American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. A. Paul Alivisatos
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1959
   
 
Dr. A. Paul Alivisatos is President of the University of Chicago where he also serves as Chair of the Board of Governors of Argonne National Laboratory and Chair of the Board of Directors of Fermi Research Alliance LLC, the operator of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. He is also the John D. MacArthur Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Chemistry, the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, and the College. Previously he was Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost and Samsung Distinguished Professor of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at the University of California, Berkeley. He also direced the Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute (ENSI), and held professorships in UC Berkeley’s departments of materials science and chemistry. In addition, he is a founder of two prominent nanotechnology companies, Nanosys and Quantum Dot Corp, now a part of Life Tech. He also served as Director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) until accepting the Vice Chancellor position in 2016. Dr. Alivisatos received a Bachelor's degree in Chemistry in 1981 from the University of Chicago and Ph.D. in Chemistry from UC Berkeley in 1986. He began his career with UC Berkeley in 1988 and with Berkeley Lab in 1991. Groundbreaking contributions to the fundamental physical chemistry of nanocrystals are the hallmarks of Dr. Alivisatos’s distinguished career. His research breakthroughs include the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled nanoscrystals, and forefront studies of nanocrystal properties, including optical, electrical, structural and thermodynamic. In his research, he has demonstrated key applications of nanocrystals in biological imaging and renewable energy. He played a critical role in the establishment of the Molecular Foundry, a U.S. Department of Energy’s Nanoscale Science Research Center; and was the facility’s founding director. He is the founding editor of Nano Letters, a leading scientific publication in nanoscience. Dr. Alivisatos has been recognized for his accomplishments, with awards such as the Wolf Prize in Chemistry, the Linus Pauling Medal, the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award, the Eni Italgas Prize for Energy and Environment, the Rank Prize for Optoelectronics, the Wilson Prize, the Coblentz Award for Advances in Molecular Spectroscopy, the American Chemical Society Award for Colloid and Surface Science, the Von Hippel Award of the Materials Research Society, the 2014 ACS Materials Chemistry Award, and most recently, the National Medal of Science. In January 2017 he was awarded the National Academy of Sciences' Award in Chemical Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2015.
 
2Name:  Dr. William O. Baker
 Institution:  Princeton University & Guggenheim Foundation & Carnegie Mellon University
 Year Elected:  1963
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  October 31, 2005
   
3Name:  Dr. J. D. Baldeschwieler
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1979
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
John Dickson Baldeschwieler was born in New Jersey in 1933 and earned his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1959. After serving in the United States Army, he held assistant, associate and full professorships at Harvard University and Stanford University before joining the California Institute of Technology in 1973 as professor of chemistry and chairman of the division of chemistry and chemical engineering. From 1971-73 he also served as deputy director of the Office of Science and Technology in the White House. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Dr. Baldeschwieler pioneered the utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance and double resonance spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser effects, ion cyclotron resonance and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy in chemical problems. His latest contributions concentrate on the use of phospholipid vesicles in cancer diagnosis and therapy, on the development of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy for the study of molecules on surfaces, and on novel techniques for producing combinatorial arrays of oligonucleotides. He received the 2000 National Medal of Science for his contributions to science and public service, the American Chemical Society 2001 Award for Creative Invention and the 2003 Othmer Gold Medal of the Chemical Heritage Foundation. He is currently J. Stanley Johnson Professor Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology.
 
4Name:  Dr. Allen J. Bard
 Institution:  University of Texas at Austin
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
In a career spanning more than 40 years at the University of Texas, Allen J. Bard has a distinguished research record in physical chemistry and electrochemistry. Currently the Hackerman-Welch Regents Chair of Chemistry, he has made fundamental contributions to photoelectrochemistry and heterogeneous photocatalysis and has been a pioneer in electrochemiluminescence. He has also been a major contributor to the physical characterization of electrodes modified with polymers, clays, and other multicomponent arrays. His work in basic science constitutes the underpinning of many industrial processes dealing with corrosion, electrolysis, and electrolytic purification, the production of photoelectrochemical diodes, electrochemistry in novel solvents under extreme conditions, electrochemical microscopy, and photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopy. Dr. Bard is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Bruno Breyer Memorial Award of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, the Luigi Galvani Medal of the Societá Chimica Italiana, the Sigillum Magnum of the Università di Bologna, the Award in Chemical Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences, the Welch Foundation Award in Chemistry, and the 2012 National Medal of Science. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1999.
 
