American Philosophical Society
Member History

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302. Economics[X]
21Name:  Sir Angus Deaton
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2014
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Angus Deaton is Dwight D. Eisenhower Professor of Economics and International Affairs Emeritus at Princeton University where he has taught for more than thirty years. In March 2017 he was appointed Presidential Professor of Economics at the University of Southern California. He is the author of five books including, most recently, The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was educated there, in the Scottish borders, and at Cambridge University. He taught at the University of Bristol, where he was Professor of Econometrics, from 1976 to 1983. Over the years, his interests have included consumer behavior, econometrics, health, development, poverty, inequality, and wellbeing. His book with John Muellbauer, Economics and Consumer Behavior, has been a basic reference since its publication in 1980. His 1997 book, The Analysis of Household Surveys, is widely used by researchers in economic development. He has consulted for the World Bank, on poverty measurement and on international comparisons, and for the Gallup Organization, exploring global and national links between life evaluation, hedonic wellbeing, income and health. He was the first recipient of the Econometric Society’s Frisch Medal, and was Editor of Econometrica in the 1980s. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and was President of the American Economic Association in 2009. He holds honorary degrees from the Universities of Rome, London, St Andrews, Edinburgh, and Cyprus. In 2012, he won the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in recognition of his life’s work. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2014. In 2015 he was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare. In 2016 he was knighted in the Queen's Birthday Honours list.
 
22Name:  Dr. Gerard Debreu
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  December 31, 2004
   
23Name:  Dr. Avinash K. Dixit
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Avinash Dixit is the John J. F. Sherrerd ’52 University Professor of Economics at Princeton University. He is also Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Economics at Lingnan University, Hong Kong, and a Senior Research Fellow, Nuffield College, Oxford. His research interests have included microeconomic theory, game theory, international trade, industrial organization, growth and development theories, public economics, political economy, and the new institutional economics. His book publications include Theory of International Trade (with Victor Norman), The Art of Strategy (with Barry Nalebuff), Investment Under Uncertainty (with Robert Pindyck), Games of Strategy (with Susan Skeath), Lawlessness and Economics: Alternative Modes of Governance, and The Making of Economic Policy: A Transaction Cost Politics Perspective. He has also published numerous articles in professional journals and collective volumes. He was President of the Econometric Society in 2001, and of the American Economic Association in 2008. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992, the National Academy of Sciences in 2005, and the American Philosophical Society in 2010, and was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy in 2006. Dixit was born in Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1944, and is a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was educated at St. Xavier’s College (Bombay), Corpus Christi College (Cambridge) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was an assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley, a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and professor at the University of Warwick, before joining Princeton in 1981. He has held visiting professorships at MIT, and visiting scholar positions at the International Monetary Fund, the London School of Economics, the Institute for International Economic Studies (Stockholm), and the Russell Sage Foundation.
 
24Name:  Dr. Andrew F. Brimmer
 Institution:  Brimmer & Co. Inc.
 Year Elected:  1976
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  October 7, 2012
   
 
Noted economist, academic and business leader Andrew F. Brimmer was born in Newellton, Louisiana in 1926, the son of sharecroppers who had been driven off of the land by boll weevils. Upon graduation from a segregated high school, he moved to Bremerton, Washington with an older sister and worked in a navy yard as an electrician's helper. In 1945 he was drafted into the Army, and after completing his military service in 1946, enrolled at the University of Washington, earning a B.A. in economics in 1950. In 1951 he received his M.A. and won a Fulbright grant to study in India. He subsequently earned a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1957 and went to work for the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as an economist. During that same time, he traveled to Khartoum, Sudan, to help the country establish a central bank. During the Kennedy administration, Dr. Brimmer became assistant secretary of economic affairs in the U.S. Department of Commerce, serving until 1966. That same year he began an eight-and-a-half year term on the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. While there, he became the first African American governor of the Federal Reserve. In 1974 he left to take a post at Harvard University, where he stayed for two years. When he left, he formed his own consulting company, Brimmer & Co. In 1997, he began serving on the Federal Reserve and in 1999 became vice chairman. Dr. Brimmer was elected to the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1991, largely as a result of his published works on the nature and importance of central banking systems. He served as vice president of the American Economic Association and president of the Eastern Economics Association. He was president of the North American Economics and Finance Association and served on a number of other corporate boards of directors. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1976. Andrew F. Brimmer died October 7, 2012, at the age of 86 in Washington D.C.
 
