American Philosophical Society
Member History

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61Name:  Dr. Meave Leakey
 Institution:  Stony Brook University
 Year Elected:  2017
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
I have always had an interest in natural history and rocks, a pastime much encouraged by my parents. After completing my Zoology degree at the University of North Wales in 1965, I was invited by Louis Leakey to work at the Tigoni Primate Research Centre outside Nairobi, Kenya. Here, in my limited spare time and under the supervision of the animal mechanics specialist Prof. McNeil Alexander, at the University of North Wales my limited spare time, I studied the forelimbs of modern cercopithecoids in the excellent collections of the research centre. I completed my PhD in 1968. In 1969, I began working with Richard Leakey exploring the extensive area of fossiliferous deposits on the eastern shores of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya, which at that time had never before been prospected for fossils or archaeological remains. The Koobi For a Research Project (KFRP) field research has continued to this day, initially under Richard Leakey, after 1989 under my leadership, and more recently co-led with my daughter Louise. The fifty years of fieldwork in the Turkana Basin, exploring the thousands of square kilometers of exposed fossiliferous sediments for evidence of origins of our past, has resulted in large paleontological collections documenting much of the Neogene, but is particularly well known for laying the foundation of our current knowledge of our own evolutionary past. Today, together with Louise, I continue to direct the KFRP annual field expeditions. In 1995 the project recovered and named Australopithecus anamensis, the earliest known australopithecine, and the earliest secure evidence of bipedality. In 1999, we discovered and named Kenyanthropus platyops, showing diversity in humanity's past 3.5 million years ago. Sponsored by the National Geographic Society, the KFRP continues to recover new fossils showing diversity in the human family tree even earlier in time. Working with numerous colleagues from many disciplines, I have published widely. I am a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, a Research Professor at Stony Brook University and Director of Field Research at the Turkana Basin Institute (TBI), an interdisciplinary research institute with stations to the east and west of Lake Turkana. In addition to promoting and facilitating research, TBI provides training and research opportunities, and brings employment and development benefits to local communities, while increasing awareness among the local people of their unique prehistoric heritage in this vast area. My awards include: The Academy of Achievements Award, USA in 2004, my election as an Honorary Fellow of the Geological Society of London, 2011, as a Foreign Associate National Academy of Sciences 2013, and as a Fellow of the African Academy of Sciences 2013. In 2014, I was awarded the National Geographic Society Hubbard Medal. A large part of my successes are due to the invaluable support and efforts of the hard working KFRP field crew, my many colleagues and my wonderful family. --- Meave Leakey is also the author of The Sediments of Time which was published in 2020.
 
62Name:  Dr. Ho-Wang Lee
 Institution:  National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Korea
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  July 5, 2022
   
 
As a medical virologist, Ho-Wang Lee studied Japanese encephalitis (JE) and Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF), now called Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The first of these was the success of tissue culture of JE virus, immune mechanism of JE and overwintering mechanisms of JE virus in Korea from 1955-68. The second of these was the isolation of etiologic agents, epidemiology and prevention of HFRS from 1969-o 2004. He isolated etiologic agents of HFRS from Apodemus mice and urban rats and named the virus Hantaan and Seoul in 1976 and 1980, respectively. He elucidated epizootiology and epidemiology of HFRS in 1979-85. Hantaan virus is the origin of genus Hantavirus and he proved world-wide distribution of hantaviruses from 1977-2000. In 1990, he and his colleagues developed a simple rapid diagnostic kit and an inactivated vaccine against HFRS. This vaccine was distributed in Asia and thereafter the number of HFRS patients decreased significantly.
 
63Name:  Dr. Leif Andersson
 Institution:  Uppsala University; Texas A&M University
 Year Elected:  2017
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Leif Andersson is the world’s leading authority on the genomic study of the origin and selected traits of domestic animals, and for his pioneering work he received the prestigious international Wolf Prize in 2014. He has repeatedly discovered what happens genetically when animal breeders apply artificial selection to domestic animals and choose particular traits for enhancement. These traits include fat deposition in pigs, the color of wattles and skin in chickens, and coat coloration and gait locomotion in horses. Genetic understanding has aided further selection programs. This work is the best modern manifestation of Charles Darwin’s pioneering study of Variation under Domestication. Truly Darwinian in outlook, Leif Andersson has expanded his genomic research program into problems of understanding evolution in nature, including the breeding of Baltic Sea herring, the size of rabbits, the peculiar mating system of a colorful shorebird, and size and shape of the beaks of Darwin’s finches. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2018.
 
