American Philosophical Society
Member History

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Class
2. Biological Sciences[X]
Subdivision
205. Microbiology[X]
1Name:  Dr. Jeanne Altmann
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2020
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Jeanne Altmann is currently Eugene Higgins Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Emerita at Princeton University. She earned her Ph.D. at the University of Chicago in 1979 and went on to work for the Chicago Zoological Society, the Brookfield Zoo, and the University of Chicago. She moved to Princeton in 1998. Jeanne Altmann is one of the generation of pioneering female primatologists and since 1971 has carried out long-term field research on baboons in Amboseli National Park, Kenya (together with her now deceased husband Stuart Altmann). She came to primatology from mathematics and her 1974 paper “Observational Study of Behaviour Sampling Methods” revolutionized field primatology with a solid mathematical analytical methodology, the importance of which was clearly demonstrated in her now classic 1980 book, Baboon Mothers and Infants. Throughout her long career (and over 160 publications) her research has dealt with life history approaches to behavioral ecology, emphasizing an integrated approach involving studies of behavior, ecology, demography, genetics, and physiology at the level of individuals, social groups, and populations. Most recently she and her collaborators have been focused on studies that relate endocrine and genetic data to demographic and behavioral information for the same individuals in the Amboseli baboon population. Jeanne Altmann has won the Exemplar Award of the Animal Behavior Society in 1996, the Distinguished Primatologist Award of the American Society of Primatologists in 2006, the Distinguished Animal Behaviorist Award of the Animal Behavior Society in 2012, the Sewell Wright Award of the American Society of Naturalists in 2013, and the Lifetime Achievement Award of the International Primatological Society in 2014. She is a member of the Animal Behavior Society (president, 1985-86), the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1996), and the National Academy of Sciences (2003). Jeanne Altmann was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2020.
 
2Name:  Dr. Kamaljit S. Bawa
 Institution:  University of Massachusetts; Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Kamal Bawa (www.kbawa.com) is Distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Massachusetts Boston, and Founder-President of the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE). The Ashoka Trust, based in Bangalore, is one of India’s top-ranked environmental think tanks and in 2019 received the UNESCO Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Conservation. He has done extensive work in the Himalaya for a number of years on a wide range of issues from biodiversity conservation to climate change. Kamal Bawa has published more than 200 papers and has authored or edited more than 10 books, and special issues of journals. Among the many awards he has received are: Bullard Fellowship at Harvard University (1972, 2009) Guggenheim Fellowship (1987), Pew Scholar in Conservation and the Environment (1992), Giorgio Ruffolo Fellowship at Harvard University (2009), the Gunnerus Prize in Sustainability Science from the Royal Norwegian Society of Letters and Sciences (2012), the international MIDORI Prize in Biodiversity (2014) from the Aeon Foundation in Japan, the Linnean Medal (2018), and honorary doctorates from the University of Alberta (2014) and Concordia University in Montreal(2019). He is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2012), the Royal Norwegian Society of Letters and Sciences (2012), and the Royal Society (2015). Kamal Bawa is founding Editor-in Chief of two interdisciplinary journals: Conservation and Society (www.conservationandsociety.org) and Ecology, Economy and Society (http://ecoinsee.org/journal/eb_editors). His latest coffee table book Himalaya: The Mountains of Life, a companion volume to Sahyadri: India’s Western Ghats, was published in 2013.
 
3Name:  Dr. Rosina M. Bierbaum
 Institution:  University of Maryland; University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  2023
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Rosina Bierbaum is an ecologist working at the environment-science-policy interface, particularly on climate change, adaptation, and development issues. She grew up in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and became interested in tackling pollution at an early age, inspired by Rachel Carson’s books. She graduated from Boston College with a BA in English and a BS in Biology and earned a Ph.D. in Ecology and Evolution from S.U.N.Y, Stony Brook. A Congressional fellowship altered her goal of working on symbioses in marine systems but began a 20-year career in the legislative and executive branches of the U.S. Government, culminating in leading the first Environment Division of the White House Office of Science and Technology (OSTP.) Translating science into usable information has become a lifelong goal. She holds faculty appointments at both the Universities of Michigan and Maryland, in the School for Environment and Sustainability, and the School of Public Policy, respectively. She served on President Obama's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and as an Adaptation Fellow at the World Bank. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Ecological Society of America, and Sigma Xi. Rosina Chairs the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel of the Global Environmental Facility. She has lectured on every continent.
 
