American Philosophical Society
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 Name:  Ms. Natalie Marie Angier
 Institution:  The New York Times
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Fascinated by science since her youth and endowed with a unique facility for words, Natalie Marie Angier writes with a lucidity and enthusiasm that have identified her as a most gifted and respected science writer. A science correspondent for The New York Times since 1990, she has also written for Discover and Time magazines and worked in journalism education, most recently as a visiting professor at Cornell University. Ms. Angier has a captivating way of seducing her readers into understanding complex scientific concepts without sacrificing the truth. Her first book, Natural Obsessions, disseminated an accurate understanding of the profound significance of the oncogene concept to scientists and nonscientists alike and earned her a Pulitzer Prize. Her writing is visual and kinetic, colorful and festive, while at the same time playful and full of surprises. Each scientific story reads like an exciting novel, difficult to put down. But she combines this skill in storytelling with an originality of thinking, and the unusual capacity for synthesizing seemingly unrelated facts into original perspectives. In the essays collected in The Beauty of the Beastly, she finds poetry in the "seamy" side of nature: in parasites; in animal deceit and brutality. In Woman: An Intimate Geography, she breaks out from stereotypic views of women. In the L.A. Times, it was described as "…a classic - a text so necessary and abundant and true that all efforts of its kind, for decades before and after, will be measured by it." Ms. Angier's latest book is entitled The Canon: A Whirligig Tour Through the Beautiful Basics of Science, which "sparkles with wit and charm" and "refines everything you've ever wanted to know about science into an entertaining and accessible guide."
 
 Name:  Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy is a pioneering researcher in machine perception, robotics and artificial intelligence. Dr. Bajcsy is the Director of CITRIS at the University of California, charged with shaping the center's vision and scientific strategy. She is also a member of the Neuroscience Institute and the School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. She is the former Director of the University of Pennsylvania's General Robotics and Active Sensory Perception Laboratory, which she founded in 1978. She has also served as the Assistant Director of the Computer Information Science and Engineering Directorate (CISE) at the NSF. She has held professorships at Penn, Slovak Technical University and the University of California, Berkeley Dr. Bajcsy has conducted seminal research in the areas of human-centered computer control, cognitive science, robotics, computerized radiological/medical image processing and artificial vision. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, as well as the Institute of Medicine. In 2001 she was a recipient of the ACM A. Newell award, and Discover Magazine named her to its list of the 50 most important women in science in November 2002. In April 2003 she received the CRA Distinguished Service Award and in May 2003 she became a member of the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. In 2020 she won the 2020 National Center for Women & Information Technology's Pioneer in Tech Award.
 
 Name:  Dr. Leonard Barkan
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Leonard Barkan is the Arthur W. Marks '19 Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton and Director of the Society of Fellows in the Liberal Arts. He has been a professor of English and of Art History at universities including Northwestern, Michigan, and N.Y.U. Among his books are The Gods Made Flesh: Metamorphosis and the Pursuit of Paganism and Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture, which won prizes from the Modern Language Association, the College Art Association, the American Comparative Literature Association, Phi Beta Kappa, and the PEN America Center. He has been an actor and a director; he is also a regular contributor to publications in both the U.S. and Italy, where he writes on the subject of food and wine. He has recently completed Satyr Square, which is an account of art, literature, food, wine, Italy, and himself; it will be published by Farrar, Straus & Giroux in 2006. His current project is a scholarly study of the relations among words, images, and pleasure from Plato to the Renaissance. He recently won the Morton Dauwen Zabel Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
 
 Name:  Dr. Hans Belting
 Institution:  Internationales Forschungszentrum Kulturwissenschaften, Vienna
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Hans Belting is perhaps Germany's most creative art historian. In his College Art Association citation he is described as "the most influential scholar of medieval art of his generation," having made "fundamental contributions to the history of Byzantine wall painting and manuscript illumination, Carolingian art in Rome and Gaul, Italian Trecento mural decoration and early Flemish panel painting." His many books are based on a wide spectrum of methods: traditional style and iconographic analysis, reception theory, archaeological and anthropological techniques and the critique of patronage. But he has also contributed powerfully to contemporary theory in the discipline, particularly in The End of the History of Art, and to the history and criticism of contemporary art. Dr. Belting's other published works include Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image Before the Era of Art (1984); The Germans and Their Art: A Troublesome Relationship (1998); The Invisible Masterpiece: The Modern Myths of Art (2001); and Hieronymus Bosch: The Garden of Earthly Delights (2002). Formerly the Mary Jane Crowe Professor at Northwestern University and the director of the Internationales Forschungszentrum Kulturwissenschaften in Vienna, Dr. Belting is a member of the Medieval Academy of America; the American Academy of Arts & Sciences; the Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften; and the Academia Europaea. He received his Ph.D. from Mainz University in 1959.
 