64Name:  Dr. Luis F. Leloir
 Year Elected:  1963
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  200
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1906
 Death Date:  12/2/87
   
65Name:  Prof. Martin Lindauer
 Institution:  Wurzburg University
 Year Elected:  1976
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  210. Behavioral Biology, Psychology, Ethology, and Animal Behavior
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  November 13, 2008
   
 
Currently Professor Emeritus of Zoology, Dr. Martin Lindauer has been affiliated with Wurzburg University since 1972. An extraordinarily versatile and imaginative scholar of animal behavior, he has devoted particular effort to the study of bees. He is credited with discovering the gravity sense organ of bees and providing the first solid proof of magnetic orientation in animals. Dr. Lindauer has also served on the faculties of the Universities of Munich and Frankfurt and is a member of the Deutsche Akademie Leopoldina and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
 
66Name:  Dr. Konrad Lorenz
 Year Elected:  1974
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  210. Behavioral Biology, Psychology, Ethology, and Animal Behavior
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1903
 Death Date:  2/27/89
   
67Name:  Feodor Lynen
 Year Elected:  1966
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1911
 Death Date:  8/6/79
   
68Name:  Dr. Hubert S. Markl
 Institution:  University of Konstanz; Max Planck Society
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  210. Behavioral Biology, Psychology, Ethology, and Animal Behavior
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1938
 Death Date:  January 8, 2015
   
 
Hubert Markl was one of the most influential contemporary German scholars. After a research career in which he discovered the physiological basis of the gravity sense in bees and ants and pioneered the study of sound communication of these insects, he went on to a very distinguished career as the top administrator in German science, first as president of the German Science Foundation and later as the president of the Max-Planck Gesellschaft. He contributed broadly in the sciences, philosophy and education, as evidenced by his membership in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1985); the German Academy of Natural Sciences, Leopoldina, Halle (1985); the Academia Europaea (1988); and the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (1993). He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Hubert Markl died January 8, 2015, at the age of 76, in Konstanz, Germany.
 
69Name:  Lord Robert McCredie May
 Institution:  Univerity of Oxford and The Royal Society
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1936
 Death Date:  April 28, 2020
   
 
Sir Robert May is President of the Royal Society and holds a Professorship jointly in the Department of Zoology, Oxford University and at Imperial College, London. For the five-year period ending in September of 2000, he was Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK Government and Head of its Office of Science and Technology. After earning a D.Phil. degree in Theoretical Physics from Sydney University, Sir Robert spent two years as the MacKay Lecturer in Applied Mathematics at Harvard. He then returned to Sydney University as Senior Lecturer in Theoretical Physics, where he would hold that institution's first Personal Chair. In 1973, Sir Robert joined the faculty of Princeton University as its Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology and, from 1977-88, he also served as Chair of the University Research Board. Returning to Britain as a Royal Society Research Professor, Sir Robert's current work deals with the factors influencing the diversity and abundance of plant and animal species, and with the rates, causes and consequences of extinction. His recent publications in this area include Large Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology (1994), Extinction Rates (1995) and Evolution of Biological Diversity (1999). Sir Robert's contributions to the field of ecological research have been recognized with the Crafoord Prize from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the 1998 Balzan Prize, among numerous other honors.
 
70Name:  Peter B. Medawar
 Year Elected:  1961
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  10/2/87
   
 
Sir Peter Medawar was a pioneer of transplantation immunology. During the 1940's and 50's he researched skin grafting and how the development of tolerance in human and animal transplantation. He was awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance." In addition to his scientific research, he wrote several books of popular science and philosophy of science, including Pluto's Republic (1982) and The Hope of Progress: A Scientist Looks at Problems in Philosophym Literature and Science (1973). He also authored an autobiography, Memoirs of a Thinking Radish (1986). Medawar was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1949, only eight years after finishing his docotorate. Among his many honors are the Copley Medal (1969), the UNESCO Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science (1985), and election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1959) and the US National Academy of Sciences (1965). He was knighted in 1965, appointed to the Companions of Honour in 1972, and to the Order of Merit in 1981. Peter Medawar was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1961. He died October 2, 1987 in London, England at the age of 72.
 
71Name:  Jacques L. Monod
 Year Elected:  1969
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1910
 Death Date:  5/31/76
   
72Name:  Dr. Giuseppe Montalenti
 Institution:  University of Rome
 Year Elected:  1985
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1904
 Death Date:  7/2/90
   
73Name:  Sir Peter Morris
 Institution:  The Royal College of Surgeons of England; University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  October 29, 2022
   
 
Sir Peter Morris supplemented his medical education in Melbourne, Australia, with training at Guy's Hospital in London and the Massachusetts General Hospital. He returned to the University of Melbourne and obtained a Ph.D. in immunology in 1972. From 1974-2001, he was the Nuffield Professor of Surgery, chairman of the Department of Surgery, and director of the Oxford Transplant Centre at the University of Oxford. In 2001 he became President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and chairman of the Council of the Institute of Health Sciences at the University of Oxford. He is also currently chairman of the British Heart Foundation and Director of the Centre for Evidence in Transplantation at the Royal College of Surgeons. His more than 700 papers deal with the entire field of clinical and experimental transplantation and immunology. He has contributed especially to the study of mechanisms of rejection, tolerance induction and pancreatic islet transplantation. He is one of the distinguished surgeon scientists of our time. In addition to his work in transplantation, in the earlier part of his career he made many contributions to knowledge of the association between HLA and disease, as well as playing a major part in the early anthropological studies of HLA around the Pacific rim. He is the editor of Kidney Transplantation: Principles and Practice, which is now in its 5th edition, and the widely acclaimed Oxford Textbook of Surgery, which is in its 2nd edition. Sir Peter Morris has received many honors, including the Medawar Medal, the Lister Medal and the Hunterian Medal. In 1996 he received knighthood from the Queen for services to medicine, and in 2004 he was made a Companion of the Order of Australia. He is a fellow of the Royal Society and a foreign member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He served as president of the International Transplantation Society, the British Transplantation Society, the European Surgical Association and the International Surgical Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002.
 
