American Philosophical Society
Member History

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 Name:  Dr. Peter C. Agre
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Peter Agre is a physician-scientist who has spent the last two decades studying the proteins of red blood cells, including those of the red cell membrane that determine blood type. Along with other workers in Paris and England, he solved the old puzzle of whether the Rh blood type is determined by one gene or by two or more closely linked genes. He isolated a novel protein of the red cell membrane that proved to be the specific protein for a channel involved in transfer of water across the cell membrane. He found that this channel, which he called aquaporin-1, is present in many other types of cells, such as the kidney and lung, where he could show physiologic significance. Furthermore, he showed that the previously known Colton blood type was determined by variation in the aquaporin-1 protein. He found that aquaporin-1 is the archetypic member of a family of cell membrane proteins. In 2003 Dr. Agre was awarded the Nobel Prize for these discoveries. He has been Professor of Biological Chemistry and Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine since 1993. In February 2009 he became president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
 
 Name:  Dr. Paul Alpers
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley; Smith College
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1932
 Death Date:  May 19, 2013
   
 
Paul Alpers was a distinguished literary historian and classicist, a master of the English, European and classical traditions, and an academic of the first rank. In his first book, The Poetry of the Faerie Queene, he showed himself to be "a learned and sensitive reader of Elizabethan poetry." He developed an original reading of Spenser's rhetorical modes, to which he returned in an important series of articles on narration. He next, as an extension of his work on Spenser, began to study the pastoral traditions. This resulted in an analysis and translation of Virgil's Eclogues and then What is Pastoral?, winner of the Christian Gauss Award. As Dr. Alpers traces the evolution of pastoral poetry from Theocritus and Virgil, through its great incarnations in the Renaissance, to its flowerings in modern literature, he has written what is arguably the definitive study of the subject, a work of exhaustive scholarship and literary intelligence. Dr. Alpers taught at the University of California, Berkeley beginning in 1961 and became Class of 1942 Professor of English Emeritus in 2000. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2004. Paul Alpers died May 19, 2013, at the age of 80 in Northampton, Massachusetts.
 
 Name:  Dr. Robert Axelrod
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
First trained in mathematics, Robert Axelrod shifted to political science to study conflicts of interest. His path-breaking work on the elusive optimal strategy for the famous "Prisoner's Dilemma" problem in Game Theory attracted the collaboration of noted biologist William D. Hamilton in a landmark paper. It was also a central ingredient, much expanded, in his book The Evolution of Cooperation, a classic which has stimulated an international cottage industry under the rubric "Cooperation Theory." Further contributions have involved work on coalitions in electoral politics and papers in international relations, involving both formal theory and such applications as a recent proposal for practical reform of the United Nations Security Council, taking account of the welter of strong conflicts of interest present. Dr. Axelrod is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. He has been a professor at the University of Michigan since 1980. In 2014 he was awarded the National Medal of Science.
 
 Name:  Dr. John W. Baldwin
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  February 8, 2015
   
 
John Baldwin was a leading American specialist on the history of medieval France. Like Charles Homer Haskins, he had worked on the institutional and intellectual history of the twelfth century. His early works on the "just price" and the schoolman Peter the Chanter opened new vistas of research on economic growth and the culture of power. His book on the government of Philip Augustus won major prizes in America and France. The recipient of major honors in France and the United States, Dr. Baldwin was a generous colleague, a venerated teacher, and a distinguished medievalist in the mode of C. H. Haskins and J. R. Strayer. He had been at Johns Hopkins University since 1986 as Charles Homer Haskins Professor of History and Professor of History Emeritus. He was awarded the Medieval Academy's Haskins Medal in 1990 and the Chevalier de l'Ordre National de la Légion d'Honneur, France in 2001. He was a member of the Medieval Academy of America (president, 1996-97); the British Academy; and l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2004.
 