4Name:  Dr. Gretchen Cara Daily
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1964
   
 
Gretchen Daily is a professor of biological sciences; the director of the Tropical Research Program at the Center for Conservation Biology; a senior fellow at CESP; and the Director of the Interdisciplinary Program on Environment and Resources at Stanford University. An ecologist by training, she is working to develop a scientific basis - and political and institutional support - for managing Earth's life support systems. Professor Daily's greatest contributions have been in developing a framework for illuminating the benefits generated by natural capital and the tradeoffs associated with alternative paths of development as a basis for implementing new conservation finance and policy. To this end, she has led interdisciplinary teams, worked closely with economists and other ecologists and authored or edited influential publications that have given the subject great prominence. She has been involved both in developing the theoretical framework and in applying it to case studies. Her efforts in this area have also led her to create the new discipline of countryside biogeography. Daily organized and is the director of the path-breaking Natural Capital Project, which seeks to align conservation and financial incentives. She has also done important studies of the carrying capacity of Earth, humanity's deteriorating epidemiological environment and the importance of equity in solving human problems. Gretchen Daily has published approximately 150 scientific and popular articles. Her most recent book, coauthored with Katherine Ellison, is The New Economy of Nature: The Quest to Make Conservation Profitable (2002). She was presented with the Japanese Cosmos Award in 2009. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2003) and the National Academy of Sciences (2005), she was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
5Name:  Dr. Sandra Díaz
 Institution:  Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Argentina
 Year Elected:  2022
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1961
   
 
Sandra Díaz is Professor of Ecology at Córdoba National University, senior member of the Argentine National Research Council and Visiting Professor at the School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University. She is interested in plant functional traits and syndromes, their effects on ecosystem properties and their interactions with global change drivers. She constructed the first global quantitative picture of essential functional diversity of vascular plants –the global spectrum of plant form and function. She has advanced theory and practical implementation of the concept of functional diversity and its effects on ecosystem properties and benefits. She combines her ecology studies with interdisciplinary work on how different societies value and reconfigure nature. She founded Núcleo DiverSus on Diversity and Sustainability, and co-founded the Global Communal Plant Trait Initiative TRY. She co-chaired the Global Assessment of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. She is a member of the Academies of Sciences of Argentina, USA, France, Norway, Latin America and the Developing World, and Foreign Fellow of the British Royal Society. Her awards include the Margalef Prize in Ecology (2017), the Gunnerus Award in Sustainability Science (2019), the Kew International Medal (2020) and the BBVA Frontiers of Knowledge in Ecology and Conservation Award (2021).
 
6Name:  Dr. Christopher Bower Field
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2022
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
Christopher Bower Field is the Perry L. McCarty Director of the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment and the Melvin and Joan Lane Professor for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies at Stanford University. He earned his Ph.D., also from Stanford, in 1981. He has also worked at the University of Utah, as the Director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. Field has made fundamental contributions to understanding complex interactions between plants and land ecosystems, and CO2 emissions from human activities. His visionary research on the global carbon cycle showed that projections of future climate require the explicit consideration of land ecosystems and their management. His pioneering work established the links between plant photosynthesis and the global carbon budget, and also demonstrated the important role of nitrogen in limiting the uptake of carbon by natural ecosystems in a higher CO2 world. These and other insights enabled the design of effective strategies for managing agricultural fields, forests and other terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate change. He has also played critical international leadership roles in assessing impacts, adaptation and vulnerabilities related to climate change. He has used research findings to guide policy makers and business leaders in making effective choices to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change. He is co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (2007), and received the Heinz Award (2009), the Max Planck Research Award (2013), the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award (2013), the Roger Revelle Medal (2014), and the Stephen H. Schneider Award for Outstanding Climate Science Communication (2015). Field has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 2001 and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences since 2010. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2022.
 