 Name:  Dr. Elizabeth H. Blackburn
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn is a leader in the area of telomere and telomerase research and has made key discoveries in different aspects of telomere function and biology. In 1985, she discovered the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase, and since that time, hers has become a lead laboratory in manipulating and studying telomerase activity in cells. Having amassed considerable knowledge and experience in the effects this has on cells, Dr. Blackburn and her research team at the University of California, San Francisco worked with a variety of organisms and human cells, especially cancer cells, with the goal of understanding telomerase and telomere biology. Her work on telomeres and telomerase has been published extensively in peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Blackburn earned her B.Sc. (1970) and M.Sc. (1972) degrees from the University of Melbourne in Australia, and her Ph.D. (1975) from the University of Cambridge in England. She did her postdoctoral work in molecular and cellular biology from 1975-77 at Yale University. In 1978, Dr. Blackburn joined the department of molecular biology at the University of California Berkeley. In 1990, she joined the departments of microbiology and immunology, and biochemistry and biophysics, at the University of California, San Francisco, and she was department chair of the department of microbiology and immunology from 1993-99, and the Morris Herzstein Professor of Biology and Physiology in the department of biochemistry and biophysics at UCSF as well as a non-resident fellow of the Salk Institute. In January 2016 Dr. Blackburn became professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco, and was President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies until 2018. Throughout her career, Dr. Blackburn has been honored by her peers as the recipient of many prestigious awards. These include the Eli Lilly Research Award for Microbiology and Immunology (1988), the National Academy of Science Award in Molecular Biology (1990), and honorary doctorate degrees from Yale University (1991), the University of Pennsylvania (2004), Bard College (2004), Brandeis University (2004), and the University of Chicago (2004). She was a Harvey Society Lecturer at the Harvey Society in New York (1990) and recipient of the UCSF Women's Faculty Association Award (1995). Most recently, she was awarded the Australia Prize (1998), the Harvey Prize (1999), the Keio Prize (1999), the American Association for Cancer Research-G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Award (2000), the American Cancer Society Medal of Honor (2000), the AACR-Pezcoller Foundation International Award for Cancer Research (2001), the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Award (2001), the Bristol Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Cancer Research (2003), the Dr. A.H. Heineken Prize for Medicine (2004), the Kirk A. Landon-American Association for Cancer Research Prize for Basic Cancer Research (2005), the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science (2005), and the Nobel Prize in Medicine (2009). She was named California Scientist of the Year in 1999 and was elected President of the American Society for Cell Biology for the year 1998. Dr. Blackburn is an elected Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (1993) and an elected Member of the Institute of Medicine (2000). She is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1991), the Royal Society of London (1992), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2000). She was elected Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences in 1993 and was elected as a Member of the Institute of Medicine in 2000. She was awarded the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award in Basic Medical Research (2006). In 2007 she was named one of TIME Magazine's 100 Most Influential People, and she is the 2008 North American Laureate for L'Oreal-UNESCO for Women in Science.
 
 Name:  Dr. Stanley Cavell
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  June 19, 2018
   
 
Stanley Cavell was one of the most distinguished and most independent American philosophers of the last half-century. His major interests center on the relation of the analytical tradition (especially the work of Austin and Wittgenstein) with key figures of the Continental tradition (for example, Heidegger and Nietzsche); with American philosophy (especially Emerson and Thoreau); and with the arts (for example, Shakespeare, film, and opera). At a time when one hears the fear that American philosophy is limiting itself to philosophy of cognitive science and philosophy of language and logic and European philosophy is dominated by Postmodernism, Dr. Cavell was perhaps the outstanding example of a philosopher who is simultaneously humanistic and rigorous. The extent of his influence was testified to by the fact that he had been the subject of books and collections of papers in the United States, England, Germany, France, Spain and Japan. In 1997 Dr. Cavell became Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value Emeritus at Harvard University, where he had taught since 1963. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1961 and was a Junior Fellow in Harvard's Society of Fellows from 1953 to 1956. He earned his A.B. in music at the University of California, Berkeley in 1947 and returned to Berkeley as an assistant professor of philosophy from 1956 to 1962. Stanley Cavell died June 19, 2018, at the age of 91 in Boston, Massachusetts.
 