 Name:  Sir Tim Berners-Lee
 Institution:  World Wide Web Consortium; Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
The inventor of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee received his B.A. from the Queen's College, Oxford University, in 1976 and was named "Young Inventor of the Year" by the Kilby Foundation in 1995. In 2007 he was awarded the Charles Stark Draper Prize ("engineering's Nobel Prize") and the Order of Merit, one of the United Kingdom's most prestigious honors. He won both the Turing Award and the Commonwealth Award in 2017. He was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 2009. Tim Berners-Lee designed the World Wide Web to fill a particular need at the CERN laboratory, where he worked from 1984-94. Some of the high energy experiments at CERN are very large, often with more than 1,000 physicists from many countries participating. In March 1989, he completed a project proposal for a system to communicate information among researchers in the CERN High Energy Physics department, which was intended to help those having problems sharing information across a wide range of different networks, computers, and countries. The project had two main goals. The first was Open Design: that the hypertext system have an open architecture and be able to run on any computer being used at CERN, including Unix, VMS, Macintosh, and Windows. The second goal was that the system be distributed over a communications network. In the fall of 1990, Berners-Lee took about a month to develop the first web browser on a NeXT computer, including an integrated editor that could create hypertext documents. He deployed the program on his and a colleague's computers, and they were both communicating with the world's first web server at info.cern.ch on December 25, 1990. Luckily, CERN had been connected to the ARPANET through the EUnet in 1990. In August 1991, he posted a notice on the alt.hypertext newsgroup about where to download their web server and line mode browser, making it available around the world. Very shortly, it was everywhere. In a fateful decision that significantly helped the web to grow, Berners-Lee managed to get CERN to provide a certification on April 30, 1993 that the web technology and program code were in the public domain so that anyone could use and improve them. Because of this, the World Wide Web is available to everyone at no cost.
 
 Name:  Dr. Barry R. Bloom
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Barry Bloom's passion has been to relate the cutting edge of biomedical science to the needs of the 85% of the world's people living in resource-poor developing countries. His initial research analyzed the complex mechanisms of the immune response by developing in vitro models, enabling him to discover the first lymphokine or cytokine, non-antibody products of activated lymphocytes that regulate the functions of the immune system and mediate inflammation, tissue damage and resistance to microbial infection. After teaching the first course on immunology in India, he began research on leprosy. With collaborators, he created the first DNA library containing all the genes of the leprosy and the tubercle bacilli, thereby ultimately enabling the complete genomes of these major pathogens of humans to be sequenced. Those libraries and the first monoclonal antibodies produced against these pathogens were given to the World Health Organization (WHO) to distribute free of charge to scientists all over the world, helping to stimulate a global effort against these diseases. He has more recently explored the genetic basis of resistance of experimental animals against tuberculosis which integrates knowledge of the host and pathogen in understanding the disease. When there was a serious increase in tuberculosis in the U.S. in the early 1990s his group established, against conventional wisdom, that active transmission of infection, rather than reactivation of old infections, was an important component of the epidemic. Such transmission required implementation of stringent public health measures. He has worked in an official capacity for the WHO for the past 37 years and has advised the National Institutes of Health, the National Academy of Sciences and the White House on scientific issues and on international health policies. Dr. Bloom is currently Dean of the Faculty of the Harvard School of Public Health.
 
 Name:  Mr. John C. Bogle
 Institution:  The Vanguard Group; Bogle Financial Markets Research Center
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  January 16, 2019
   