25Name:  Dr. John T. Dunlop
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1972
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  October 2, 2003
   
26Name:  Dr. Ernest Andre Gellner
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  1993
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  11/5/95
   
27Name:  Dr. Solomon Fabricant
 Institution:  New York University
 Year Elected:  1954
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1906
 Death Date:  9/13/89
   
28Name:  Dr. Martin Feldstein
 Institution:  Harvard University & National Bureau of Economic Research
 Year Elected:  1989
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1939
 Death Date:  June 11, 2019
   
 
Martin Feldstein was George F. Baker Professor of Economics at Harvard University and President and president emeritus of the National Bureau of Economic Research. From 1982 through 1984, he was Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers and President Ronald Reagan's chief economic adviser. He was known for his contributions toward the analysis of taxation and social insurance. A Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy, a Fellow of the Econometric Society and a Fellow of the National Association of Business Economists, Dr. Feldstein served as President of the American Economic Association in 2004 and was also a member of the Trilateral Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Group of 30 and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. In 1977, he received the John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association, a prize awarded every two years to the economist under the age of 40 who is judged to have made the greatest contribution to economic science. He was the author of more than 300 research articles in economics, director of three corporations (American International Group; HCA; and Eli Lilly), and a regular contributor to the Wall Street Journal. Born in 1939, he attended Harvard College and Oxford University. Martin Feldstein died June 11, 2019 in Boston, Massachusetts at the age of 79.
 
29Name:  Dr. Robert W. Fogel
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  June 11, 2013
   
 
Specializing in economic history from the point of view of statistical analysis, Robert Fogel was one of the most distinguished economists in the world. A deep student of the Simon Kuznets tradition, he later introduced formal econometrics in the statistical study of economic history, and his book on the economics of slavery, with Stanley Engerman, was a landmark study. Later, he has focused on research in the fields of demographics, health, medicine and technical change. A graduate of Johns Hopkins University (Ph.D., 1963), Dr. Fogel served on the faculties of the University of Rochester (1960-64, 1968-75), Harvard University (1975-81) and the University of Chicago (1963-75, 1981-2013), where he was Charles Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of American Institutions and director of the Center for Population Economics. He died on June 11, 2013, at the age of 86, in Oak Lawn, Illinois.
 
30Name:  Dr. Milton Friedman
 Institution:  University of Chicago & Hoover Institution
 Year Elected:  1957
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1912
 Death Date:  November 16, 2006
   
31Name:  Dr. Victor R. Fuchs
 Institution:  Stanford University & National Bureau of Economic Research
 Year Elected:  1990
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1924
   
 
Victor Fuchs is the Henry J. Kaiser, Jr., Professor of Economics and of Health Research and Policy, Emeritus at Stanford University; a Freeman Spogli Institute senior fellow; and a core faculty member at Stanford's Center for Health Policy/Primary Care and Outcomes Research. He uses economic theory to provide a framework for the collection and analysis of healthcare data. Dr. Fuchs has written extensively on the cost of medical care and on determinants of health, with an emphasis on the role of socioeconomic factors. He has been particularly interested in the role of physician behavior and financial incentives in determining healthcare expenditures. His current research examines inequality in the length of life, individual and social responsibility for health, and the economics of aging. He is also developing a proposal for a "universal healthcare voucher" system in which all families or individuals would be given a voucher -- financed by an earmarked value-added tax -- that would guarantee them coverage in a private health insurance plan with a standardized package of benefits, including basic health services and catastrophic coverage. Dr. Fuchs received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1955. He is the author of works including Who Shall Live? Health, Economics and Social Choice (1974) and The Health Economy (1986). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Institute of Medicine.
 