7Name:  Professor Sir Charles Godfray
 Institution:  Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Charles Godfray was an undergraduate at the University of Oxford and received his PhD from Imperial College London in 1983. He held a temporary lectureship at Oxford before joining the faculty at Imperial College in 1987 where he remained until 2006, latterly as Director of the NERC Centre for Population Biology. He then returned to Oxford as Hope Professor in the Department of Zoology, in 2018 taking up a new role in the University as Director of the interdisciplinary Oxford Martin School and Professor of Population Biology. He is a fellow of Balliol College. Charles’ research has been in ecology, evolution and epidemiology, and has involved both theoretical approaches as well as field and laboratory studies, typically using insect systems. Starting from his PhD work he has been interested in the structure of communities and pioneered ways of testing theories in community ecology by the construction of quantitative food webs and then doing manipulation experiments in the field. Most recently his community ecology work has included the effects of symbionts (the insect microbiome). He has worked extensively on insect population dynamics and its application to pest management, especially in the tropics. In evolution he has used a group of insects called parasitic wasps to test broad questions in areas such as sex ratio and life history theory. He has employed game theory to develop evolutionary theories of parent-offspring conflict and of signalling within the family. He is very interested in the science policy interface and has worked extensively on food systems, both academically and in advisory roles for UK Government and other organisations. Charles has received the Scientific Medal and the Frink Medal from the Zoological Society of London, and the Linnaean Medal from the Linnaean Society. He is an Honorary Member or Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society, the British Ecological Society, and the International Academy of Food Science and Technology. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of Academia Europaea and the American Academy of Arts and Science. He was knighted for contributions to science and science advice to government in 2017.
 
8Name:  Dr. Jane Goodall
 Institution:  Jane Goodall Institute
 Year Elected:  1988
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Jane Goodall began her landmark study of chimpanzees in Tanzania in June 1960, under the mentorship of anthropologist and paleontologist Dr. Louis Leakey. Her work at the Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve would become the foundation of future primatological research and redefine the relationship between humans and animals. One of Jane's most significant discoveries came in her first year at Gombe, when she saw chimps stripping leaves off stems to make the stems useful for fishing termites out of nearby mounds. This and subsequent observations of Gombe chimps making and using tools would force science to rethink the definition that separated man from other animals: "man the toolmaker." Jane also observed chimps hunting and eating bushpigs and other animals, disproving the widely held belief that chimpanzees were primarily vegetarians. Dr. Goodall defied scientific convention by giving the chimpanzees names instead of numbers, and insisted on the validity of her observations that the chimps had distinct personalities, minds and emotions. She wrote of lasting chimpanzee family bonds. Through the years her work yielded surprising insights such as the discovery that chimpanzees engage in warfare. Dr. Goodall established the Gombe Stream Research Center in 1964. Under the stewardship of Tanzanian field staff and other researchers, it continues Dr. Goodall's work today, making it one of the longest uninterrupted wildlife studies in existence. In 1977, Goodall established the Jane Goodall Institute (JGI), which supports the Gombe work and other research, education and conservation and development programs. These include community-centered conservation efforts in Africa that empower villagers to build sustainable livelihoods while promoting regional conservation goals such as reforestation and an end to the illegal commercial bushmeat trade. JGI's Roots & Shoots program, which supports students from preschool through university in projects that benefit people, animals and the environment, today hosts about 6,000 worldwide groups in more than 87 countries. Dr. Goodall travels an average of 300 days per year, speaking about the threats facing chimpanzees, other environmental crisis, and her reason for hope that human kind will solve the problems it has imposed on the earth. She continually urges her audiences to recognize their personal responsibility and ability to effect change through consumer action, lifestyle change and activism. Her most recent book is Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder From the World of Plants (2013). In 2016 she was awarded the Krogman Award from the Penn Museum and in 2021 she won the Templeton Prize.
 
9Name:  Dr. Diane E. Griffin
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Diane E. Griffin MD, PhD is University Distinguished Service Professor and former Chair of the W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Vice President of the US National Academy of Sciences. She earned her BA in Biology at Augustana College in Rock Island, IL and her MD and PhD at Stanford University School of Medicine. Her research interests are in the area of pathogenesis of viral diseases with a particular focus on measles and arboviral encephalitis. These studies address issues related to virulence and the role of immune responses in protection from infection and in clearance of infection. She has more than 400 publications and has served on multiple advisory and editorial boards. She is the US Chair of the US-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program and past president of the American Society for Virology and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and Association of American Physicians, as well as the National Academy of Sciences. Among other honors, she has received the Rudolf Virchow Medal from the University of Wurzburg (2010), Wallace Sterling Lifetime Alumni Achievement Award from Stanford University (2011), FASEB Excellence in Science Award (2015), Maxwell Finland Award from the NFID (2016) and MilliporeSigma Alice C. Evans Award from the ASM (2017).
 
