American Philosophical Society
Member History

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21Name:  Dr. Julius Axelrod
 Institution:  National Institute of Mental Health
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1912
 Death Date:  December 29, 2004
   
22Name:  Dr. Francisco José Ayala
 Institution:  University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Francisco J. Ayala is a retired Professor of Biological Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. On June 12, 2002, President George W. Bush awarded him the National Medal of Science at the White House, and in 2010, Dr. Ayala won the Templeton prize. From 1994-2001, Dr. Ayala was a member of the U.S. President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. He has been president and chairman of the board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993-96) and of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society of the U.S (2004-05). Dr. Ayala is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and numerous foreign academies and has received many prizes and honorary degrees. Born in Madrid, Spain, he has lived in the United States since 1961 and became a U.S. citizen in 1971. He has published more than 1,000 articles and is author or editor of 37 books. His scientific research focuses on population and evolutionary genetics, including the origin of species, genetic diversity of populations, the origin of malaria, the population structure of parasitic protozoa, and the molecular clock of evolution. He also writes about the interface between religion and science and on philosophical issues concerning epistemology, ethics, and the philosophy of biology.
 
23Name:  Liberty H. Bailey
 Institution:  Cornell University
 Year Elected:  1896
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1858
 Death Date:  12/25/1954
   
24Name:  Irving W. Bailey
 Year Elected:  1926
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1885
 Death Date:  5/16/67
   
25Name:  Dr. Herbert George Baker
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1986
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  July 2, 2001
   
26Name:  Dr. David Baltimore
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
David Baltimore has had a long and distinguished career as a creative scientist, gifted administrator and effective spokesperson on social and civic aspects of science. His research on virology and cancer has over the years been of extraordinary importance and includes the co-discovery of reverse tanscriptase with Howard Temin. In 1975, at the age of 37, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and he has also received the Eli Lilly Award in Microbiology and Immunology (1971), the Gairdner Foundation Annual Award (1974) and the National Medal of Science (1999). Dr. Baltimore founded and served as the first Director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, a premier research facility, while also serving for over 25 years on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty. In 1990 Dr. Baltimore was appointed president of Rockefeller University, and in 1997 he accepted the same position at the California Institute of Technology, where he served as president until 2006. He continues to serve Caltech as President Emeritus and Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology and maintains a research laboratory dedicated to the use of gene therapy to treat cancer and HIV infection, transcriptional regulation and cell cycle controls. He was recently awarded Research!America's Builders of Science Award recognizing leaders in medical and health research.
 
27Name:  Thomas Barbour
 Year Elected:  1937
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1885
 Death Date:  1/8/46
   
28Name:  Philip Bard
 Year Elected:  1959
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1898
 Death Date:  4/5/77
   
29Name:  Elso S. Barghoorn
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  1/27/84
   
30Name:  Dr. Cornelia Isabella Bargmann
 Institution:  Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Rockefeller University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1961
   
 
Cornelia I. Bargmann is currently both an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Torsten N. Wiesel Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Neural Circuits and Behavior at Rockefeller University. Born in Virginia, she received her Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1987. She won the Richard Lounsbery Award in Biology and Medicine from the National Academy of Sciences in 2009, the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience in 2012, and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences in 2013. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2002) and the National Academy of Sciences (2003). Cori Bargmann is recognized internationally through her elegant work on neural development and behavior using a tiny roundworm, C. elegans. The worm has become a key model organism in biomedical research because, having just 302 neurons, it is possible to know the detailed wiring of the nervous system on a cellular level and deduct the worm's behavior from its circuit. With the complete genome available, precise genetic manipulation can modify circuits and behavior. Insights gained from this powerful approach, on sensory perception, navigation, oxygen sensing, feeding behavior, and stress response, can now be used to guide research on the complexities of the human disorders such as dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism. Cori is a brilliant individual with a passion for science and scholarship and a generous and beloved person. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
31Name:  Dr. Clyde Frederick Barker
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society; University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Clyde F. Barker is a native of Salt Lake City and a graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy, Cornell University, and Cornell University Medical College. His internship and residency in surgery were at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, where he has served his entire academic and professional career. Following residency training he was a fellow in vascular surgery and then a postdoctoral fellow in medical genetics under Rupert Billingham, studying transplantation biology. He was appointed to the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in 1966 and became Professor of Surgery in 1973. From 1966 to 2001 he was Chief of Transplantation Surgery and, from 1982 to 2001, Chief of the Division of Vascular Surgery. From 1983 to 2001 he was the John Rhea Barton Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery, and Director of the Harrison Department of Surgical Research. He is now Donald Guthrie Professor of Surgery. The Clyde F. Barker Transplant House at University of Pennsylvania Hospital is named in his honor. Clyde Barker’s research interests have been primarily in transplantation, especially transplantation of the kidney and pancreas and of isolated pancreatic islets. His research was continuously funded for more than 25 years by grants from the National Institutes of Health, including an NIH Merit Award from 1987-95. He has published more than 400 scientific papers and has served on 12 editorial boards, including the Journal of Surgical Research, Diabetes, Transplantation, Archives of Surgery, Surgery, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, and The Annals of Surgery. Clyde Barker is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and the Association of American Physicians. He has been President of the American Society of Transplantation Surgeons, the International Society of Surgery, and the American Surgical Association. He has served as visiting professor at 80 different universities and is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. He is the recipient of lifetime achievement awards from the American College of Surgeons and the Society of University Surgeons, the 2007 Jonathan E. Rhoads Medal for Distinguished Achievement in Medicine, the Thomas E. Starzl Prize in 2009, and the 2010 Medawar Prize from the Transplantation Society. The Medawar Prize is recognized as the world’s highest award dedicated to the outstanding contributions in the field of transplantation. In 2010 he was awarded the American Philosophical Society’s Henry Allen Moe Prize in the Humanities in recognition of his Jayne Lecture delivered to the members of the Society at its 2007 November Meeting and published in the Society’s Proceedings, March 2009, entitled "Thomas Eakins and His Medical Clinics." Clyde Barker was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1997 and has served on Council and as a Vice President. He served as the Society’s President from April 2011 through April 2017.
 