32Name:  Dr. John Kenneth Galbraith
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1980
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1908
 Death Date:  April 30, 2006
   
33Name:  Dr. Claudia Goldin
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Claudia Goldin has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of labor market discrimination, gender roles in employment, the roles of education and health as major components of human capital and the role of human capital in economic growth. She has argued that it is difficult to rationalize occupational sex segregation and wage discrimination in terms of men’s taste for distance from women; instead she constructs a “pollution” model of discrimination in which a new female hire may reduce the prestige of a previously all male occupation. According to the model, occupations requiring productivity above the female median will tend to be segregated, while those below the median will tend to be integrated. In her analysis of the economic slowdown in the U.S. in the 1970s she finds that rising levels of inequality at the end of the 20th century was the root of the problem, not slow productivity growth or economic convergence between nations. In the U.S. educational system, she finds that the virtues characterizing it in the early 20th century may now be considered vices, in that the system that created social mobility now is beset by a lack of standards. In all her work she has illuminated fundamental questions of economic and social development. She won the Erwin Plein Nemmers Prize in Economics "for her groundbreaking insights into the history of the American economy, the evolution of gender roles and the interplay of technology, human capital and labor markets" in 2020.
 
34Name:  Dr. James J. Heckman
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
James J. Heckman shared the 2000 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He is the Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago, where he has served since 1973. He directs the Economics Research Center and the Center for Social Program Evaluation at the Harris School for Public Policy. In addition, he is the Professor of Science and Society at University College Dublin and a Senior Research Fellow at the American Bar Foundation. Dr. Heckman received his B.A. in mathematics from Colorado College in 1965 and his Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University in 1971. His work has been devoted to the development of a scientific basis for economic policy evaluation, with special emphasis on models of individuals and disaggregated groups, and to the problems and possibilities created by heterogeneity, diversity, and unobserved counterfactual states. He developed a body of new econometric tools that address these issues. His research has given policymakers important new insights into areas such as education, job-training, the importance of accounting for general equilibrium in the analysis of labor markets, anti-discrimination law, and civil rights. He demonstrated a strong causal effect of the 1964 Civil Rights Act in promoting African-American economic progress, contrary to views of the "Chicago School" that claimed that market forces alone would erode discrimination. He has recently demonstrated that the high school dropout rate is increasing in the United States. Heckman has studied the economic benefits of sorting in the labor market, the ineffectiveness of active labor market programs, and the economic returns to education. His recent research focuses on inequality, human development and lifecycle skill formation, with a special emphasis on the economics of early childhood. He is currently conducting new social experiments on early childhood interventions and reanalyzing old experiments. He is also studying the emergence of the underclass in the United States and Western Europe. Heckman has published over 250 articles and several books. His most recent books include (with Alan Krueger) Inequality in America: What Role for Human Capital Policy? and (with C. Pages) Evaluating Human Capital Policy, and Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean. He is currently finishing a book on the problem of noncognitive skills in America. Heckman has received numerous awards for his work, including the John Bates Clark Award of the American Economic Association in 1983, the 2005 and 2007 Dennis Aigner Award for Applied Econometrics from the Journal of Econometrics, the 2007 Theodore W. Schultz Award from the American Agricultural Economics Association, the 2005 Jacob Mincer Award for Lifetime Achievement in Labor Economics, the 2005 Ulysses Medal from the University College Dublin, and the Spirit of Erikson Institute Award in 2014. He is currently associate editor of the Journal of Labor Economics and the Journal of Applied Econometrics. Heckman was awarded the distinction of fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2009. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences; the American Academy of Arts & Sciences; the Econometric Society; the Society of Labor Economics; the American Statistical Association; and the International Statistical Institute. James Heckman was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. In 2015 he was awarded the Madison Medal of Princeton University.
 
35Name:  Dr. Walter W. Heller
 Year Elected:  1975
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  6/15/87
   
36Name:  Dr. Albert Otto Hirschman
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study
 Year Elected:  1979
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  December 10, 2012
   
 
Albert O. Hirschman was a development economist renowned for his lucid and innovative contributions to economics, the history of ideas, and the social sciences. He was a major participant in the discussion of the emergence of authoritarian regimes in Latin America in the sixties and the seventies, and the return to democratic forms of governance in the eighties. His view of development acknowledges the complexity of human behavior and social reality. His books include Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (1970); The Passions and the Interests (1977), which traces the history of social thought from Machiavelli to Tocqueville; and The Rhetoric of Reaction (1991). Dr. Hirschman received a Ph.D. from the University of Trieste and has taught at Yale, Columbia, and Harvard Universities. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study since 1972 and was Professor Emeritus of the School of Social Science since 1985. Dr. Hirschman was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the Berliner Wissenschaftliche Gesselschaft, and the National Academy of Sciences and is a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. Albert Hirschman died December 10, 2012, at the age of 97, in Ewing Township, New Jersey.
 
