American Philosophical Society
Member History

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41Name:  Dr. Mary C. Beckerle
 Institution:  Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah
 Year Elected:  2017
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Mary Beckerle, PhD, is CEO and Director of Huntsman Cancer Institute, a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center that is a leader in Cancer Genetics and Precision Prevention. She is a Distinguished Professor of Biology, Associate Vice President for Cancer Affairs, and holds the prestigious Jon M. Huntsman Presidential Endowed Chair at the University of Utah. Beckerle earned her PhD in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology from the University of Colorado at Boulder and completed post-doctoral research at the University of North Carolina. An internationally recognized scientist focused on fundamental aspects of Cancer Cell Biology, Beckerle’s research program has been continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health. Beckerle’s laboratory has made seminal contributions toward understanding cell adhesion and cell migration. In recent years her team has focused on the mechanisms involved in communicating information from the cell surface to the cytoskeleton and the nucleus. In 2000, Beckerle was appointed as a Guggenheim Fellow and a Rothschild-Yvette Mayent Award Scholar at the Curie Institute in Paris. She received the Utah Governor’s Medal for Science and Technology in 2001, the Sword of Hope Award from the American Cancer Society in 2004, the Rosenblatt Prize for Excellence, the University of Utah’s highest honor, in 2007, the 2018 Alfred G. Knudson Award in Cancer genetics, and the YWCA Utah 2018 Outstanding Achievement Award in Medicine and Health . Beckerle has served on numerous strategic planning and peer review committees for the National Institutes of Health. She is also a respected leader in science policy and practice, having served as president of the American Society for Cell Biology and on the Board of Directors of the American Association for Cancer Research. She is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Medical Advisory Board and serves on the Board of Directors of both Huntsman Corporation and Johnson & Johnson. In 2016, Beckerle was selected as a member of the Blue Ribbon Panel appointed to guide Vice President Joe Biden’s Cancer Moonshot initiative, co-chairing the Precision revention and Early Detection Working Group. She is also a member of the Scientific Advisory Boards of the National Center for Biological Sciences in India, the Mechanobiology Institute in Singapore, and several National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers. Beckerle has been married to David Murrell since 1990; they have a son, David, who graduated from college in 2017. In addition to spending time with family and friends, Beckerle loves to cook, travel, garden, hike, and bike in the beautiful state of Utah. Mary Beckerle was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2017.
 
42Name:  Francis G. Benedict
 Year Elected:  1910
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1871
 Death Date:  5/14/57
   
43Name:  Dr. Seymour Benzer
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1962
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  November 30, 2007
   
44Name:  Dr. May R. Berenbaum
 Institution:  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
May Berenbaum is one of the most original biologists in the country. An ingenious experimentalist, she has long studied the interactions of two of the primary organisms on the planet: insects and plants. In doing so, she has uncovered the mechanisms by which plants fend off insects and insects circumvent these barriers. A prolific author and exquisite speaker, she has written five books, including the classic Bugs in the System: Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs (1994). Dr. Berenbaum received her Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1980 and currently serves as a professor and head of the department of entomology at the University of Illinois. She was one of the youngest biologists in the National Academy of Sciences at the time of her election. She has been honored with many awards, including the George Mercer and the Robert H. MacArthur Awards of the Ecological Society of America, the E.O. Wilson Naturalist Award from the American Society of Naturalists, and Silverstei-Simeone Award from the International Society for Chemical Ecology. She won the Public Understanding of Science and Technology Award from the American Association of the Advancement of Science in 2009, the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 2011, and the National Medal of Science in 2014. Dr. Berenbaum's weekly radio program on insects commands a wide audience, as does her annual "Insect Horror Film Festival", which draws aficionados from all over the world. In 2018 it was announced that she would become Editor-in-Chief of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, beginning January 1, 2019.
 