 Name:  Dr. Ross Chambers
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  October 18, 2017
   
 
Born in Australia and educated in large part in France, Ross Chambers first established himself as among the world's leading Nerval and Baudelaire scholars, then later became one of this country's most eminent theorists of narratology and the historical place of literature. Over his many years of teaching at the University of Michigan, where he was Melvin Felheim Distinguished University Professor Emeritus, Dr. Chambers became legendary for his role as mentor to younger generations of scholars. His generosity and critical acuity made him universally liked and respected. His work was known and cited in both the U.S. and France - he published regularly in both languages - and after his retirement from active teaching in 2002, he was more active than ever in the profession. To highlight a few of his many books: Meaning and Meaningfulness carefully investigates the way texts create and readers activate meanings; Story and Situation contributes importantly to the study of narrative, and particularly the communicative situations activated by narrative; Mélancolie et Opposition explores the beginnings of modernism in France in the wake of the Revolution of 1848, stressing the importance of textual context on the production of meaning; and Room for Maneuver posits reading as an "oppositional practice productive of change"; it demonstrates how literature simultaneously draws upon and opposes the authoritative texts upon which it depends. Ross Chambers died October 18, 2017, at the age of 84.
 
 Name:  Dr. Aaron J. Ciechanover
 Institution:  Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Aaron Ciechanover was born in Haifa, Israel in 1947. He is currently on the academic staff of the Faculty of Medicine of the Technion in Haifa, Israel. He received his M.Sc. (1971) and M.D. (1975) from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel, and his D.Sc. (1982) from the Technion. There, as a graduate student with Dr. Avram Hershko and in collaboration with Dr. Irwin A. Rose from the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, they discovered that covalent attachment of ubiquitin to the target substrate signals it for degradation. They deciphered the mechanism of conjugation in a cell-free system, described the general proteolytic function of the system in cells, and proposed a model according to which this modification serves as a recognition signal for a specific downstream protease. As a post doctoral fellow with Dr. Harvey Lodish at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he collaborated with Drs. Alexander Varshavsky and Daniel Finley, and described the first mutant cell of the system, further corroborating the role of ubiquitin modification as a proteolytic signal in intact cells. Among the many prizes that Dr. Ciechanover received are the 2000 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research and the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Dr. Ciechanover is a member of the Israeli National Academy of Sciences and Humanities, a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican.
 