37Name:  Dr. George C. Homans
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1964
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1910
 Death Date:  5/29/89
   
38Name:  Dr. Morris Janowitz
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1983
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  11/[7]/88
   
39Name:  Dr. Dale W. Jorgenson
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  June 10, 2022
   
 
Dale W. Jorgenson is the Samuel W. Morris University Professor at Harvard University. He received a BA in economics from Reed College in Portland, Oregon, in 1955 and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard in 1959. After teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the Harvard faculty in 1969 and was appointed the Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics in 1980. He served as Chairman of the Department of Economics from 1994-97. Dr. Jorgenson has been honored with membership in the American Philosophical Society (1998), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1989), the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1978) and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1969). He was elected to Fellowship in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1982), the American Statistical Association (1965), and the Econometric Society (1964). Dr. Jorgenson served as President of the American Economic Association in 2000 and was named a Distinguished Fellow of the Association in 2001. He was a Founding Member of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy of the National Research Council in 1991 and has served as Chairman of the Board since 1998. He also served as Chairman of Section 54, Economic Sciences, of the National Academy of Sciences from 2000-03 and was President of the Econometric Society in 1987. Dr. Jorgenson received the prestigious John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association in 1971. This Medal is awarded every two years to an economist under forty for excellence in economic research. The citation for this award reads in part: "Dale Jorgenson has left his mark with great distinction on pure economic theory (with, for example, his work on the growth of a dual economy); and equally on statistical method (with, for example, his development of estimation methods for rational distributed lags). But he is preeminently a master of the territory between economics and statistics, where both have to be applied to the study of concrete problems. His prolonged exploration of the determinants of investment spending, whatever its ultimate lessons, will certainly long stand as one of the finest examples in the marriage of theory and practice in economics." Dr. Jorgenson has conducted groundbreaking research on information technology and economic growth, energy and the environment, tax policy and investment behavior and applied econometrics. He is the author of 241 articles in economics and the author and editor of thirty-one books. His collected papers have been published in ten volumes by The MIT Press, beginning in 1995. His most recent book, Information Technology and the American Growth Resurgence, co-authored with Mun Ho and Kevin Stiroh in 2005, represents a major effort to quantify the impact of information technology on the U.S. economy. Another volume, Lifting the Burden: Tax Reform, the Cost of Capital, and U.S. Economic Growth, co-authored with Kun-Young Yun in 2001, proposes a new approach to capital income taxation, dubbed "A Smarter Type of Tax" by The Financial Times. Sixty-five economists have collaborated with Dr. Jorgenson on published research. An important feature of his research program has been collaboration with students in economics at Berkeley and Harvard. Many of his former students are professors at leading academic institutions in the United States and abroad, and several occupy endowed chairs. Dr. Jorgenson was born in Bozeman, Montana in 1933 and attended public schools in Helena, Montana. He is married to Linda Mabus Jorgenson, who is an attorney in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Professor and Mrs. Jorgenson reside in Cambridge.
 
40Name:  Dr. Carl Kaysen
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Techonology
 Year Elected:  1967
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  February 8, 2010
   
 
Carl Kaysen is an economist and David W. Skinner Professor of Political Economy Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His scholarly work has explored the intersection of economics, sociology, politics and law, with recent research focusing on arms control and international politics. He received his B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1940 and his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University in 1954. Before joining the MIT faculty in 1976, he served on the faculty of the economics department at Harvard. From 1964-66, he was Deputy Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to President Kennedy, and he served as Director of the Institute for Advanced Study from 1966 to 1976. Dr. Kaysen has been a Junior Fellow at Harvard University and a Guggenheim Fellow and is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He is a co-author of Peace Operations by the United Nations: The Case for a Volunteer Military Force (1996), co-editor of The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law (2000) and editor of and contributor to a volume of essays, The American Corporation Today (1996).
 
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