45Name:  Dr. Paul Berg
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1983
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1926
   
 
Paul Berg is an acknowledged leader in the study of gene transfer from bacteria to viruses to cells of higher organisms. He witnessed firsthand the history of recombinant DNA research and regulation, having been in the forefront of both movements since he was a young man. He became a professor of biochemistry at Stanford University School of Medicine in 1959, when he was 33. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences before the age of 40, and he gained early recognition and influence when he delineated the key steps in which DNA produces proteins. Dr. Berg was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1980 for his work with DNA. In the mid-1970s, the National Academy of Sciences asked him to explore the safety of recombinant DNA technology. He responded with the historic "Berg letter," calling for a moratorium on recombinant DNA research until safety issues could be addressed. He was one of the key organizers of the international forum on recombinant DNA technology, the Asilomar Conference, which took place in February of 1975. One hundred leading scientists met at the conference to discuss the potential risks of gene-splicing experiments. The ensuing dialogue resulted in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines published a year later, a milestone of responsible self-regulation in science. Dr. Berg's laboratory continued to work with recombinant DNA techniques throughout the 1980s. In 1985, he became director of the New Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine. In 1991, Dr. Berg was named head of the NIH's influential Human Genome Project.
 
46Name:  Dr. Howard C. Berg
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  206. Physiology, Biophysics, and Pharmacology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Howard Berg received a Ph.D. at Harvard University in 1964, was a Junior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows (1963-66), and remained at Harvard as an associate professor of biology and chairman of the Board of Tutors in Biochemical Sciences until 1970. He then moved to the University of Colorado, serving as professor of molecular, cellular and developmental biology and department chairman until 1979 when he became a professor of biology at the California Institute of Technology. In 1986 he returned to Harvard University and is currently professor of molecular and cellular biology and professor of physics, and a member of the Rowland Institute. Howard Berg was a chemist (B.S., Caltech); a medical student (two years at the Harvard Medical School); and then a graduate student in physics and Junior Fellow. As a physicist he worked with Norman Ramsey on the atomic hydrogen maser and with Ed Purcell on what is now called sedimentation field-flow fractionation. In 1968 he became interested in the motile behavior of bacteria. He has made many seminal contributions to understanding the biophysics of motility. Among other things, he and coworkers showed, via three-dimensional tracking, that E. coli executes a biased random walk and that bacterial flagella rotate: they do not wave or beat. This surprising conclusion has led Howard Berg to study the structure, genetics and physiology of the remarkable flagellar motor. Also, he has figured out how spirochetes swim, what bacterial flagella actually do when cells run and tumble and, with Ed Purcell, he developed the basic theory of the physics of chemoreception. His book Random Walks in Biology (1993), mostly about diffusion, has become a classic. His writings on life at low Reynolds numbers are great science and illustrate his intellectual reach: from pure physics to true biological understanding. His significant contributions to science reflect an approach to biological problems of a very perceptive biologist with the mind-set of a talented physicist. His inquisitiveness and productivity are models of scientific inquiry. A more recent book, E. coli in Motion (2004), reviews the field of bacterial chemotaxis. Dr. Berg is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. In 2008 he received the Biophysical Society's annual award for Outstanding Investigator in Single Molecule Biology. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002.
 
47Name:  Dr. K. Sune D. Bergström
 Institution:  Karolinska Institutet
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  August 15, 2004
   
48Name:  Charles P. Berkey
 Year Elected:  1928
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1867
   
