American Philosophical Society
Member History

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2. Biological Sciences[X]
1Name:  Dr. Kamaljit S. Bawa
 Institution:  University of Massachusetts; Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
Kamal Bawa ( is Distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Massachusetts Boston, and Founder-President of the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE). The Ashoka Trust, based in Bangalore, is one of India’s top-ranked environmental think tanks and in 2019 received the UNESCO Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Conservation. He has done extensive work in the Himalaya for a number of years on a wide range of issues from biodiversity conservation to climate change. Kamal Bawa has published more than 200 papers and has authored or edited more than 10 books, and special issues of journals. Among the many awards he has received are: Bullard Fellowship at Harvard University (1972, 2009) Guggenheim Fellowship (1987), Pew Scholar in Conservation and the Environment (1992), Giorgio Ruffolo Fellowship at Harvard University (2009), the Gunnerus Prize in Sustainability Science from the Royal Norwegian Society of Letters and Sciences (2012), the international MIDORI Prize in Biodiversity (2014) from the Aeon Foundation in Japan, the Linnean Medal (2018), and honorary doctorates from the University of Alberta (2014) and Concordia University in Montreal(2019). He is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2012), the Royal Norwegian Society of Letters and Sciences (2012), and the Royal Society (2015). Kamal Bawa is founding Editor-in Chief of two interdisciplinary journals: Conservation and Society ( and Ecology, Economy and Society ( His latest coffee table book Himalaya: The Mountains of Life, a companion volume to Sahyadri: India’s Western Ghats, was published in 2013.
2Name:  Dr. Christopher Stringer
 Institution:  Natural History Museum, London
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
Christopher Stringer is the Research Leader in Human Origins at London's Natural History Museum. He is also co-director of the follow-up Pathways to Ancient Britain project. He earned his Ph.D. in 1974 and his D.Sc. 1990, both from the University of Bristol. He has spent most of his career at the Natural History Museum, first starting as a Researcher in 1973. Stringer is a leading proponent of the Out-of-Africa theory for the origin and spread of modern humans. Beginning with his seminal 1988 Science paper on the "Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans" (with Peter Andrews) he has worked with archaeologists, dating specialists and geneticists to further develop and refine our understanding of the evolution of our own species. He has recently formulated a modified version of this model, the Coalescent African Origin model. He carried out significant fieldwork on Neanderthals and since 2001 has directed the "Ancient Human Occupation of Britain" and "Pathways to Ancient Britain" projects, which have produced significant new findings about the spread of hominids into the British Isles. He is also the author of numerous bestselling books on human evolution including Our Human Story (with Louise Humphrey), Britain: One Million Years of the Human Story (with R Dinnis), and Homo Britannicus. He received the Royal Anthropological Institute's Rivers Memorial Medal in 2004 and the Zoological Society of London's Frink Medal in 2008. Stringer was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2023 New Year Honors for services to the understanding of human evolution. He has been a member of the Royal Society since 2004 and is a member of the Society of Antiquaries. Stringer was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2019.
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