American Philosophical Society
Member History

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2. Biological Sciences[X]
1Name:  Dr. Marianne Grunberg-Manago
 Institution:  Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  January 4, 2013
French biologist Marianne Grunberg-Manago had a profound effect on the development of molecular biology. She discovered polynucleotide phosphorylase, the first enzyme capable of synthesizing macromolecules with nucleic acid-like structures, which was subsequently used to elucidate the genetic code. In extending this work, Dr. Grunberg-Manago contributed to the understanding of the translation of the genetic code in the synthesis of protein, in particular as pertains to the role of initiation factors and the dynamic role of ribosomes. She opened a new field of investigation concerning the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of protein synthesis, eludicating the role of several essential protein factors involved in selection of initiation codons. Not only was her research of international stature, but her activities were international in scope as president of the International Union of Biochemistry, president of the French delegation of the French-Soviet Exchanges, a member of the A.S.I. committee of NATO and a Fogarty scholar at the National Institutes of Health, to name a few. Dr. Grunberg-Manago was the first woman to direct the International Union of Biochemistry and was a member of the French Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1992. She had been Emeritus Director of Research at the French National Center for Scientific Research at the time of her death on January 4, 2013, at age 91.
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