5Name:  Dr. Paul D. Bartlett
 Institution:  Harvard University & Texas Christian University
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1907
 Death Date:  10/11/97
   
6Name:  Dr. Jacqueline K. Barton
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Jacqueline K. Barton is the John G. Kirkwood and Arthur A. Noyes Professor of Chemistry, Emerita at the California Institute of Technology. She earned her A.B. at Barnard College and her Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry at Columbia University (1979). After a postdoctoral fellowship at Bell Laboratories and Yale University, she became an assistant professor at Hunter College, City University of New York. Soon after, she returned to Columbia University, becoming Professor of Chemistry in 1986. In the fall of 1989, she joined the faculty at Caltech, and from 2009-2019, she served as Chair of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Professor Barton has pioneered the application of transition metal complexes to probe recognition and reactions of double helical DNA. In particular, she has carried out studies to elucidate electron transfer chemistry mediated by the DNA double helix, a basis for understanding long range DNA-mediated signaling in DNA damage, repair, and replication. Through this research, she has trained more than 100 graduate and postdoctoral students. Professor Barton has also served the chemistry community through her service on government and industrial boards. She served as a Director of the Dow Chemical Company for over twenty years and currently serves as a Director of Gilead Sciences. Professor Barton has received many awards. These include the NSF Waterman Award, the American Chemical Society (ACS) Award in Pure Chemistry, a MacArthur Foundation fellowship, and the National Academy of Sciences Award in the Chemical Sciences. She was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine, and the Royal Society of Chemistry. She received the 2010 National Medal of Science from President Obama, the 2015 ACS Priestley Medal, the highest award of the ACS, and the 2023 the Welch Award in Chemistry. Jacqueline Barton was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1999 and became Vice President in 2021.
 
7Name:  Dr. Stephen J. Benkovic
 Institution:  Pennsylvania State University
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Stephen J. Benkovic received an A.B. in English literature and a B.S. in chemistry from Lehigh University in 1960 and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry with a minor in physical chemistry and biochemistry from Cornell University in 1963. He joined the faculty of Pennsylvania State University in 1965, has been Evan Pugh Professor since 1977 and has held the Eberly Chair in Chemistry since 1986. Dr. Benkovic's early immersion in the classics and in English literature has facilitated his coherent presentation of complicated processes at the chemistry/biology interface. In the laboratory, he uses a dazzling combination of methodologies to define the pathways by which separate and combined protein systems carry out the chemical conversions crucial to life processes, including DNA polymerization and replication. His studies of enzyme mechanisms led to inhibitor design and chemotherapeutic agents; those on catalytic antibodies clarify the connection between chemistry and immunology. His love of literature has been transmuted to service on editorial boards of sixteen scientific journals. He was the recipient of the Pfizer Award in Enzyme Chemistry from Pennsylvania State University in 1977, the Gowland Hopkins Award in 1986, the Repligen Award in 1989, the Alfred R. Bader Award of the American Chemical Society in 1995, the Christian B. Anfinsin Award in 2000, the National Medal of Science in 2010, and the NAS Award in Chemical Sciences in 2011. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Chemical Society, and the Royal Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002.
 
8Name:  Dr. R. Stephen Berry
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  July 26, 2020
   
 
R. Stephen Berry was the James Franck Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at the University of Chicago. He had been at The University of Chicago since 1964; previously he was an Assistant Professor at Yale, and earlier, an Instructor at the University of Michigan. He is a Denver native, and in East High School, a Finalist in what was then the Westinghouse Science Talent Search. In September, 2011, he was inducted into the East High Alumni Heritage Hall. He went to Harvard, where he earned his A.B. and Ph.D., and met Carla Friedman, whom he married in 1955. In his career, he has worked on a variety of subjects ranging from strictly scientific matters to a variety of topics in policy. He has held visiting professorships at other universities, including the University of Copenhagen (1967 and 1979), the Université de Paris-Sud (1979-80), the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (1984), and Oxford University (1973-74, 1980 and in 1986-87, as the Newton-Abraham Professor). He spent 1994 at the Freie Universität Berlin as an awardee of the Humboldt Prize. He has close associations with the Aspen Center for Physics (Board of Directors, 1978-84) and was a co-founder of the Telluride Summer Research Center (now Telluride Science Research Center) (Board of Directors, 1984-present; President, 1989-93). In 1983 he was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and was its Home Secretary from 1999 until 2003. He was also a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Vice-President, 1987-90) and is a Foreign Member of the Royal Danish Academy. In 1997, he received the Heyrovsky Medal of the Czech Academy of Sciences. In 2010, he received a Diploma Science Honoris Causa from the Romanian Medical Society. His scientific research has been both theoretical and experimental, in areas of atomic and molecular clusters and chaos, topographies and dynamics of complex potential surfaces, atomic collisions and photoionization, protein dynamics and interactions, and, for many years, finite-time thermodynamics, a new approach to extend thermodynamics toward energy efficiency. His experimental work included studies of negative ions, detection and reactions of transient molecular species, photoionization and other laser-matter interactions. Some of his work outside traditional science has involved interweaving thermodynamics with economics and resource policy, including efficient use of energy. He has sometimes worked since the mid-1970s with issues of science and the law, and with management of scientific data. He has also worked in matters of scientific ethics and of some aspects of national security. His current scientific interests include the dynamics of atomic and molecular clusters, the basis of "guided" protein folding and other "structure-seeking" processes, and the thermodynamics of time-constrained processes and the efficient use of energy. He has been author or coauthor of five books, including one on thermodynamic optimization and one on the total social costs of coal and nuclear power. He was author or coauthor of over 530 published papers.
 