 
Born in 1929, John C. Bogle grew up in a family whose wealth had vanished during the depression. Bogle was a responsible young man who worked steadily to support himself, as waiter, post-office clerk, reporter, and other jobs. He earned a scholarship to Blair Academy (N.J.), where he was captain of the student waiters and voted "most likely to succeed," graduating in 1947. With the help of another scholarship and more jobs, he entered Princeton University, working his way through with jobs of increasing responsibility. In December 1949, he received what he called "the lucky break of a lifetime." Reading Fortune magazine in the university library, he stumbled on an article that described the "tiny but contentious" mutual fund industry. He decided to make it the subject of his senior thesis. After exhaustive study of the industry, Bogle concluded that "The principal function of mutual funds is the management of their investment portfolios. Everything else is incidental - that future industry growth can be maximized by a reduction of costs," that funds could "make to no claim for superiority over the market averages," and that funds should operate "in the most efficient, honest, and economical way possible." Entitled The Economic Role of the Investment Company, the thesis enabled Bogle to graduate magna cum laude in June 1951. Largely on the basis of his thesis, Bogle was immediately hired by fund industry pioneer Walter L. Morgan, founder of Philadelphia's Wellington Fund. He rose quickly through the ranks, and by 1965 was leading the firm. In a move he describes as opportunistic and naïve, Bogle merged Wellington with a Boston investment firm that had achieved spectacular results during the "Go-Go Era" of the mid 1960s. The once-happy marriage was not to last, and in the midst of the 1973-74 bear market, Bogle was fired from the firm that he considered "his." Heartsick but determined, Bogle seized that well-disguised opportunity to create a firm that would embody the idealism of his senor thesis. In founding The Vanguard Group in 1974, he created a unique mutual fund firm: one that was owned, not by an external management company, as was (and is) the industry standard, but one that was owned by its mutual fund shareholders-a truly mutual fund organization. At the outset, Vanguard was responsible for just $1.4 billion of mutual fund assets. Thirty-one years later, assets under management approach $850 billion. Bogle's innovations did not stop with Vanguard's ownership structure, which has allowed the firm to operate at costs that are less than one-fifth the industry average. In 1975, just a year after he founded the firm, Vanguard launched the world's first index mutual fund (today, the 500 Index Fund is the world's largest mutual fund). Two years later, Vanguard created the first multi-series bond fund, whose then-novel structure, comprising separate short-, intermediate-, and long-term funds, quickly became the industry standard. His 1977 decision to eliminate broker distribution and abandon sales loads sharply accelerated the growth of no-load mutual funds. In 1999, exactly a half-century after the magazine had introduced him to the mutual fund industry, Fortune named John C. Bogle one of the financial industry's four "Giants of the Twentieth Century." In 2004, Time magazine named him to the "Time 100," the "World's 100 Most Powerful and Influential People." Former Federal Reserve Chairman Paul A. Volcker has praised Bogle for his "fiduciary responsibility, objectivity of analysis, and willingness to take a stand," and the former Chancellor of the Delaware Court of Chancery, William T. Allen, described him as "a man of high virtue." Bogle dedicated his long career to the notion that the human beings who own mutual fund shares deserve a fair shake. He died on January 16, 2019 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania at the age of 89.
 
 Name:  Dr. Lee C. Bollinger
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Lee Bollinger became the president of Columbia University in 2002 after achieving eminence at the University of Michigan as professor, Dean of the Law School and, later, as president of the University. He also served successfully as provost of Dartmouth College. His widely acclaimed scholarship on U.S. Constitutional rights has concentrated on the freedom of speech and freedom of the press, stressing that these rights not only protect individual freedom and the right to know but also promote another important value - maintaining a tolerant society. He has led the effort, recently affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court, to ensure diversity in education through affirmative measures. He has authored or edited several books, including Uninhibited, Robust and Wide Open: A Free Press for a New Century (2009).
 
 Name:  Dr. Gordon H. Bower
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1932
 Death Date:  June 17, 2020
   
 
After receiving his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1959, Gordon H. Bower was associated with Stanford University as an assistant, associate and full professor of psychology, chair of the psychology department and associate dean of humanities and science. He had been Albert Ray Long Professor of Psychology since 1975. Dr. Bower's career centered on memory, its nature and manipulation. He began with animal learning but soon moved to mathematical modeling and human experiments, where he successfully championed all-or-none learning models. Next came studies of the key role of linguistic chunking in creating and storing memories, which led into a series of foci including the nature of associative memory, the role of memory structures both in facilitating and distorting memory, the impact of emotional states on memories, and most recently on the narrative organization of memory. His contributions have been most significant and influential, in part through many first-rate students. Dr. Bower was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973 and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1975. He recently received the nation's highest honor in science: the 2005 National Medal of Science.
 