49Name:  Sir Michael J. Berridge
 Institution:  The Babraham Institute; University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Michael John Berridge was born in 1938 in Gatooma, a small town in the middle of Rhodesia, which is now Zimbabwe. He began his education at Jameson High School where he was fortunate in being taught biology by Pamela Bates who fostered his academic interests and encouraged him to pursue a scientific career. He enrolled in the University of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in Salisbury to read Zoology and Chemistry where he received his B.Sc. (1st Class Honours) in 1960. He then travelled to England to begin research on insect physiology with Sir Vincent Wigglesworth at the University of Cambridge and was awarded his Ph.D. in 1964. He than travelled to the United States to begin a period of post-doctoral study first at the University of Virginia and later at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. During his stay in Cleveland he began his interest in how cells communicate with each other and was fortunate to obtain valuable advice from Dr Ted Rall who a few years earlier had worked together with Earl Sutherland who received a Nobel Prize for his discovery of the second messenger cyclic AMP. In 1969 Berridge returned to Cambridge to take up an appointment at the AFRC Unit of Insect Neurophysiology and Pharmacology. He currently is an Emeritus Babraham Fellow at The Babraham Institute Laboratory of Molecular Signalling. Berridge is best known for his discovery of the second messenger inositol trisphosphate (IP3), which plays a universal role in regulating many cellular processes including cell growth and information processing in the nervous system. His studies on cell signalling began with his interest in trying to understand the control of fluid secretion by an insect salivary gland. His introduction and development of this simple model system paved the way for a number of significant observations which culminated in the major breakthrough of uncovering a new second messenger system responsible for regulating intracellular calcium signalling. A role for second messengers in controlling fluid secretion was first recognised when cyclic AMP was found to mimic the stimulatory action of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Subsequent studies revealed that calcium was also important and Berridge was one of the first to draw attention to the integrated action of the cyclic AMP and calcium messenger systems. He showed that signal calcium could be derived from both external and internal reservoirs. A major problem emerged as to how cells gained access to their internal stores of calcium. Berridge provided the first direct evidence to support Michell's hypothesis that the hydrolysis of inositol lipids played a role in calcium signalling. Interest in inositol phosphates began to intensify when Berridge developed a new approach of measuring their formation as a direct way to study receptor-mediated inositol lipid hydrolysis. Of particular significance, was his introduction of the lithium amplification technique to provide an exquisitely sensitive method for measuring inositol lipid turnover. His work on lithium provided new insights into how this drug controls manic-depressive illness. Using the lithium amplification method, Berridge demonstrated that hormones stimulated a rapid formation of IP3, which led him to propose that this metabolite might function as a second messenger. Such a messenger role was rapidly verified when IP3 was found to mobilize calcium when injected into cells. It is now apparent that the IP3/calcium signalling system regulates a wide range of cellular processes such as fertilization, secretion, metabolism, contraction, cell proliferation and information processing in the brain. This work has sparked a worldwide interest in the role of this signalling system in cell regulation. His most recent work has concentrated on the spatial and temporal aspects of calcium signalling. He was one of the first physiologists to provide evidence that the level of calcium might oscillate when cells are stimulated by a hormone. He also showed that oscillation frequency varied with agonist concentration, which led him to propose that the signalling system was frequency-modulated. Berridge's discovery of the IP3/calcium pathway provided an explanation of such oscillatory activity. His laboratory has been at the forefront of recent studies exploiting rapid confocal imaging techniques to characterize the elementary events of calcium signalling. This radically new understanding of how calcium signals are produced has provided new insights into both neural and cardiac cell signalling. Berridge became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1972 and was elected a Fellow of The Royal Society in 1984. In 1999 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. For his work on second messengers Berridge has received numerous awards and prizes, including The King Faisal International Prize in Science, The Louis Jeantet Prize in Medicine, The Albert Lasker Medical Research Award, The Heineken Prize for Biochemistry and Biophysics, The Wolf Foundation Prize in Medicine and The Shaw Prize in Life Science and Medicine. In 1998 Berridge was knighted for his service to science.
 