74Name:  Dr. Giuseppe Moruzzi
 Year Elected:  1961
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  200
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1910
 Death Date:  3/11/86
   
75Name:  Dr. May-Britt Moser
 Institution:  Centre for Neural Computation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1963
   
 
May-Britt Moser is a Professor of Neuroscience and Director of the Centre for Neural Computation at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. She is interested in the neural basis of spatial location and spatial specifically and cognition more generally. Her work, conducted with Edvard Moser as a long-term collaborator, includes the discovery of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. The discovery of grid cells was succeeded by identification of other functional cell types, including head direction cells, conjunctive cells and border cells and collectively the findings point to the entorhinal cortex as a hub for the brain network that makes us find our way. May-Britt Moser received her initial training at the University of Oslo under the supervision of Dr. Per Andersen. She worked as a post-doc with Richard Morris and John O’Keefe in 1996, before she accepted a faculty position at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. She became a Co-Director of the Centre for the Biology of Memory in 2002 and the Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience in 2007. In 2012, she was appointed Director of the newly established Centre for Neural Computation. Together with Edvard Moser, she has received a number of awards, including the 2014 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology.
 
76Name:  Dr. Edvard Moser
 Institution:  Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1962
   
 
Edvard Moser is a Professor of Neuroscience and Director of the Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. He is interested in how spatial location and spatial memory are computed in the brain. His work, conducted with May-Britt Moser as a long-term collaborator, includes the discovery of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex, which provides clues to a neural mechanism for the metric of spatial mapping. Subsequent to this discovery the Mosers have identified additional space-representing cell types in the entorhinal cortex and they are beginning to unravel how the neural microcircuit is organized. Edvard Moser received his initial training at the University of Oslo under the supervision of Dr. Per Andersen. He worked as a post-doc with Richard Morris and John O’Keefe in 1996, before he accepted a faculty position at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology the same year. In 2002 he became the Founding Director of the Centre for the Biology of Memory. In 2007 the Centre became a Kavli Institute. Edvard Moser is also Co-Director of the newly established Centre for Neural Computation at the same institution. Together with May-Britt Moser, he has received a number of awards, including the 2014 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology.
 
77Name:  Dr. Alexander von Muralt
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  206. Physiology, Biophysics, and Pharmacology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1903
 Death Date:  5/28/90
   
78Name:  Dr. Erling Norrby
 Institution:  Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences & Karolinska Institute; J. Craig Venter Institute
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Erling Norrby is Professor at the Karolinska Institute and Secretary General of The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He received an M.D. in 1963, Ph.D. in 1964, and Docent of Medicine in 1964 from the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm. He served as chairman of the Department of Virology from 1972-1990 and Dean of Medical Faculty from 1990-97 at the Karolinska Institute. Erling Norrby has achieved a high level of accomplishment and recognition for academic research in viruses and diseases and as a leader in science and medicine. His laboratory career focused on viruses and immunopathogenesis, with particularly important contributions to the Paramyxoviruses (measles, atypical measles, SSPE) and to the retroviruses causing AIDS in man (HIV) and animals (SIV). He is the recipient of several awards, including the Career Award of the Swedish Cancer Society, 1966-72 and the Fernström Prize, 1981. He has served on the World Health Organization's Expert Advisory Committee since 1975. And served the Nobel Committee in various capacities, from 1975 to 1993. Dr. Norrby has been a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences since 1981 and the Academia Europea since 1998. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2000.
 
79Name:  Dr. Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
German biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard is a widely acknowledged authority on embryonic limb regeneration, development and induction. She was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1991 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1995, the latter for her work with Eric Wieschaus and Edward B. Lewis on the genetic control of embryonic development. With Wieschaus, she developed a spectacularly successful large-scale mutagenesis project that illuminated the development program of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. At the time of these experiments, molecular biology was mostly based on small-scale experiments that demonstrated principles or examples of possibly general significance. These experiments were not only distinguished by their sheer scale (with the methods available at the time, they involved an enormous workload), but more importantly by their significance for organisms other than fruit flies. It was later found that many of the genes identified here had homologues in other species. These findings have also led to important realizations about evolution, and they greatly increased understanding of the regulation of transcription and cell fate during development. Since 1985 Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard has been Director of the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tübingen, Germany. She received her Ph.D. from Tübingen University in 1973 and also currently leads the university's Genetics Department. In 1986 she received the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, which is the highest honour awarded in German research.
 
80Name:  Ivan Pavlov
 Year Elected:  1932
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1849
 Death Date:  2/27/36
   
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