 Name:  Dr. Jonathan R. Cole
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Jonathan R. Cole currently is John Mitchell Mason Professor of the University. For fourteen years, from 1989-2003, he was Provost of Columbia University, and from 1994 until 2005, he also held the title of Dean of Faculties of the University. He has spent his entire academic career at Columbia. Majoring in American history at Columbia College (graduating in 1964), he participated also as a varsity athlete in baseball for four years and as a member of Columbia's freshman basketball team while an undergraduate. He turned to sociology after graduation in large part because of the influence of Robert K. Merton. As an undergraduate he studied with some of the great minds of Columbia in the early 1960s, including Merton, Lionel Trilling, Eric Bentley, Meyer Schapiro, and Richard Hofstadter. Dr. Cole received his Ph.D., with distinction, from Columbia's Department of Sociology in 1969. He has been teaching, conducting research, and been active in academic administration since receipt of his doctorate, which was entitled, "The Social Structure of Science." He served as the Director of the Center for the Social Sciences from 1979-87, when he became Vice President for Arts and Sciences. After two years, he was named Provost of the University and in 1994 he became Provost and Dean of Faculties at Columbia, a position that he has held until today. His scholarly work has focused principally on the development of the sociology of science as a research specialty. The Columbia University Program in the Sociology of Science, with Robert K. Merton, Harriet Zuckerman, Stephen Cole and Jonathan R. Cole as principal investigators, received support from the National Science Foundation for roughly 20 years. Faculty and student members of the program produced a substantial body of both theoretical and empirical work on a variety of themes. Jonathan and Stephen Cole collaborated on studies of the system of social stratification in science and on the reward system in science. They examined the extent to which the social system of science approximated a meritocracy. This work is seen in early-published papers and in their book, Social Stratification in Science (1973). In this early work, Jonathan and Stephen Cole developed the use of citations as a measure of scientific quality and impact. They were the first social scientists to use this measure extensively as an indicator of the impact of published work. Further questions of meritocracy were explored in a project that they conducted for the National Academy of Sciences on the peer review system in science. They focused on whether there was any force to the claim that the peer review system was an "old-boys" network of self-reinforcing elites. The study, which examined the system of grant reviews at the National Science Foundation, resulted in several published works, including Peer Review in the National Science Foundation: Phase One of a Study (1978, with Stephen Cole and Leonard Rubin) and Peer Review in the National Science Foundation: Phase Two of a Study (1981, with Stephen Cole and COPUP of the NAS). Concentrating still further on theoretical issues of fairness and meritocracy, Dr. Cole began to explore the place of women in science. His early work, Fair Science: Women in the Scientific Community (1987) was one of the first major empirical works on the treatment of women in science and how their treatment could be assessed against the norm of universalism in science. Following the publication of this book, a series of studies of women in science were carried out in collaboration with Harriet Zuckerman. This NSF supported work, which produced extended interviews with hundreds of men and women scientists (including recorded interviews with scores of many of the most eminent female scientists in the United States), resulted in many published papers and the volume The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community (1991, with Harriet Zuckerman and John Bruer, editors). These papers explored, for example, the relationship between marriage, family, and scientific productivity. It tried to explain the "productivity puzzle" of increasing differences in the scientific publication rates of men and women scientists. It compares the careers and scientific productivity of matched samples of men and women in various fields of science. The last of these papers, "A Theory of Limited Differences: Explaining the Productivity Puzzle in Science," (with Burton Singer) is published in The Outer Circle. Dr. Cole's interest in science has extended to work on the relationship between science and the media. He has published on the "social construction of medical facts," which deal with the presentation by journalists of highly problematic scientific findings as "facts." His focus is on the sociological relationships between scientists and the media that lead to these distortions. In recent years, Jonathan R. Cole has turned his scholarly attention to issues in higher education, particularly focusing on problems facing the great American research universities, as with his 2010 book, The Great American University: Its Rise to Preeminence, Its Indispensable National Role, Why It Must Be Protected. His edited book (with Elinor Barber and Stephen R. Graubard), The Research University in a Time of Discontent (1994), contains essays by prominent educators, including his own opening chapter, "Balancing Acts: Dilemmas of Choice Facing Research Universities." More recently, he has been focusing attention on questions of scientific and technological literacy, on intellectual property and the new digital media, and on current problems facing research universities. Jonathan R. Cole has taught courses to both undergraduate and graduate students at Columbia in the Department of Sociology. Among the courses he has offered are: The History of Sociological Theory; The Sociology of Science; The Sociology of Law; and Evidence and Inference in Social Research. He has also taught in Columbia College's core curriculum, offering sections in "Contemporary Civilization." He is currently working with members of the science faculty at Columbia on a new core curriculum course that focuses on major science concepts, while exploring features of various scientific disciplines. When it is introduced, this course will be required of all Columbia College undergraduates and will be the first science course that all College students will be required to take. Jonathan Cole was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in 1975-76. In the same year, he was awarded a John Simon Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship. He spent the 1986-87 academic year as a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. In 1992, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Multiple grants from the National Science Foundation and several major foundations have supported his scholarly work. The years since 1987 have been spent in academic administration. After two years as Vice President for Arts and Sciences, Jonathan R. Cole was Columbia's chief academic officer for the past 14 years - the second longest tenure as Provost in the University's 250-year history. During those years, he has served three University presidents and has been a chief architect in building still further the academic quality of the university.
 