10Name:  Dr. David A. Hamburg
 Institution:  Weill Cornell Medical College; Carnegie Corporation of New York
 Year Elected:  1983
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  April 21, 2019
   
 
David Hamburg was president emeritus at Carnegie Corporation of New York, where he served as the Corporation's eleventh president from 1982-97. Under his leadership the work of the Corporation focused on education and healthy development of children and youth, human resources in developing countries, and international security issues. He established a number of task forces on education and preventing conflict which produced seminal research and policy analysis and which will continue to influence the work in these fields in the future. A medical doctor, Dr. Hamburg had a long history of leadership in the research, medical and psychiatric fields before his transition from a trustee of Carnegie to its president. An authority on psychosomatic and psychiatric diseases, he was broadly interested in human genetics and evolution. He was chief of the adult psychiatry branch at the National Institutes of Health, from 1958-61; professor and chairman of the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University from 1961-72; Reed-Hodgson Professor of Human Biology at Stanford University from 1972-76; president of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 1975-80; and director of the division of health policy research and education and John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy at Harvard University, 1980-83. He served as president and chairman of the board (1984-1986) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Hamburg was a member of the United States Defense Policy Board with Secretary of Defense William Perry and cochair with former Secretary of State Cyrus Vance of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. He was a member of President Clinton's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology and a visiting professor at Harvard Medical School's department of social medicine and was the founder of the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology and Government. In May 2006 Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed him to chair the newly formed United Nations Advisory Committee on Genocide Prevention. The committee provided guidance and support to the work of the UN Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide and contributed to the broader efforts of the UN to avert massive crimes against humanity. He was DeWitt Wallace Distinguished Scholar at the Weill Cornell Medical College and Co-Chair of the Social Medicine and Public Policy Programs. Hamburg received both his A.B. and M.D. degrees from Indiana University. He also received numerous honorary degrees during his career as well as the American Psychiatric Association's Distinguished Service Award in 1991, the Presidential Medal of Freedom at the White House in 1996, the International Peace Academy's 25th Anniversary Special Award in 1996, the Achievement in Children and Public Policy Award from the Society for Research in Child Development in 1997, and the National Academy of Sciences' Public Welfare Medal in 1998. In 2007 he received the Institute of Medicine's Rhoda and Bernard Sarnat International Award in Mental Health jointly with his wife Beatrix; similarly, they were jointly awarded the 2015 Pardes Humanitarian Prize in Mental Health from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation. David Hamburg died on April 21, 2019 in Washington, D.C. at the age of 93.
 
11Name:  Dr. Maurice R. Hilleman
 Institution:  Merck Institute for Vaccinology & University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  April 11, 2005
   
 
Dr. Maurice R. Hilleman is Director, Merck Institute for Vaccinology and Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania. His past career of six decades of medical research included the Squibb Research Labs, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, and the Merck Institute for Medical Research. His bibliography includes more than 500 original publications in virology, immunology, epidemiology, and infectious diseases. Dr. Hilleman is a senior statesman and authority in the medical sciences for basic discoveries and vaccine developments. He has received numerous awards and accolades from academia, government, and industry. Among the most significant, he is an elected member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences; the Institute of Medicine of the Academy; the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Distinctive honors include the Lasker Medical Research Award; Award of the National Medal of Science by President Reagan; the Robert Koch Gold Medal (Berlin); the Prince Mahidol Award presented by the King of Thailand; the Maxwell Finland Award; the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal; Decoration for Distinguished Science Achievement by the U.S. Secretary of Defense, and numerous lifetime achievement awards. Dr. Hilleman received his B.S. degree from Montana State University (1941), and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago (1944). He holds honorary doctorate degrees from U.S. and foreign universities. Dr. Hilleman’s career has been devoted to both basic and applied research with breakthrough discoveries and developments in virology, cancer, immunology, epidemiology, and vaccinology. Basic research examples include the discoveries of SV40 virus and its oncogenicity, the codiscoveries of the Adenoviruses and the Rhinoviruses, purification and characterization of interferon and it’s induction by double-stranded RNA, pioneering propagation of hepatitis A virus and its growth in cell culture. He pioneered the development of numerous live, killed and recombinant vaccines including measles, mumps, rubella, MMR, varicella, Marek’s Disease, hepatitis A; both plasma-derived and recombinant hepatitis B, and the commercial evolution of vaccines against meningococci and pneumococci. He has been credited with developing more vaccines than any person and is recognized for having changed the face of the world in providing means to prevent and control a number of its most important diseases. Many consider him a living legend!
 
