archives. Now we can read and understand most of the texts. The history of Anatolia, 1000-700 B.C., used to be known only from the point of view of the Assyrians (the future conquerors). Now that the local sources have been opened up in all their richness, everything is changed. These are discoveries that match in brilliance the most far-reaching scientific accomplishments in scholarly history, and in large measure they are due to David Hawkins and to his work of thirty years. J. D. Hawkins in the author of (with S. Dalley and C.B.F. Walker) Old Babylonian Tablets from Tell al-Rimah (1976); The Hieroglyphic Inscription of the Sacred Pool Complex at Bogazköy-Hattusa (1995); Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions (4 volumes, 1998). He was the editor of IRAQ (Journal of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq) from 1976-1995. J. D. Hawkins served as honorary secretary for the British School of Archaeology in Iraq from 1976-85. He is a member of the British Academy and was elected a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
15Name:  Dr. Albert Henrichs
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1942
 Death Date:  April 16, 2017
   
 
Through his work in papyrology, Albert Henrichs made himself one of the most original and versatile scholars in Classics. His most signal and seminal contributions were in the field of religious thought, ranging from an edition of magical texts to new interpretations of religious tenets of leading Sophists, from a commentary on the book of Job to a text of Mani. His research led to innumerable insights into Greek tragedy and comedy, into Homer and into Greek history (where his work on the Theramenes papyrus deserves special mention). Dr. Henrichs has written on mythography and on rhetoric; in short, there is hardly a field of Greek (and related) studies that has not been enriched by the profound questions he asked and the novel answers at which he had arrived. A native of Cologne, Germany, Dr. Henrichs was Eliot Professor of Greek at Harvard University from 1984 to 2017. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1985); the American Philological Association; l'Association Internationale de papyrologues; and the Egypt Exploration Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998. Dr. Henrichs died April16, 2017, at age 74 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
 
16Name:  Dr. James G. Anderson
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
James Anderson has pioneered the development and application of instruments to determine the chemical abundance of chemical radicals in the stratosphere. He established from measurement and theory the abundance of ClO in the stratosphere and then OH, NO, and BrO. This showed unambiguously that Cl from chloroflourocarbons was the cause of the ozone depletion in the Antarctic and that ClO and BrO from industrial sources was the cause of the ozone depletion. They are the basis for quantitatively testing models of the atmosphere. These results are from the very difficult and sophisticated measurements made by him with instrumented stratospheric ballon flights. Dr. Anderson has established a world center of research with brilliant young scientists who are participating in carrying their field forward. Having been Philip S. Weld Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry at Harvard Univeristy since 1978, Dr. Anderson has also served on the faculties of the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Michigan. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1992); the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1985); and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1986). He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Colorado (1970).
 
17Name:  Dr. John H. D'Arms
 Institution:  American Council of Learned Societies & Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  January 22, 2002
   
18Name:  Dr. Alexander Jones
 Institution:  Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1960
   
 
Alexander Jones is Professor of the History of the Exact Sciences in Antiquity at New York University's Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. In 2017 he became the Leon Levy Director at the Institute. He studies the history of the mathematical and physical sciences in antiquity, particularly Greco-Roman and Babylonian astronomy; Greco-Roman physical and mathematical sciences; and scientific texts on papyri. He is the author of five books, including Pappus of Alexandria, Book 7 (2 volumes, 1986), and about forty articles. His edition of the Oxyrhynchus astronomical and astrological papyri, the largest collection ever published, with translation and full technical commentary, is a landmark, entirely transforming the modern study of ancient astronomy and astrology and worthy to stand beside O. Neugebauer's "Astronomical Cuneiform Texts" (1955) and A.J. Sachs's and H. Hunger's "Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia" (1988). A graduate of Brown University (Ph.D., 1985), he served on the University of Toronto faculty from 1992-2008.
 