 Name:  Dr. John I. Brauman
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
John I. Brauman earned a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1963 and joined the faculty at Stanford University later that year. He was named J. G. Jackson-C. J. Wood Professor of Chemistry in 1972, and since 1999 he has also served as Cognizant Dean for Natural Sciences at Stanford. Dr. Brauman was the first to show that the relative order of acidities and basicities of many simple organic compounds are reversed between gas phase and solution. He was then able to rationalize both the gas-phase and solution behavior and put them on a much more substantial footing. Dr. Brauman discovered a wealth of information about the dynamics of gas-phase ionic reactions, which again has revolutionized scientific thought. Dr. Brauman was the first to measure accurate electron affinities of molecules larger than diatomics, eventually determining these important quantities for a substantial number of chemically interesting important organic radicals. He has received the American Chemical Society's Award in Pure Chemistry in 1973, the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award (1986) and the James Flack Norris Award in Physical-Organic Chemistry (1986). Recent honors include the National Academy of Sciences Award in the Chemical Sciences (2001), the Linus Pauling Medal (2002) and the J. Willard Gibbs Medal (2003). Dr. Brauman was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1976.
 
 Name:  The Honorable Stephen Breyer
 Institution:  United States Supreme Court
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Stephen Breyer, Associate Justice, was born in San Francisco on August 15, 1938. He married Joanna Hare in 1967. They have three children, Chloe, Nell and Michael. He is a graduate of Stanford University, Oxford University (Magdalen College), and Harvard Law School. During the United States Supreme Court's 1964 term he was a law clerk to Justice Arthur J. Goldberg. From 1965-67 he worked as a special assistant to the head of the Justice Department's Antitrust Division. From 1967-80 he taught at Harvard University, as professor of law and at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. He also worked as an Assistant Watergate Special Prosecutor (1973), as a Special Counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee (1975), and as the Judiciary Committee's Chief Counsel (1979-80). In 1980 he was appointed Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. He became the Circuit's Chief Judge in 1990. He has also served as a Member of the Judicial Conference of the United States and of the United States Sentencing Commission. He has written books and articles in the field of administrative law and government regulation. President Clinton nominated him as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and he took office in August 1994. He recently wrote Making Our Democracy Work: A Judge's View (2010).
 
 Name:  Dr. Nancy D. Cartwright
 Institution:  University of California, San Diego; Durham University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished philosophers of science currently active in the English-speaking world. There is a unifying theme that runs through the five books and many of the articles she has published. This theme concerns the inevitable nature of the approximations and of the limitations of what we can hope, even in principle, to accomplish in science. These ideas are developed not in terms of grand generalities but by detailed consideration of many examples from a great variety of disciplines, especially economics and physics. Her focus is also often on the significance of the positive results we can expect. She is best known for her extensive publications on the nature of causality and scientific laws. Dr. Cartwright has served as Professor of Philosophy at the London School of Economics and Political Science since 1991 and as Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, San Diego since 1998. She left LSE and joined the Philosophy Department at Durham University in autumn 2012, to set up a new Centre broadly concerned with "Knowledge, Culture and the Public Good". In addition to working at Durham University, she is Distinguished Professor at University of California, San Diego. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1971.
 
 Name:  Dr. Noam Chomsky
 Institution:  University of Arizona
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1928
   
 
Noam Chomsky is currently Laureate Professor of Linguistics, Agnese Nelms Haury Chair at the University of Arizona, having moved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the fall of 2017. He has created a theory of generative grammar that unites formal analysis of natural language with the search for explanatory models in linguistics, and has adapted that theory to the description of individual languages. Dr. Chomsky holds that grammar represents the speaker's tacit knowledge of the language and so must be part of the mind/brain structure. He has argued that children learning a first language do not receive sufficient information to account for the knowledge they come to have; hence some knowledge of language must be genetically determined as part of a species-universal faculty of mind he calls Universal Grammar. For over 50 years Dr. Chomsky served on the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; he has held the title of Institute Professor since 1976. When he left, he held the title of Institute Professor Emeritus and Professor of Linguistics Emeritus and had just won the 2016 Peace Abbey Foundation Courage of Conscience Award. He is the author of numerous works, including Syntactic Structures (1957); Current Issues in Linguistic Theory (1964); Language and Mind (1968); Linguistic Theory (1975); Knowledge of Language (1986); The Minimalist Program (1995); and On Nature and Language (2002). Dr. Chomsky is also well known for his political activism, from his 1967 essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals" to more recent explorations of media control, terrorism, anarchism and democracy. His 2003 book Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance received considerable attention following a recommendation from Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez during his 2006 speech at the United Nations. According to the Arts and Humanities Citation Index, between 1980 and 1992 Dr. Chomsky was cited as a source more often than any other living scholar, and the eighth most cited scholar overall. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences and holds a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.
 