32Name:  Harley H. Bartlett
 Year Elected:  1929
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1887
 Death Date:  2/21/60
   
33Name:  Dr. Bonnie L. Bassler
 Institution:  Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1962
   
 
Bonnie L. Bassler is currently both an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and and Endowed Squibb Professor in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University. Born in Illinois she received her Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1990. She has won a number of awards, including: the Eli Lilly and Company Research Award, American Society for Microbiology, 2006; the President's Distinguished Teaching Award, Princeton University, 2008; the Richard Lounsbery Award, National Academy of Sciences, 2011; the Shaw Prize, 2015; the Max Planck Research Award, 2016; and the Dickson Prize in Medicine, 2018. In 2019 she became a member of the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars. She is a member of the American Society for Microbiology (president); the American Academy for Microbiology (chair, Board of Governors); the National Academy of Sciences, 2006; and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 2007. Bonnie Bassler discovered the universal use of chemical communication among bacteria, leading to a new paradigm of bacteria as interacting organisms. Early in her career, she discovered that bacteria use multiple chemical signals to communicate. She showed that this process, called quorum sensing, allows bacteria to coordinate behavior as a population and thereby act like multicellular organisms. Bassler subsequently made the seminal and startling discovery that bacteria communicate across species, and she identified the universal inter-species communication molecule. On the human health front, Bassler demonstrated that quorum sensing controls virulence in disease-causing bacteria, and that by manipulating quorum sensing she can halt virulence in globally-important pathogens. Her research paves the way for novel antibiotics targeting quorum sensing, and her group successfully demonstrated such therapeutic strategies. Bassler is internationally recognized for her passionate commitment to science education and outreach and to increasing gender and racial diversity in science, mathematics, and engineering. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
34Name:  Sir Patrick Bateson
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1938
 Death Date:  August 1, 2017
   
 
Professor Sir Patrick Bateson, FRS, was Emeritus Professor of Ethology, the biological study of behaviour, at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death on August 1, 2017, at the age of 79. He was Provost (Head) of King's College, Cambridge from 1988 to 2003. He was formerly Director of the Sub-Department of Animal Behaviour at Cambridge and later Head of the Department of Zoology. He was Vice-Chairman of the Museums and Galleries Commission and in 2004 was elected President of the Zoological Society of London. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1983 and was its Biological Secretary and Vice-President from 1998 to 2003. He was knighted in 2003. His research is on the behavioural development of animals, and much of his scientific career has been concerned with bridging the gap between the studies of behaviour and those of underlying mechanisms, focusing on the process of behavioural imprinting in birds. He has also been concerned to link together studies of development and evolution. In addition to his work on birds he has carried out research on behavioural development in mammals, particularly cats, and has supervised field projects on mammals in East Africa. He conducted a research project for the National Trust on the behavioural and physiological effects of hunting red deer with hounds. He has written more than 260 scientific papers and book chapters on behavioural imprinting in birds, the development of play in cats, the development and evolution of behaviour, neural mechanisms of learning, and the conceptual and methodological issues in the study of behaviour and animal welfare. He has also written articles on co-operation, the ethics of using animals in research, and the hunting of red deer with hounds. He has edited 15 books and is co-author (with Paul Martin) of Measuring Behaviour and Design for a Life: How Behaviour Develops.
 
35Name:  Dr. Kamaljit S. Bawa
 Institution:  University of Massachusetts; Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Kamal Bawa (www.kbawa.com) is Distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Massachusetts Boston, and Founder-President of the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE). The Ashoka Trust, based in Bangalore, is one of India’s top-ranked environmental think tanks and in 2019 received the UNESCO Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Conservation. He has done extensive work in the Himalaya for a number of years on a wide range of issues from biodiversity conservation to climate change. Kamal Bawa has published more than 200 papers and has authored or edited more than 10 books, and special issues of journals. Among the many awards he has received are: Bullard Fellowship at Harvard University (1972, 2009) Guggenheim Fellowship (1987), Pew Scholar in Conservation and the Environment (1992), Giorgio Ruffolo Fellowship at Harvard University (2009), the Gunnerus Prize in Sustainability Science from the Royal Norwegian Society of Letters and Sciences (2012), the international MIDORI Prize in Biodiversity (2014) from the Aeon Foundation in Japan, the Linnean Medal (2018), and honorary doctorates from the University of Alberta (2014) and Concordia University in Montreal(2019). He is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2012), the Royal Norwegian Society of Letters and Sciences (2012), and the Royal Society (2015). Kamal Bawa is founding Editor-in Chief of two interdisciplinary journals: Conservation and Society (www.conservationandsociety.org) and Ecology, Economy and Society (http://ecoinsee.org/journal/eb_editors). His latest coffee table book Himalaya: The Mountains of Life, a companion volume to Sahyadri: India’s Western Ghats, was published in 2013.
 