50Name:  Edward W. Berry
 Year Elected:  1919
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1875
 Death Date:  9/20/45
   
51Name:  Henry B. Bigelow
 Year Elected:  1937
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1879
 Death Date:  12/11/67
   
52Name:  Dr. Richard John Bing
 Institution:  Huntington Medical Research Institutes & University of Southern California
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1909
 Death Date:  November 8, 2010
   
 
Richard J. Bing was born in Germany in 1909 and went on to become one of the great cardiologists of our time. In a career spanning more than sixty years, he pioneered the application of basic sciences to the study of the human heart. His early investigations were devoted to the mechanism of hypertension. He made seminal discoveries on the mechanism of congenital heart disease and of congestive heart failure by using physical and biochemical techniques and pioneered coincidence counting in the determination of coronary flow and in heart imaging. This work laid the foundation for modern PET scanning techniques. His investigation on cardiac metabolism showed that heart failure is related to possible defects in contractile proteins. Dr. Bing taught and conducted research at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Alabama and was chairman of medicine at Washington University's Veterans Administration Hospital. In 1959 he became chairman of the Department of Medicine at Wayne State University and in 1969 he was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Southern California. He joined Huntington Medical Research Institutes in 1969 to do biomedical research and also started the internal medicine residency program at Huntington Hospital. His major achievements there have included high-speed cinematography of coronary vessels and studies of the chemistry of the heart after a heart attack. Dr. Bing also followed a highly successful second career as a distinguished musician and composer. His chamber music has been performed by professional ensembles including the Chamber Players of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. His Mass had its premier performance by the Vienna Philharmonic at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna in 1993. Richard John Bing died on November 8, 2010, at the age of 101, at his home in the Los Angeles-area community of La Canada Flintridge.
 
53Name:  Edward A. Birge
 Year Elected:  1923
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1852
 Death Date:  6/9/50
   
54Name:  Dr. J. Michael Bishop
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
J. Michael Bishop is one of the pioneers of research on molecular biology of tumor viruses, and with H.E. Varmus he made the key discovery that cancer-causing genes (oncogenes) of a major class of tumor-causing viruses are present as normal components of the chromosomes of vertebrates, including humans. By focusing attention on the possible role of aberrantly expressed normal genes and the proteins that they encode, this work stimulated the search and discovery of changes in cellular oncogenes in human cancer. For his work in microbiology, Dr. Bishop received the Lasker Prize in 1982 and the Nobel Prize in 1989. In 2003 he was awarded the National Medal of Science and his book, How to win the Nobel Prize: An Unexpected Life in Science, was published. After many years as a professor of microbiology, immunology and biochemistry at the University of California, San Francisco, he served as Chancellor of that institution until 2009. A scientist of broad culture, Dr. Bishop has reflected and lectured widely on the malaise that exists between science and society and has been active in efforts to improve science teaching in schools.
 