9Name:  Dr. John I. Brauman
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
John I. Brauman earned a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1963 and joined the faculty at Stanford University later that year. He was named J. G. Jackson-C. J. Wood Professor of Chemistry in 1972, and since 1999 he has also served as Cognizant Dean for Natural Sciences at Stanford. Dr. Brauman was the first to show that the relative order of acidities and basicities of many simple organic compounds are reversed between gas phase and solution. He was then able to rationalize both the gas-phase and solution behavior and put them on a much more substantial footing. Dr. Brauman discovered a wealth of information about the dynamics of gas-phase ionic reactions, which again has revolutionized scientific thought. Dr. Brauman was the first to measure accurate electron affinities of molecules larger than diatomics, eventually determining these important quantities for a substantial number of chemically interesting important organic radicals. He has received the American Chemical Society's Award in Pure Chemistry in 1973, the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award (1986) and the James Flack Norris Award in Physical-Organic Chemistry (1986). Recent honors include the National Academy of Sciences Award in the Chemical Sciences (2001), the Linus Pauling Medal (2002) and the J. Willard Gibbs Medal (2003). Dr. Brauman was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1976.
 
10Name:  Dr. Ronald Breslow
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1980
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  October 25, 2017
   
 
Ronald Breslow was born in Rahway, New Jersey in 1931. He received his undergraduate and graduate training at Harvard University, where he did his Ph.D. research with Professor R.B. Woodward. He then spent a year in Cambridge, England as a postdoctoral fellow with Lord Todd and came to Columbia University in 1956 as instructor in chemistry. He was the Samuel Latham Mitchill Professor of Chemistry at Columbia, one of twelve University Professors, and a former Chairman of the Department. Professor Breslow's research interests can be described generally as involving the design and synthesis of new molecules with interesting properties, and the study of these properties. Examples include the cyclopropenyl cation, the simplest aromatic system and the first aromatic compound prepared with other than six electrons in a ring. His work establishing the phenomenon of anti-aromaticity has involved the synthesis of novel molecules, as well as their study. Even in work on purely mechanistic questions, such as his discovery of the chemical mechanism used by thiamine (vitamin B-1) in biochemical reactions, the synthesis and study of novel molecules played an important role. Although he continued his interest in unusual conjugated systems, his major emphasis in later years was on the synthesis and study of molecules that imitate enzymatic reactions. This work has included the development of remote functionalization reactions and the development of artificial enzymes. He developed a new group of cytodifferentiating agents with potential use in cancer chemotherapy. He is the author of over 400 publications. Professor Breslow was a member of the National Academy of Sciences (Chairman of the Chemistry Division 1974-77), the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the European Academy of Science. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1980. He was on the editorial board of a number of scientific journals, and had held over 150 named and visiting professorships. His major scientific awards include the American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry (1966), the Baekeland Medal (1969), the Harrison Howe Award (1974), the Remsen Prize (1977), the Richards Medal (1984), the Allan Day Award (1990) and the U.S. National Medal of Science (1991). He won the Welch Award in Chemistry in 2003 and the Willard Gibbs Award in 2004 and also received the Mark Van Doren Medal of Columbia University and the Columbia University Great Teacher Award. Dr. Breslow added the 2010 Perkin Medal and the 2014 American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal to his long list of awards. Ronald Breslow died October 25, 2017, at the age of 86.
 