 Name:  Sir Partha Sarathi Dasgupta
 Institution:  University of Cambridge; St. John's College, Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Partha Dasgupta has made pathbreaking contributions to social science, particularly on connections between population growth, natural resource use, and human welfare in developing countries. His theoretical work offers deep insights into the institutional and social causes of excessive resource depletion there, while proposing effective remedial policies. Dr. Dasgupta's important research on the definition and measurement of human welfare has greatly advanced understanding of the necessary conditions for sustainable development. He has detailed the crucial roles played by life-sustaining services provided by environmental assets in poorer countries, and the institutional reforms necessary to avoid serious environmental and social collapses in those countries. Educated at the University of Cambridge (Ph.D., 1968), Dr. Dasgupta went on to teach at the London School of Economics (1978-84) and Stanford University (1989-92), where he also directed the Program on Ethics and Society, before returning to Cambridge in 1985. In 1996 he was appointed Frank Ramsey Professor of Economics at Cambridge, and in 2007 he began a six year term as A.D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1991); the National Academy of Sciences (2001); the Royal Economic Society (president, 1998-2001); and the Royal Society (2004), Dr. Dasgupta has also been honored with the Volvo Environment Prize (2002) and the Ecological Economics Association's Kenneth Boulding Prize (2004). In 2016 he was selected as the Tyler Prize Laureate.
 
 Name:  Dr. Persi Diaconis
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Persi Diaconis works at the interface between mathematics and statistics. He studies problems such as "how many times should a deck of cards be shuffled to mix it up?" (The answer is about seven.) Related problems are determining relaxation times for natural mixing processes in Monte Carlo sampling. His work uses probability theory, group theory and combinatorics. He also works hard at trying to make common (and mathematical) sense out of recent statistical procedures. He is well-known as a debunker of pseudo-science and through his former life as a professional magician.
 
 Name:  Dr. Jorge Durand
 Institution:  Princeton University; University of Guadalajara
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Jorge Durand is a Visiting Professor at Princeton University, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Guadalajara, México, and Co-Director, with Douglas S. Massey, of the Mexican Migration Project and the Latin American Migration Project sponsored by Princeton University and the University of Guadalajara. He is a member of the Mexican Academy of Sciences, a foreign member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a member of the American Philosophical Society. He was educated at the Universidad Iberoamericana (BA), El Colegio de Michoacán (MA), and the University of Toulouse - Le Mirail, France (Ph.D.). He is the author of La ciudad invade al ejido (1983) and Los obreros de Río Grande (1985). He has studied and written about Mexican migration to the United States for the last 20 years. His publications in this field include: Return to Aztlan (1987); Más allá de la línea (1984); Miracles on the Border (1995); Migrations mexicaines aux Etats-Unis (1995); La experiencia migrante (2000); Beyond Smoke and Mirrors (2002); and Clandestinos. Migración mexicana en los albores del siglo XX (2003).
 
 Name:  Dr. Kent V. Flannery
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Kent Flannery is an internationally renowned archaeologist who is justifiably recognized as one of the most important theorists in the field today. The James Bennett Griffin Distinguished University Professor of Anthropological Archaeology at the University of Michigan since 1985, he has made outstanding and lasting contributions to the field of archaeology over the past four decades not only in the realms of theory and method but substantively as well. He has significantly advanced scholarly understanding of the rise of agriculture in both the Old and New Worlds, with his research and writings having provided a number of important insights into the growth of preindustrial civilizations. In particular, he has convincingly demonstrated how material and ideological factors are inextricably linked in the development of cultural complexity. The field research of Dr. Flannery and his collaborators on the ancient Zapotec civilization in Mexico is especially notable in this regard. Dr. Flannery received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1964 and has served on the University of Michigan faculty since 1967. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1978; the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1998; and the American Philosophical Society in 2005.
 