55Name:  Dr. Mina J. Bissell
 Institution:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Dr. Mina J. Bissell is a world-renowned leader in the area of the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) and microenvironment in regulation of tissue-specific function with special emphasis in breast cancer, where she has changed some established paradigms. She earned an A.B. with honors in chemistry from Harvard/Radcliffe College and a Ph.D. in bacterial genetics from Harvard University in 1969. She was a Milton Fellow at Harvard and an American Cancer Society Fellow in the Department of Molecular Biology at U.C. Berkeley. She joined the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1972. Dr. Bissell became a Senior Scientist in 1977, the Director of Cell & Molecular Biology in 1988, and was appointed Director of all of Life Sciences in 1992. Dr. Bissell has authored more than 280 publications and sits on the editorial board of many scientific journals, most recently Science magazine and Journal of Cell Science. She also sits on a number of national and international scientific and government boards. She has received numerous awards and citations and has given more than 80 'named and distinguished' lectures. She was a Fogarty Fellow in 1984, a Guggenheim fellow in 1992 and was elected an AAAS fellow in 1994. She received the 1996 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award and medal, the highest honor of the US Department of Energy. In 1997, she was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies and served as President of the American Society for Cell Biology. In 1998, she received the Mellon Award from the University of Pittsburgh and was the 1999 recipient of the Eli Lilly/Clowes Award of the American Association for Cancer Research. In 2001, Dr. Bissell received both an honorary doctorate from the Pierre & Marie Curie University in Paris and the first "Innovator Award" of the US Army breast cancer program. In 2002, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and was the President of the International Society of Differentiation. Upon stepping down as the Life Science's Division Director, she was named Distinguished Scientist (one of seven, the only woman and the only life scientist to achieve this status) and Senior Advisor to the Laboratory Director on Biology. In 2003, she received the Brinker Award from the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. In 2004, she was among the 13 recipients of the first Discovery Health Channel Medical Honor and received another honorary doctorate from the University of Copenhagen. In 2005, she became the first OBER/DOE Distinguished Scientist Fellow in Life Sciences and received a $1.25 million award for 5 years. In 2006, Dr. Bissell received the H. Lee Moffit Cancer Center Ted Couch Lectureship and Award. In 2007, she received the Pezcoller Foundation-AACR International Award for Cancer Research. In 2008 she received the American Cancer Society's Medal of Honor in Basic Research, and the University of Porto and the Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology established the Mina J. Bissell Award, a medal to be given out every two years to a person who has "transformed our perception of a topic in science." The American Italian Cancer Foundation awarded her their 2010 Prize for Scientific Excellence in Medicine for "having changed the accepted paradigms in cancer research, for pioneering to create the field of Tumor Microenvironment, and for the courage to persist not only until it is well accepted but also put to clinical use" and in 2011 she was named the recipient of the Jill Rose Award by the Breast Cancer Research Foundation. In 2017 she was honored with the 14th AACR Award for Lifetime Achievement in Cancer Research and in 2019 she was the recipient of both the APS Jonathan E. Rhoads Medal for Distinguished Service to Medicine and the Weizmann Women & Science Award. She was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2010 and the American Philosophical Society in 2007.
 
56Name:  Dr. Pamela J. Bjorkman
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  206. Physiology, Biophysics, and Pharmacology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Pamela J. Bjorkman is the Max Delbrück Professor of Biology the California Institute of Technology. She was an HHMI Investigator from 1989-2015. She received a B.A. degree in chemistry from the University of Oregon and a Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from Harvard University. As a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow in Don Wiley's laboratory, she solved the crystal structure of a human histocompatibility molecule. She continued her postdoctoral training at Stanford University with Mark Davis, where she worked on T cell receptors. Dr. Bjorkman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has received the William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Fundamental Immunology from the Cancer Research Institute (shared with Don C. Wiley and Jack L. Strominger), the James R. Klinenberg Science Award from the Arthritis Foundation, the Gairdner Foundation International Award for achievements in medical science (shared with Don C. Wiley), and the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Award (shared with Jack L. Strominger and Hans-Georg Rammensee). Dr. Bjorkman's laboratory is interested in protein-protein interactions, particularly those mediating immune recognition. The laboratory uses X-ray crystallography and biochemistry to study purified proteins, and is beginning to include confocal and electron microscopy (EM) to examine protein complexes in cells. Some of the work focuses upon homologs and mimics of class I MHC proteins. These proteins have similar three-dimensional structures but different functions, including immune functions (IgG transport by the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn; evasion of the immune response by viral HMC mimics) and non-immune functions (regulation of iron or lipid metabolism by HFE and ZAG). Dr. Bjorkman's laboratory is also comparing the structures and functions of host and viral Fc receptors with RcRn.
 