36Name:  Stanhope Bayne-Jones
 Year Elected:  1944
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1889
 Death Date:  2/20/70
   
37Name:  Dr. Frank A. Beach
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1961
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  210. Behavioral Biology, Psychology, Ethology, and Animal Behavior
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1911
 Death Date:  6/15/88
   
38Name:  Dr. George W. Beadle
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1945
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1903
 Death Date:  6/9/89
   
39Name:  Dr. Cynthia M. Beall
 Institution:  Case Western Reserve University
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Cynthia Beall is a distinguished anthropologist who, along with her collaborator, Dr. Goldstein, has been interested in the impact of high altitude on the physiology and socio-cultural behavior of people living in such environments. She has studied populations in Tibet, the Andean countries and Ethiopia and is clearly one of the world's leading authorities on this subject. Since 1976 Dr. Beall has taught at Case Western Reserve University, where she has been S. Idell Pyle Professor of Anthropology since 1994 and Professor of Anatomy since 1995. She was elected to the membership of the National Academy of Sciences in 1996. She was named a Guggenheim Fellow in Anthropology and Cultural Studies in 2011.
 
40Name:  Dr. Alexander G. Bearn
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society
 Year Elected:  1972
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  May 15, 2009
   
 
Alexander G. Bearn was Executive Officer of the American Philosophical Society from 1997 until his retirement in 2002. A physician, scientist and author, Dr. Bearn became a member of the Society in 1972 and served as a vice president from 1988-96. He received the Society's Benjamin Franklin Medal in 2001. The citation read "in recognition of distinguished contributions as a physician and scientist, represented by his service as Stanton Griffis Distinguished Professor and Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Cornell University Medical College and Physician-in-Chief at the New York Hospital, as Senior Vice President for Medical and Scientific Affairs at Merck, Sharp and Dohme and as Editor of the American Journal of Medicine. The Society places on record its profound appreciation for his outstanding service, wise leadership and exemplary devotion to the life and work of the Society and its members. As Executive Officer, he revitalized the Society's meetings, instituted Mellon sabbatical fellowships in the humanities and social sciences, led the Society's gift support to record levels, created joint programs with scholarly societies in Sweden and the United Kingdom, oversaw the renovation of Philosophical Hall and the purchase of additional office space, launched a successful program of scientific exhibits, redefined the focus of the Society's publications and, not least, brought to these and all his dealings a warmth, grace and generosity of spirit which have enlivened and enriched the corporate life of the Society. In expressing its admiration and gratitude for Dr. Bearn's enlightened leadership, the Society also places on record its best wishes for a long and happy retirement and its anticipation of a long continuing association with him as one of the Society's most eminent members. It hereby awards to him its highest honor in recognition of his loyal and devoted service, and as a mark of the admiration, appreciation and affection of its members." Dr. Bearn was educated in England, and received his M.B., B.S. and M.D. degrees from the University of London. He came to the U.S. in 1951 for the first time to work at Rockefeller University for one year and soon embarked on the study of genetics of rare metabolic diseases. In 1964 he was named professor and senior physician. In 1966 Dr. Bearn was appointed professor and chairman of the department of medicine at Cornell University Medical College and physician-in-chief of New York Hospital. He established the first human genetics laboratory at the Medical College and with former Rockefeller colleagues initiated the joint M.D./Ph.D. program between the institutions. He remained at Cornell until 1979 when he was named senior vice-president for medical and scientific affairs of Merck, Sharpe & Dohme, International Division, a post he held until 1988. A frequent lecturer and author of numerous scientific articles, Dr. Bearn is also the author of Archibald Garrod and the Individuality of Man (Oxford, 1993), Sir Clifford Allbutt: Scholar and Physician (London, 2007), Sir Francis Richard Fraser; A Canny Scott Shapes British Medicine (Brighton, 2008). In 1970 Dr. Bearn joined the Rockefeller Board of Trustees and after serving for twenty-eight years, was elected emeritus trustee in 1998; he continues as a visiting professor and physician. In 2002 he received the David Rockefeller Award. Since 1987 Dr. Bearn has been a Trustee of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and has also served as a trustee of the Helen Hay Whitney Foundation, the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation and as an overseer of the Jackson Laboratory. He became a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1972 and is a member of its Institute of Medicine and numerous other academies and societies, including the Harvey Society (president 1972-73) and the American Society of Human Genetics (president, 1971).
 
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