 Name:  Dr. Elaine Fuchs
 Institution:  Rockefeller University; Howard Hughes Medical Institute
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Elaine Fuchs is a world leader in mammalian cell biology. She is internationally recognized for her outstanding and numerous contributions to skin biology and its human genetic disorders, including skin cancers and life-threatening genetic syndromes such as blistering skin disorders. For nearly three decades, Dr. Fuchs has focused on the molecular mechanisms that underlie development and differentiation of the epidermis and its appendages, and elucidating how perturbations of these mechanisms result in disease. She has systematically and brilliantly applied innovative approaches in biology, biochemistry and genetics. In doing so, Dr. Fuchs pioneered the use of "reverse genetics," an approach to start with a specific protein, study its biology and then use mice as a means to ultimately identify the genes responsible for inherited human disorders. A classical geneticist would start with a specific genetic disorder. Instead, Dr. Fuchs has employed this innovative cell biological approach to determine the genetic bases of numerous dermatological disorders in humans. The approach has since broadly benefited human medical genetics. Dr. Fuchs is widely recognized as having brought the field of dermatological research into modern day science. Her contributions are many, ranging from the identification of proteins and signal transduction pathways important in epidermal and hair functions to uncovering the molecular nature of skin diseases in humans. In addition, Dr. Fuchs and coworkers identified genetic defects in several disorders that arise from perturbations of cytoskeletal proteins related to those present in the skin, but whose expression resides outside the skin, particularly in the muscle and the nervous system. An elegant example of this is her use of reverse genetics to uncover the underlying genetic basis of blistering human skin disorder that arises from defects in epidermal keratin genes. Dr. Fuchs' 10 years of prior research set the groundwork for this discovery, which uncovered a key function of intermediate filament (IF) proteins as mechanical integrators of the cytoskeleton. The work also set the paradigm for more than 20 different human disorders of IF genes. Dr. Fuchs' ground-breaking research is often used in biology and medical textbooks as a landmark. Her science now focuses on understanding how tissues develop and dynamically respond to their environment. She has seamlessly transitioned from problems of signal transduction to transcriptional regulation and gene expression to the cytoskeleton and adhesion to stem cell lineage commitment. In the nineties, her team uncovered multiple roles for Wnt signaling in skin biology, discovering that sustained Wnt signaling can lead to stem cell activation and tumorigenesis. Their super-furry mice led them to identify stabilizing b-catenin mutations pilomatricomas, a human skin tumor. While b-catenin mutations had been previously linked to colon cancer, pilomatricomas represented the first example where b-catenin mutations are the leading cause of the tumor. Similarly, Dr. Fuchs' work on a-catenin provided insights into squamous cell carcinoma. The lab's transition from degenerative disorders to cancers has been a natural one, occurring concomitantly with their shift to tackling how growth and differentiation are balanced in stem cell lineage progression. Their recent work in isolating and characterizing the multipotent adult skin stem cells opens major new avenues for their future research in this area. Elaine Fuchs received her undergraduate degree with highest distinction in chemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (1972). She received her Ph.D. in biochemistry from Princeton University (1977) and conducted her postdoctoral studies with Howard Green at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she began her research in skin biology. She joined the faculty at the University of Chicago in 1980, where she progressed to become Amgen Professor of Basic Sciences prior to leaving for Rockefeller University in 2002, where she is Rebecca C. Lancefield Professor. She has been an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute since 1988. Dr. Fuchs is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She was President of the American Society of Cell Biology in 1991, and she holds an honorary doctorate from Mt. Sinai and New York University School of Medicine. Her scientific awards include the Richard Lounsbery Award (National Academy of Sciences), the Cartwright Award (Columbia University), the Novartis Award in Biomedical Research, the Dickson Prize in Medicine, the National Medal of Science, the 2010 L'Oreal-UNESCO prize, the 2012 March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology, the 2015 E. B. Wilson Medal, the 2016 Vanderbilt Prize in Biomedical Science, the 2019 AACR-G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Award, and the 2020 Canada Gairdner Award. She has trained more than 20 graduate students and has over 225 publications to her credit. Elaine Fuchs was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2005.
 
 Name:  Dr. Julia Haig Gaisser
 Institution:  Bryn Mawr College
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Julia Haig Gaisser is a scholar of international distinction, a leader in the interpretation of the Classics and Roman Humanism. From her early Homeric studies, she has turned her attention to Roman poetry of the late Republic and the Empire, particularly Catullus, and the works of Apuleius, and has carried these interests into the Renaissance, with acclaimed studies of the reception of Catullus in the Renaissance and of the world of the Humanist, Piero Valeriano. Her work is characterized by depth of insight and rigorous analysis, and also by notable grace of style. She has contributed significantly to the welfare of the organizations on which the vitality of classical studies depends - as president of the American Philological Association, chairman of the Managing Committee of the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome, editor of the Bryn Mawr Latin Commentaries, and spokesperson for humanistic concerns in many contexts. In addition to her many publications, she has lectured widely in this country and abroad, has excelled in teaching undergraduates and graduate students, and by her work for the Marshall Scholarships and the American Academy in Rome she has strengthened the bonds between American and European scholars. Dr. Gaisser's recent projects include her Martin Classical Lectures at Oberlin (The Fortunes of Apuleius) as well as Oxford Readings in Catullus and a translation of the dialogues of Giovanni Pontano for the I Tatti Renaissance Library. Professor Emeritus of Latin and Eugenia Chase Guild Professor Emeritus in the Humanities at Bryn Mawr College, Dr. Gaisser was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2005.
 