12Name:  Dr. Bert Hölldobler
 Institution:  Biozentrum of the University of Würzburg; Arizona State University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Bert Hölldobler is one of the foremost authorities in the world on insect behavior and the behavioral ecology of invertebrate animals. In a series of brilliant experiments and field studies over the past forty years, he has demonstrated the extreme adaptations to the environment of which the insect brain is capable: for example, the demonstration of military-like strategies and "diplomacy" in conflict between ant colonies and the basis of ant trap jaw predation -- the reflex arc and most rapid mechanical movements known in animals. His Pulitzer Prize-winning book (with E.O. Wilson) The Ants is a widely-hailed classic, and The Superorganism, Wilson's and Hölldobler's most recent collaboration, provides another in-depth look at the intricate ways of social insects. As Professor of Zoology Emeritus at the Biozentrum of the University of Würzburg and Foundation Professor of Life Sciences at the Arizona State University School of Life Sciences, Dr. Hölldobler continues his interest in the evolution of social organizations in insects and in the underlying mechanisms that make insect societies work. In 2016 he was awarded the Lorenz Oken Medal.
 
13Name:  Dr. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy
 Institution:  University of California, Davis
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Sarah Blaffer Hrdy graduated summa cum laude from Radcliffe College and earned her PhD at Harvard in 1975. Currently she is professor emerita in the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Davis. She has been elected to the California Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is the sole author of five books including The Woman That Never Evolved (1981), Mother Nature (1999), and Mothers and Others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding (2009) as well as co-editor of Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives and Attachment and Bonding: A New Synthesis. Her current focus is on how evolutionary perspectives can help us better understand the needs of children. She and her husband, a medical doctor, have three children and currently combine growing walnuts with habitat restoration on their farm in northern California (which can be found at www.citrona.com). In 2014 she was received the NAS Award for Scientific Publishing.
 
14Name:  Dr. Edwin D. Kilbourne
 Institution:  New York Medical College
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  February 21, 2011
   
 
Edwin Dennis Kilbourne spent his professional lifetime in the study of infectious diseases, with particular reference to virus infections. His early studies of coxsackieviruses and herpes simplex preceded intensive study of influenza in all of its manifestations. His primary contributions have been to the understanding of influenza virus structure and genetics and the practical application of these studies to the development of influenza vaccines and to the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of influenza. His studies of influenza virus genetics resulted in the first genetically engineered vaccine of any kind for the prevention of human disease. A new approach to influenza immunization has received 2 United States Patents. Following his graduation from Cornell University Medical College in 1944, and an internship and residency in medicine at the New York Hospital, he served two years in the Army of the United States. After three years at the Rockefeller Institute, he served successively as Associate Professor of Medicine at Tulane University, as Professor of Public Health at Cornell University Medical College, and as founding Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, at which he was awarded the rank of Distinguished Service Professor. He was Emeritus Professor at New York Medical College. He was a member of the Association of American Physicians and the National Academy of Sciences and was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1994. He was the recipient of the Borden Award of the Association of American Medical Colleges for Outstanding Research in Medical Sciences and of an honorary degree from Rockefeller University in addition to other honors and lectureships. As an avocation, Dr. Kilbourne published light verse and essays and articles for the general public on various aspects of biological science. Edwin Kilbourne died on February 21, 2011, at the age of 90, in Madison, Connecticut.
 