19Name:  Dr. Dale W. Jorgenson
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Dale W. Jorgenson is the Samuel W. Morris University Professor at Harvard University. He received a BA in economics from Reed College in Portland, Oregon, in 1955 and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard in 1959. After teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the Harvard faculty in 1969 and was appointed the Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics in 1980. He served as Chairman of the Department of Economics from 1994-97. Dr. Jorgenson has been honored with membership in the American Philosophical Society (1998), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1989), the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1978) and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1969). He was elected to Fellowship in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1982), the American Statistical Association (1965), and the Econometric Society (1964). Dr. Jorgenson served as President of the American Economic Association in 2000 and was named a Distinguished Fellow of the Association in 2001. He was a Founding Member of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy of the National Research Council in 1991 and has served as Chairman of the Board since 1998. He also served as Chairman of Section 54, Economic Sciences, of the National Academy of Sciences from 2000-03 and was President of the Econometric Society in 1987. Dr. Jorgenson received the prestigious John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association in 1971. This Medal is awarded every two years to an economist under forty for excellence in economic research. The citation for this award reads in part: "Dale Jorgenson has left his mark with great distinction on pure economic theory (with, for example, his work on the growth of a dual economy); and equally on statistical method (with, for example, his development of estimation methods for rational distributed lags). But he is preeminently a master of the territory between economics and statistics, where both have to be applied to the study of concrete problems. His prolonged exploration of the determinants of investment spending, whatever its ultimate lessons, will certainly long stand as one of the finest examples in the marriage of theory and practice in economics." Dr. Jorgenson has conducted groundbreaking research on information technology and economic growth, energy and the environment, tax policy and investment behavior and applied econometrics. He is the author of 241 articles in economics and the author and editor of thirty-one books. His collected papers have been published in ten volumes by The MIT Press, beginning in 1995. His most recent book, Information Technology and the American Growth Resurgence, co-authored with Mun Ho and Kevin Stiroh in 2005, represents a major effort to quantify the impact of information technology on the U.S. economy. Another volume, Lifting the Burden: Tax Reform, the Cost of Capital, and U.S. Economic Growth, co-authored with Kun-Young Yun in 2001, proposes a new approach to capital income taxation, dubbed "A Smarter Type of Tax" by The Financial Times. Sixty-five economists have collaborated with Dr. Jorgenson on published research. An important feature of his research program has been collaboration with students in economics at Berkeley and Harvard. Many of his former students are professors at leading academic institutions in the United States and abroad, and several occupy endowed chairs. Dr. Jorgenson was born in Bozeman, Montana in 1933 and attended public schools in Helena, Montana. He is married to Linda Mabus Jorgenson, who is an attorney in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Professor and Mrs. Jorgenson reside in Cambridge.
 
20Name:  Dr. William N. Kelley
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
William N. Kelley, M.D. received his medical degree from Emory University with honors. Following Internal Medicine training at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School and Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, he joined the staff of the National Institutes of Health as a Clinical Associate in the Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch, Section on Human Biochemical Genetics. He then completed additional clinical training as Senior Resident in Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. In 1968, Dr. Kelley joined the faculty at Duke University Medical Center where, over seven years, he became Professor of medicine, Associate Professor of Biochemistry, and Chief of the Division of Rheumatic and Genetic Diseases. From 1975 to 1989, he served as Professor and Chairman of the Department of Internal Medicine and Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Michigan. From 1989 to 2000, Dr. Kelley served as Executive Vice President of the University of Pennsylvania with responsibilities as Chief Executive Officer for the Medical Center, Dean of the School of Medicine, and the Robert G. Dunlop Professor of Medicine and Biochemistry and Biophysics. In 1993, he was also appointed as CEO of the University of Pennsylvania Health System upon its formal approval by the University Trustees, a position he held until 2000. He was the co-founder of the Textbook of Rheumatology serving as the senior editor for the first five editions; the book now in its 10th edition is entitled Kelley and Firestein’s Textbook of Rheumatology. In addition, he was the founder and Editor-in-Chief of The Textbook of Internal Medicine through three editions. The fourth edition is now entitled Kelley’s Textbook of Internal Medicine. In the national leadership arena, he served as President of the American Federation for Medical Research, President of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, President of the American College of Rheumatology, Chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine, and Chair of the Residency Review Committee for Internal Medicine. He is a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine of The National Academies), and the Association of American Physicians. He is a Master of both the American College of Physicians and the American College of Rheumatology, and a recipient of the John Phillips Memorial Award and Medal from the American College of Physicians, the Robert H. Williams Award from the Association of Professors of Medicine, the Gold Medal of the American College of Rheumatology, the David E. Rogers Award from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the George M. Kober Medal from the Association of American Physicians, and The Emory Medal from Emory University. Dr. Kelley has served as a Director on several corporate boards including Merck & Co., Beckman Coulter, GenVec, Inc., Polymedix, Applied Biosurfaces, and Channel Health; he currently serves as a Director on the board of TransEnterix, Inc. He also is an emeritus trustee of Emory University. Dr. Kelley has served as a member of the Director’s Advisory Council of the National Institutes of Health, a member of the Board on Higher Education and Workforce of The National Academies, and an elected member of the National Council of the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine). Dr. Kelley is currently Professor of Medicine in the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He married his late wife, Lois, in 1959 and together they had three daughters (Paige, Ginger, and Lori), one son (Mark, a practicing gastroenterologist), and nine grandchildren.
 
Election Year
1998[X]
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