 Name:  Dr. Peter Galison
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Peter Galison is a main shaper of new thinking in the history of science. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University both in theoretical particle physics and in the history of modern science, and his wide-ranging expertise and innovative mind are evident in books such as How Experiments End, Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics, and Einstein's Clocks and Poincaré's Maps. Dr. Galison has also published essays on such diverse topics as the links between Bauhaus architecture and the philosophy of the Vienna Circle, and on the development of cybernetics. He has taught at Harvard University since 1992. He was the Mallinckrodt Professor of the History of Science and of Physics, 1994-2007, and is currently the Joseph Pellegrino University Professor. From 1982-92 he taught at Stanford University, where he was the recipient of a Distinguished Teaching Award. Dr. Galison's other honors include a MacArthur Fellowship and the Max Planck Research Award for International Cooperation. His latest work is a documentary film titled "Secrecy". Made with Harvard lecturer Robb Moss and screened at the Sundance Film Festival, it explores the complicated role that classified activity has played in American political affairs and in democracy at large. In 2018 he received the Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics.
 
 Name:  Dr. Allan Gibbard
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Allan Gibbard is Richard B. Brandt Distinguished University Professor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He is the author of Wise Choices, Apt Feelings (1990), Thinking How to Live (2003), and Reconciling Our Aims (2008), as well as articles on ethical theory, theory of social choice, and topics in decision theory, philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics. His papers include \"Manipulation of Voting Schemes\" (1973); \"Contingent Identity\" (1975); \"Two Recent Theories of Conditionals\" (1981); \"Meaning and Normativity\" (1994); and \"Rational Credence and the Value of Truth” (2008)\". He earned a B.A. in mathematics from Swarthmore College in 1963 and a Ph.D. in philosophy at Harvard University in 1971. He taught mathematics and physics at Achimota School in Ghana in the U.S. Peace Corps and has taught philosophy at the University of Chicago, the University of Pittsburgh, and, since 1977, at the University of Michigan. He has held research fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the American Council of Learned Societies. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, a Member of the American Philosophical Society, a Membre Titulaire of the Institut International de Philosophie, and has been President of the Central Division of the American Philosophical Association. He is working on a book on the philosopical claim that the concepts of meaning and of mental content are normative concepts.
 
 Name:  Dr. Sandra M. Gilbert
 Institution:  University of California, Davis
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Sandra Gilbert is known both as a critic and as a poet. Her most important critical works have been written in collaboration with Susan Gubar. The first of these collaborative works, The Madwoman in the Attic, originally published in 1979, still retains its status as one of the most important documents of feminist literary criticism. In conjunction with the succeeding three-volume No Man's Land, which extends the critical enterprise from the nineteenth to the twentieth century, The Madwoman in the Attic stands as a monumental work. Sandra Gilbert has published numerous volumes of poetry throughout her career, culminating in a collection selected from thirty years of productivity. In addition, she has published a memoir, Wrongful Death (1995), and a literary/cultural study, Death's Door (2006). She has distinguished herself also as a reader of poetry. Dr. Gilbert has also been active in service to the profession, most notably as an officer of the Modern Language Association, in which she served successfully as second vice-president, vice-president, and president. Presently Professor of English Emerita at the University of California, Davis (1989-), Dr. Gilbert has also taught at California State University, Indiana University and Princeton University. She earned her Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1968.
 