15Name:  Lord John Richard Krebs
 Institution:  University of Oxford & Pembroke College & UK Food Standards Agency
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Sir John Krebs received a D.Phil at the University of Oxford in 1970. He has held faculty positions at the Institute of Animal Resource Ecology at the University of British Columbia and the University College of North Wales and was S.R.C. Research Officer of the Animal Behavior Research Group and University Lecturer at the Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology at the University of Oxford. Formerly a fellow of Wolfson College, he was an Official Fellow at Pembroke College from 1988 to 2005. Sir John has also served as director of the AFRC Unit of Ecology and Behavior (1989-94), director of the NERC Unit of Behavioural Ecology (1989-94), chief executive officer of the Natural Environment Research Council (1994-99) and chairman of the UK Food Standards Agency (2000-05). He is currently serving as the Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, a position he has held since 1988. Since October 2005, he has been the Principal of Jesus College, Oxford. For thirty years, Sir John Krebs has been a leading researcher in applying quantitative methods to the functions of animal behavior, especially birds. His elegant studies of territoriality and the use of living space, the behavioral mechanisms involved, including birdsong, and the application of economic concepts to the use of food resources were seminal in establishing the new discipline of behavioral ecology. He co-edited the leading advanced textbook for training behavioral ecologists throughout the world. Sir John Krebs has been honoured by the Zoological Society with the scientific Medal in 1981 and the Frink Medal in 1997, by the Linnaean Society with the Bicentenary Medal in 1983 and by the American Ornithologists' Union with the Elliott Coues Award in 1999. He was awarded the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Medal in 2000 and the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health's Benjamin Ward Richardson Gold Medal in 2002. He received a Knighthood for services to Behavioural Ecology in 1999. He is a member of the Royal Society, Max Planck Society, Academia Europaea, British Ecological Society and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He has served as president of the International Society of Behavioural Ecology and the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000 and of the National Academy of Sciences in 2004, and was made Honorary Fellow of the German Ornithologists' Society in 2003.
 
16Name:  Dr. Richard E. Lenski
 Institution:  Michigan State University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Richard E. Lenski is an evolutionary biologist, one who pursues an experimental approach to watch the process of evolution in action. In an on-going experiment that he started in 1988, Lenski and his team have been monitoring and analyzing 12 populations of E. coli bacteria as they evolve in a controlled environment for almost 70,000 generations. This work has provided fundamental insights into the process of microbial adaptation, the dynamics of genome evolution, and the origin of new functions. Samples have been stored periodically in freezers, and the cells that lived in different generations can be revived and directly compared - in effect, allowing time travel. In addition to studying microbial evolution, Lenski collaborates on experiments in which computer programs self-replicate, mutate, compete, and thereby evolve in and adapt to their virtual worlds. Lenski did his undergraduate studies at Oberlin College, graduate work at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and postdoctoral research at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He began his faculty career at the University of California, Irvine, before joining Michigan State University in 1991 as the John Hannah Professor of Microbial Ecology, with sabbatical stints at the University of Oxford and Université de Montpellier. Lenski has mentored more than 25 graduate students and postdoctoral associates who are now on the faculties of universities around the United States and the world. He is a past president of the Society for the Study of Evolution, and he helped start the BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, which brings together biologists, computer scientists, and engineers to illuminate and harness the power of evolution. Lenski has received fellowships from the Guggenheim and MacArthur Foundations, he holds an honorary degree from Wageningen University, and he is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the European Molecular Biology Organization, and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.
 
17Name:  Dr. Estella Bergere Leopold
 Institution:  University of Washington
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  February 25, 2024
   
 
Estella Leopold received her Ph.D. at Yale University in 1955. She was a research botanist for the U.S. Geological Survey from 1955-76, while also serving as an adjunct professor at the University of Colorado from 1967-76. In 1976 she moved to the University of Washington, where she was Director of the Quaternary Research Center until 1982, professor of botany and forest resources, 1976-89, and professor of botany and environmental studies, 1989-95. Dr. Leopold is currently Professor Emeritus of Botany and Adjunct Professor of Geological Sciences. She is a recipient of the Conservationist-of-the-Year Award from the Colorado Wildlife Federation, and the Wilbur Cross Medal from Yale University. She has served on many committees for the National Academy of Sciences, including the paleoanthropology delegation to China in 1975, and has served on the board of the Environmental Defense Fund and the National Audubon Society. She was president of the American Quaternary Association from 1982-84 and is past president and board chair of the Aldo Leopold Foundation. As one of the world's outstanding paleobotanists, Estella Leopold became the first botanist to identify from pollen the North American floras that existed in the Tertiary Period. In her 100 publications Dr. Leopold has concentrated on paleoclimate and evolution of modern forest types. Tracing evolutionary and extinction rates, she discovered that regional floral change has been closely linked with mountain building and volcanism. She established that grassy savanna co-evolved with large, hooved ungulates during the Miocene cooling. At Eniwetok, using fossil pollen from deep-sea cores, Dr. Leopold established proof of Darwin's concept that atolls evolved from sinking volcanoes. She is an active conservationist. Dr. Leopold was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Her most recent book, Saved in Time, was published in 2012. In 2010 she won the Cosmos Prize from the Japan’s Expo ’90 Foundation.
 