 Name:  Dr. Regna Darnell
 Institution:  University of Western Ontario
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Regna Darnell is today the leading historian of North American linguistics and anthropology, from its founding by pioneers like Daniel Brinton and Franz Boas, to Edward Sapir and the modern field of ethnographic linguistics. She is one of Canada's most widely published authorities on First Nations languages and cultures, having conducted fieldwork across the continent with speakers of Algonkian, Athabascan, and Iroquoian languages. Her work represents a unique synthesis of hardminded ethnographic and linguistic description with the sensitivity of the humanistic tradition, bridging the gap between a postmodernist appreciation of cultural uniqueness and a scientific insistence on verifiable observation. Dr. Darnell holds a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania (1969) and has taught anthropology at the University of Alberta (1969-90) and the University of Western Ontario (1990-), where she is currently Distinguished University Professor of Anthropology. Her publications include Edward Sapir: Linguist, Anthropologist, Humanist (1990); Along Came Boas: Continuity and Revolution in Americanist Anthropology (1998); and Invisible Genealogies: A History of Americanist Anthropology (2001). She won the 2020 Lifetime Service Award from the Women’s Caucus, Canadian Anthropology Society and the 2020 Lifetime Service Award from the American Society for Ethnohistory. She published History of Anthropology: A Critical Window on the Discipline in North America (2021), she will publish Method and Theory in the History of Anthropology (2022), and she edited the forthcoming Franz Boas Papers: Documentary Edition.
 
 Name:  Dr. Drew Gilpin Faust
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Drew Gilpin Faust took office as Harvard University's 28th president on July 1, 2007. A historian of the U.S. Civil War and the American South, Faust is also the Lincoln Professor of History in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. She previously served as founding dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study (2001-2007). During her tenure, Faust led Radcliffe's transformation from a college into one of the country's foremost scholarly institutes. Before coming to Radcliffe, Faust was the Annenberg Professor of History and director of the Women's Studies Program at the University of Pennsylvania. She is the author of six books, including Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (1996), for which she won the Francis Parkman Prize in 1997. Her lastest book, This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War (2008), chronicles the impact of the Civil War's enormous death toll on the lives of nineteenth-century Americans; it was recently the subject to a PBS documentary. Faust has served as a trustee of Bryn Mawr College, the Andrew Mellon Foundation, and the National Humanities Center, and she is a member of the educational advisory board of the Guggenheim Foundation. She has been president of the Southern Historical Association, vice president of the American Historical Assocation, and executive board member of the Organization of American Historians and the Society of American Historians. She has served on numerous editorial boards and selection committees, including the Pulitzer Prize history jury in 1986, 1990, and 2004. Faust's honors include awards in 1982 and 1996 for distinguished teaching at the University of Pennsylvania and the 2011 Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities. She was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1994, the Society of American Historians in 1993, and the American Philosophical Society in 2004. She received her bachelor's degree from Bryn Mawr in 1968, magna cum laude with honors in history, and master's (1971) and doctoral (1975) degrees in American civilization from the University of Pennsylvania. In 2013 she won the Ruth Ratner Miller Award for Excellence in American History. Faust left her role as President in 2017 and become a University Professor at Harvard in January 2019.
 