 Name:  Dr. Amy Gutmann
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Amy Gutmann is a political philosopher, widely recognized for her work linking theory to practice in the core values of democratic civil society. In 2022 she became the U.S. Ambassador to Germany. From 2004-2022 she served as the eighth president of the University of Pennsylvania, where she also held the Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of Political Science chair in the School of Arts and Sciences, along with secondary faculty appointments in Philosophy, the Annenberg School for Communication, and the Graduate School of Education. Dr. Gutmann has published widely on the value of education and deliberation in democracy, on the importance of access to higher education and health care, on "the good, the bad and the ugly" of identity politics, and on the essential role of ethics -especially professional and political ethics - in public affairs. She continued to be an active scholar as Penn's President, most recently lecturing on "What Makes a University Education Worthwhile?" and publishing her sixteenth book, The Spirit of Compromise: Why Governing Demands It and Campaigning Undermines It (with Dennis Thompson) in May 2012. During her term as university president she became a national leader in the push to facilitate broader access to higher education, making Penn the largest university to establish a no-loan guarantee that has become a national model, and significantly expanding the number of low-income students attending the University. Born in Brooklyn, New York to immigrant parents, Dr. Gutmann graduated magna cum laude from Harvard-Radcliffe College. She earned her master's degree in Political Science from the London School of Economics and her doctorate in Political Science from Harvard University. Prior to her appointment as Penn's president, she served as provost at Princeton University, where she was also the founding director of the University Center for Human Values. She served as Princeton's dean of the faculty from 1995-97 and as academic advisor to the President from 1997-98. In 2000, she was awarded the President's Distinguished Teaching Award by Princeton University. She won the Harvard University Centennial Medal (2003), the Carnegie Corporation Academic Leadership Award (2009), and was named by Newsweek one of the "150 Women Who Shake the World" (2011). She is an elected member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Education, is a W.E.B. Du Bois Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science and served as president of the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy. Dr. Gutmann is a founding member of the Global Colloquium of the University Presidents, which advises the Secretary General of the U.N. on a range of issues, including the social responsibility of universities. In 2009, President Obama appointed her chair of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. She is married to Michael W.Doyle, the Harold Brown Professor of Law and International Affairs at Columbia University. Their daughter, Abigail Gutmann Doyle, is an assistant professor of Chemistry at Princeton University.
 
 Name:  Dr. Robert Mason Hauser
 Institution:  University of Wisconsin
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Robert Mason Hauser became the American Philosophical Society’s new Executive Officer on June 12, 2017. He was born in Chicago and is a graduate of The University of Chicago and The University of Michigan. Among his mentors were two members of the APS, Otis Dudley Duncan and William Hamilton Sewell, Jr. Dr. Hauser is one of the preeminent quantitative sociologists of his generation. After two years at Brown University, he had a career of more than forty years at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has made fundamental contributions to the study of social stratification in advanced industrial societies. Building on the work of Peter Blau and Otis Dudley Duncan, Dr. Hauser developed a model of intergenerational status attainment to challenge the idea that inequality stemmed primarily from differential rewards to human capital in the market. He has written more than 120 scientific papers. His two classic books with David Featherman showed that much of the inequality observed in the market originated in pre-market processes rooted in the family, which led to the intergenerational transmission of social status. His analytic framework, which became known as "the Wisconsin model," dominated sociological research on stratification for an entire generation. From 1968 onward, Dr. Hauser directed the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a multi-disciplinary study of the life course and aging among more than 10,000 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957. The sixth round of the study went into the field in 2011, and the WLS has become a major resource for investigators in the U.S. and other nations. His research has been supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Hauser has variously served as Samuel Stouffer Professor, Hilldale Professor, and Vilas Research Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. At the UW-Madison, Dr. Hauser has directed the Center for Demography and Ecology, the Institute for Research on Poverty, and the Center for the Demography of Health and Aging. He has held fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and the Russell Sage Foundation and visiting professorships at the University of Bergen and Peking University. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1984) and the National Academy of Sciences (1984) and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Statistical Association, National Academy of Education, American Educational Research Association, the Gerontological Association of America, and the American Academy of Political and Social Science. He has mentored more than 50 doctoral students, and in 2002 he won the award of the American Sociological Association for distinguished contributions to teaching. In 2011, that association named its award for research in social stratification for Dr. Hauser. In 2017 Dr. Hauser completed a six-year term as the Executive Director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Academies. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2005.
 
Election Year
2005[X]
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