57Name:  Dr. Elizabeth H. Blackburn
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn is a leader in the area of telomere and telomerase research and has made key discoveries in different aspects of telomere function and biology. In 1985, she discovered the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase, and since that time, hers has become a lead laboratory in manipulating and studying telomerase activity in cells. Having amassed considerable knowledge and experience in the effects this has on cells, Dr. Blackburn and her research team at the University of California, San Francisco worked with a variety of organisms and human cells, especially cancer cells, with the goal of understanding telomerase and telomere biology. Her work on telomeres and telomerase has been published extensively in peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Blackburn earned her B.Sc. (1970) and M.Sc. (1972) degrees from the University of Melbourne in Australia, and her Ph.D. (1975) from the University of Cambridge in England. She did her postdoctoral work in molecular and cellular biology from 1975-77 at Yale University. In 1978, Dr. Blackburn joined the department of molecular biology at the University of California Berkeley. In 1990, she joined the departments of microbiology and immunology, and biochemistry and biophysics, at the University of California, San Francisco, and she was department chair of the department of microbiology and immunology from 1993-99, and the Morris Herzstein Professor of Biology and Physiology in the department of biochemistry and biophysics at UCSF as well as a non-resident fellow of the Salk Institute. In January 2016 Dr. Blackburn became professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco, and was President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies until 2018. Throughout her career, Dr. Blackburn has been honored by her peers as the recipient of many prestigious awards. These include the Eli Lilly Research Award for Microbiology and Immunology (1988), the National Academy of Science Award in Molecular Biology (1990), and honorary doctorate degrees from Yale University (1991), the University of Pennsylvania (2004), Bard College (2004), Brandeis University (2004), and the University of Chicago (2004). She was a Harvey Society Lecturer at the Harvey Society in New York (1990) and recipient of the UCSF Women's Faculty Association Award (1995). Most recently, she was awarded the Australia Prize (1998), the Harvey Prize (1999), the Keio Prize (1999), the American Association for Cancer Research-G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Award (2000), the American Cancer Society Medal of Honor (2000), the AACR-Pezcoller Foundation International Award for Cancer Research (2001), the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Award (2001), the Bristol Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Cancer Research (2003), the Dr. A.H. Heineken Prize for Medicine (2004), the Kirk A. Landon-American Association for Cancer Research Prize for Basic Cancer Research (2005), the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science (2005), and the Nobel Prize in Medicine (2009). She was named California Scientist of the Year in 1999 and was elected President of the American Society for Cell Biology for the year 1998. Dr. Blackburn is an elected Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (1993) and an elected Member of the Institute of Medicine (2000). She is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1991), the Royal Society of London (1992), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2000). She was elected Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences in 1993 and was elected as a Member of the Institute of Medicine in 2000. She was awarded the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award in Basic Medical Research (2006). In 2007 she was named one of TIME Magazine's 100 Most Influential People, and she is the 2008 North American Laureate for L'Oreal-UNESCO for Women in Science.
 
58Name:  Eliot Blackwelder
 Year Elected:  1939
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1881
 Death Date:  1/14/69
   
59Name:  Albert F. Blakeslee
 Year Elected:  1924
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1858
 Death Date:  11/16/54
   
60Name:  Dr. Helen M. Blau
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
Helen Blau is world-renowned for her seminal discovery that the differentiated state is reversible rather than fixed and terminal. Her demonstration of cellular plasticity constituted a paradigm shift in our understanding of mammalian cell differentiation. Using muscle as a model, Blau’s work provided the first definitive evidence that diverse cell types could be reprogrammed using non-dividing cell fusions. Her studies demonstrated that cell differentiation requires continuous regulation and that a shift in the stoichiometry of trans-acting regulators induces nuclear reprogramming, providing the scientific underpinnings for the induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Blau applied this discovery to stem cell biology. She led the field with novel approaches to treating muscle damaged due to disease, injury, or aging. She showed that biophysical and biochemical cues synergize to maintain the stem cell state in culture and rejuvenate the function of aged muscle stem cell populations, profoundly impacting the field of regenerative medicine. Among Helen Blau's many honors are the 1999 FASEB Excellence in Science Award and a Fulbright Senior Specialists award. She was President of the American Society for Developmental Biology 1994-95, on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Aging 1996-2000, President of the International Society of Differentiation 2004-05, and member of the Harvard Board of Overseers 2004-10. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
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