 Name:  Mr. Donald E. Graham
 Institution:  Graham Holdings Company
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Donald E. Graham became chief executive officer of Graham Holdings Company (then The Washington Post Company) in May 1991 and chairman of the board in 1993. He was publisher of The Washington Post newspaper from January 1979 until September 2000 and chairman of the paper from September 2000 to February 2008. His father, Philip Graham, was publisher of The Washington Post from 1946 until 1961 and president from 1947 until his death in 1963. His mother, Katharine Graham, served in a variety of executive positions from 1963 until her death in 2001. Eugene Meyer, Graham's grandfather, purchased The Washington Post at a bankruptcy sale in 1933. After graduating in 1966 from Harvard College, where he was president of the Harvard Crimson, Graham was drafted and served as an information specialist with the 1st Cavalry Division in Vietnam from 1967 to 1968. He was a patrolman with the Washington Metropolitan Police Department from January 1969 to June 1970. Graham joined The Washington Post newspaper in 1971 as a reporter and subsequently held several news and business positions at the newspaper and at Newsweek. He was named executive vice president and general manager of the newspaper in 1976. He was elected a director of The Washington Post Company in 1974 and served as president from May 1991 to September 1993. In 2013 The Washington Post newspaper and other newspaper division assets were sold to Jeffrey P. Bezos, and the Company was renamed Graham Holdings Company. Graham is chairman of the District of Columbia College Access Program, a private foundation which, since 1999, has helped double the number of DC public high school students going on to college and has helped triple the number graduating from college. He co-founded the program along with major local businesses and foundations. Since its inception, DC-CAP has assisted over 13,000 DC students enroll in college and has provided scholarships totaling more than $18 million. He is a co-founder of TheDream.US, a national scholarship fund for DREAMers, created to help immigrant youth get a college education. Graham is a trustee of the Federal City Council and of the Philip L. Graham Fund, which was established in 1963 in memory of his father. He is also a director and member of the compensation committee of Facebook, The Summit Fund of Washington, the College Success Foundation and KIPP-DC. Previously, he served as a member of the Pulitzer Prize Board.
 
 Name:  Dr. Carl G. Groth
 Institution:  Karolinska Institute
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  February 16, 2014
   
 
Carl G. Groth, MD, Phd, Professor Emeritus of Transplantation Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, graduated from the Karolinska Institute, where he obtained his MD and PhD. Between 1966 and 1972 Groth was assigned to the Department of Surgery at the University of Colorado Medical School, first as an NIH international Post doctoral Fellow and later, as an Associate Professor of Surgery. At this department the first successful human liver transplantation in the world was carried out in 1967 by Dr. Thomas Strazl. Groth was a key member of Strazl's surgical team. Groth served as the Chairman of the Department of Transplantation Surgery at Huddinge Hospital in Stockholm from 1976 to 1995. He was appointed Professor of Transplantation Surgery at the Karolinska Institute in 1984, from which position he retired in 2000. His life time work focused on clinical kidney, liver and pancreas transplantations. He performed pioneer work in pancreatic transplantation as a means to treat patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly with regard to surgical techniques and the effects of the transplantation in the secondary complications of the disease. He has also led a number of highly important studies in transplant patients, examining the new immunosuppressive agents that became available in the 1990's. He performed some unique studies in xenotranspantation, including a pilot trial which fetal pig islets were transplanted to diabetic patients. Groth served as a principal investigator on numerous research projects including two major consortium grants (from Novartis Pharma and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation) on pig islet transplantation as a means to treat diabetes. He edited the fist monograph on pancreatic transplantation in 1988. His work includes approximately 700 scientific articles and some 25 book chapters. Groth served as President of the Transplantation Society in 2001-2002. He was the founding President of the International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association and the International Xenotransplantation Association. He was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the American Surgical Association, the American Society of Transplant Surgeons and the Swedish Society for Gastroenterology. In 1998 he was awarded the King's Medal for outstanding achievement in transplantation. He has also received the Medawar Prize, the foremost International Award in transplantation (2006) and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Pioneer Award (2008). In 2005 he became a member of the World Health Organization's expert advisory panel on cell, tissue and organ transplantation. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society om 2004. Carl G. Groth died February 16, 2014, at the age of 80, in Stockholm, Sweden.
 