18Name:  Dr. Simon Asher Levin
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2003
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Simon Levin received his Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Maryland in 1964. In 1965 he joined the faculty of Cornell University and remained for more than twenty-five years, serving as the Charles A. Alexander Professor of Biological Sciences, director of the Ecosystem Research Center, and director of the Center for Environmental Research. He was also director of the Princeton Environmental Institute, 1993-98. At Princeton University since 1992, he is currently James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution. In addition, since 2001 he has served as director of the Center for Biocomplexity and associated faculty of the Princeton Environmental Institute. Simon Levin has been the leader in developing the theoretical foundation for the study of ecology and evolution of populations in heterogeneous environments. Implications and extensions of his work have been among the most influential in ecology and conservation biology. Alone and jointly with others, he developed the theory of evolution of populations in heterogeneous environments, and of implications for biodiversity. This led to his most far-reaching contributions, on problems of scale, self-organization of ecosystems, and mechanisms for extrapolation across scales. In recent years, has been a leader in sustainability science, the interface between ecology and economics. Dr. Levin received the MacArthur Award from the Ecological Society of America in 1988; the Distinguished Statistical Ecologist Award from INTERCOL in 1994; the "Most cited paper in the field of Ecology and Environment for the 1990s" from the Institute for Scientific Information in 2000; the Outstanding Paper in the Discipline of Landscape Ecology Award for 2001 from the U.S. Chapter of the International Association for Landscape Ecology; and the 1st Okubo Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001. He also received the Heineken Environmental Prize of the Royal Dutch Academy of Science in 2004, the Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences in 2005, and the National Medal of Science in 2015. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences and a Foreign Member of the Instituto Veneto. He also served as president of the Ecological Society of America and the Society of Mathematical Biology. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2003.
 
19Name:  Dr. Gene E. Likens
 Institution:  Institute of Ecosystem Studies
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Gene Likens' work established some of the key concepts, methods, and findings of ecosystem ecology. He founded the Institute for Ecosystem Studies in 1983 and led it through 2007, serving as Director, President and G. Evelyn Hutchinson Chair in Ecology. Dr. Likens' research focuses on the biogeochemistry of forest and aquatic ecosystems. His long-term studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which he co-founded in 1963, have shed light on critical links between ecosystem functions and land use practices. He and his colleagues were the first scientists to document the link between the fossil fuel combustion and an increase in the acidity of precipitation in North America. His findings have influenced policy makers, motivated scientific studies, and increased public awareness of Human-Accelerated Environmental Change. Winner of the 2001 National Medal of Science, Dr. Likens is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1979) and the National Academy of Sciences (1981). He has been awarded the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Ecology and Conservation Biology and the Franklin Institute's 2019 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Earth and Environmental Science. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1962.
 
20Name:  Dr. Jianguo Liu
 Institution:  Michigan State University
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1963
   
 
A human-environment scientist and sustainability scholar, Jianguo (Jack) Liu holds the Rachel Carson Chair in Sustainability, is University Distinguished Professor, and serves as director of the Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability at Michigan State University (MSU). Liu came to MSU after completing his postdoctoral work at Harvard University. He also has been a guest professor at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a visiting scholar at Stanford (2001-2002), Harvard (2008) and Princeton (2009). Liu takes a holistic approach to addressing complex human-environmental challenges through systems integration (e.g., integration of ecology with social sciences). His broad research interests include coupled human and natural systems; global sustainability; telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances); conservation; China's environment; and complex interactions among pandas, people, and policies. His work has been published in journals such as Nature and Science, and has been widely covered by the international news media (e.g., The New York Times, BBC, Xinhua News Agency). Liu has served on various international and national committees. He is a past president of the U.S. Regional Association of the International Association for Landscape Ecology (US-IALE). He also is a member of the Board of Reviewing Editors for Science magazine and leads the International Network of Research on Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS-Net.org). In recognition of his efforts and achievements in research and service, Liu has been given many awards and honors. They include the Guggenheim Fellowship Award, Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation, the Distinguished Service Award from US-IALE, the Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellowship from the Ecological Society of America, and the 2021 Gunnerus Sustainability Prize.
 
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