American Philosophical Society
Member History

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2. Biological Sciences[X]
1Name:  Lord Robert McCredie May
 Institution:  Univerity of Oxford and The Royal Society
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1936
 Death Date:  April 28, 2020
Sir Robert May is President of the Royal Society and holds a Professorship jointly in the Department of Zoology, Oxford University and at Imperial College, London. For the five-year period ending in September of 2000, he was Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK Government and Head of its Office of Science and Technology. After earning a D.Phil. degree in Theoretical Physics from Sydney University, Sir Robert spent two years as the MacKay Lecturer in Applied Mathematics at Harvard. He then returned to Sydney University as Senior Lecturer in Theoretical Physics, where he would hold that institution's first Personal Chair. In 1973, Sir Robert joined the faculty of Princeton University as its Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology and, from 1977-88, he also served as Chair of the University Research Board. Returning to Britain as a Royal Society Research Professor, Sir Robert's current work deals with the factors influencing the diversity and abundance of plant and animal species, and with the rates, causes and consequences of extinction. His recent publications in this area include Large Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology (1994), Extinction Rates (1995) and Evolution of Biological Diversity (1999). Sir Robert's contributions to the field of ecological research have been recognized with the Crafoord Prize from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the 1998 Balzan Prize, among numerous other honors.
2Name:  Dr. Rolf M. Zinkernagel
 Institution:  Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
Rolf Zinkernagel received an M.D. in 1968 from the University of Basel and a Ph.D. in 1975 from the Australian National University. He was a professor in the Department of Pathology at the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation (1976-79) and a professor at the University Hospital in Zurich (1979-88). He has been a full professor and director of the Institute of Experimental Immunology at the University of Zurich since 1992. Rolf Zinkernagel elucidated the biologic significance of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted adaptive immune response. This kind of response provides protection from a panoply of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa that have no or low cytotoxicity and, coincidentally, is the fundamental barrier to in-species tissue and organ transplantation (e.g. human to human organ and bone marrow transplantation). Dr. Zinkernagel was awarded the Lasker Award in 1995. In 1996 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine "for discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defense." He was elected as an international fellow of the Royal Society and an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 2001.
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