 Name:  Dr. Peter H. von Hippel
 Institution:  Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  206. Physiology, Biophysics, and Pharmacology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1931
   
 
Peter von Hippel was born in Germany and became a naturalized US citizen in 1942. He obtained his BS, MS, and Ph. D. degrees at MIT, working on the physical biochemistry of protein complexes in the laboratory of Professor David F. Waugh. He then did postdoctoral work on actomyosin complexes with Dr. Manuel F. Morales at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, followed by a period as a staff scientist at NMRI while serving in the U.S. Navy He began his academic career in 1959 as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry at Dartmouth Medical School in Hanover, New Hampshire. His work at that time involved analyzes of the structure of proteins and nucleic acids, and the effects on these macromolecules of ions and other solvent additives. He remained at Dartmouth until 1967, and then moved to the University of Oregon as a Professor of Chemistry and Member of the Institute of Molecular Biology, where he has been ever since. While at Oregon the research program in the von Hippel laboratory has progressed from studies of the interactions of simple regulatory proteins and protein models with DNA to the quantitative analysis of the structure and function of various macromolecular complexes involved in the control of DNA replication and RNA transcription. He has served as Director of the Institute of Molecular Biology and Chair of the Chemistry Department at Oregon, and in 1989 was appointed an American Cancer Society Research Professor of Chemistry, which has spared him from further formal administrative activities. In other venues Dr. von Hippel has served on various study sections and advisory committees for both NIH and NSF and has participated in the activities of various professional organizations, including serving on the Board of Directors of FASEB and as President of the Biophysical Society. He has served on the editorial boards of numerous professional journals, and he and his laboratory colleagues have published more than 240 research papers. Dr. von Hippel was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 1978, to fellowship of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1979, and to resident membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2004. He is the 2021 recipient of the Ignacio Tinoco Award from the Biophysical Society for his exceptional contributions to the field of biophysics.
 
 Name:  Dr. H. Robert Horvitz
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; McGovern Institute for Brain Research
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
H. Robert Horvitz's Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, awarded for his pioneering genetic dissection of programmed cell death (apoptosis), including the crucial discovery of the first caspase that mediates apoptosis, celebrated just one of his several comparably important contributions. Through genetic analysis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Dr. Horvitz discovered and dissected many genes and pathways that play highly specific roles during animal development, and in animal behavior as well. He defined genes that control specific aspects of cell lineage and cell fate, including the generation of cell diversity during development; the timing of particular developmental events; inter- and intracellular signaling; and programmed cell death. Dr. Horvitz's molecular analyses of these genes revealed most of them to be strikingly similar to genes found in other organisms, including humans, and in many cases similar to genes that cause human disease. A member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty since 1978, Dr. Horvitz has been David H. Koch Professor of Cancer Biology since 2001. He holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University (1974) and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1991); the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1994); and the Genetics Society of America (president, 1995).
 
 Name:  Dr. Caroline Humphrey
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Caroline Humphrey is, clear and away, the foremost Western social anthropologist working on the Soviet Union/Russia, said no less an authority than fellow APS member Clifford Geertz, who reviewed Humphrey's classic work on the social and cultural complexities of a Siberian collective for the New Republic. Her wide-ranging scholarship of Asian populations and Mongol shamanism have further consolidated her position as the pre-eminent social anthropologist in her field. She is particularly known for her work on nomadic life in East Asia, its decline and the changing status of women in those societies; Russia's new criminal class; as well as her long interest in the Jain society, an ancient, ritualistic, non-Brahminical East Indian sect. Dr. Humphrey's fluency in Russian and Mongolian and her understanding of Tibetan, Hindi and Napali have further assisted her penetrating studies. Equally remarkable are her communication skills among scholars and the public, whether by lectures or through widely-acclaimed documentary films. Dr. Humphrey is a Fellow of King's College and has served as Sigrid Rausing Professor of Collaborative Anthropology at Cambridge since 2006. She has won the Staley Prize in Anthropology (1990), the Royal Anthropological Institute's Rivers Memorial Medal (1999) and the Heldt Prize (2002) and is the author of Karl Marx Collective: Economy, Society and Religion in Siberian Collective Farm (1983); Shamans and Elders: Experience, Knowledge and Power among the Daur Mongols (1996); and (with D. Sneath) The End of Nomadism? Society, State and the Environment in Inner Asia (1999).
 
Election Year
2004[X]
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