11Name:  Dr. Melvin Calvin
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1960
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1911
 Death Date:  1/8/97
   
12Name:  Dr. F. Albert Cotton
 Institution:  Texas A & M University
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  February 20, 2007
   
13Name:  Dr. Bryce Crawford
 Institution:  University of Minnesota
 Year Elected:  1971
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  September 16, 2011
   
 
Physical chemist Bryce Crawford, Jr. was associated with the University of Minnesota since 1940. He became a professor of physical chemistry there in 1946 and also served as chairman of the department and dean of the graduate school. At the time of his death he was Regent's Professor Emeritus. Dr. Crawford achieved prominence in the field of spectroscopy. He published the first of an influential series of papers on vibrational spectral intensities in 1950, systematically developed experimental techniques in areas such as infrared intensities and also carried out a wide range of investigations on molecular force fields, or the stiffness of chemical bonds. He had contributed significantly to the theory of molecular vibrations as well. Dr. Crawford was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and held a Ph.D. from Stanford University. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1971.
 
14Name:  Dr. Peter B. Dervan
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Peter B. Dervan received a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1972. He joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology in 1973 and is currently the Bren Professor of Chemistry. He served as chair of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 1994-99. Peter Dervan is distinguished in the field of bioorganic chemistry for working out chemical principles for sequence-specific recognition of DNA. He created synthetic small molecules with affinities and sequence specificities for double-helical DNA comparable to nature's proteins that can be programmed to control gene expression in living cells. Dr. Dervan is the recipient of numerous awards, including the ACS Nobel Laureate Signature Award for Graduate Education in Chemistry (1985); the Arthur C. Cope Award (1993); the Willard Gibbs Medal (1993); the Nichols Medal (1994); the Maison de la Chimie Foundation Prize (1996); the Remsen Award (1998); the Kirkwood Medal (1998); the Alfred Bader Award (1999); the Max Tishler Prize (1999); the Linus Pauling Medal (1999); the Richard Tolman Medal (1999); the Tetrahedron Prize for Creativity in Organic Chemistry (2000); the Harvey Prize (2002); the Ronald Breslow Award for Achievement in Biomimetic Chemistry (2005) and the National Medal of Science (2006). Dr. Dervan is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the Institute of Medicine (NAS), the National Academy of Inventors, the French Academy of Sciences, and the Germany Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002.
 
15Name:  Dr. Harry G. Drickamer
 Institution:  University of Illinois
 Year Elected:  1983
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  May 6, 2002
   
16Name:  Dr. Graham R. Fleming
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Graham Fleming was appointed UC Berkeley’s Vice Chancellor for Research in April 2009, having previously served as the Deputy Director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Through joint appointments as Melvin Calvin Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at UC Berkeley, and Founding Director of both the Berkeley Lab's Physical Biosciences Division and UC Berkeley’s California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3), he has re-shaped the intersection of physical and biological sciences, while maintaining his own investigations into ultrafast chemical and biological processes, in particular, the primary steps of photosynthesis. Throughout his administrative career, Fleming has remained a highly active scientific researcher. He has authored or co-authored more than 440 publications and 1 book; and is widely considered to be one of the world's foremost authorities on ultrafast processes. Born in Barrow, England, in 1949, Fleming earned his Bachelor's of Science degree from the University of Bristol in 1971, and his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of London Royal Institute in 1974. Following a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Melbourne, Australia, he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago in 1979. There, he rose through the academic ranks to become the Arthur Holly Compton Distinguished Service Professor, a post he held for ten years, starting in 1987. At University of Chicago, he also served for three years as the Chair of the Chemistry Department. In that role, he led the creation of University of Chicago’s first new research institute in more than 50 years, the Institute for Biophysical Dynamics. In addition to his many other activities, Fleming has given numerous talks around the world on the inter-relation and inter-complexity of energy, climate and photosynthesis. In 2007, Fleming led the effort (with co-chair Mark Ratner) to define Grand Challenges in Basic Energy Science for DOE/BES, resulting in Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination. At present, Graham Fleming is engaged in coordinating energy and climate research at Berkeley, as well as continuing his research in photosynthesis and condensed phase dynamics.
 
17Name:  Dr. Marye Anne Fox
 Institution:  University of California, San Diego
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1947
 Death Date:  May 9, 2021
   
 
Dr. Marye Anne Fox, a nationally known chemist and academic leader, was named the seventh chancellor of the University of California, San Diego in April 2004 by the University of California Board of Regents. She stepped down from that position in July 2012 and continued at the university as Professor of Chemistry. Previously, Dr. Fox was chancellor and distinguished university professor of chemistry at North Carolina State University, a post she held since 1998. Before going to North Carolina State, Fox spent 22 years at the University of Texas, where she advanced from assistant professor of organic chemistry to vice president for research and held the Waggoner Regents Chair in chemistry. Dr. Fox has held over 50 endowed lectureships at universities around the world. She has also served as visiting professor at Harvard University, the University of Iowa, the University of Chicago, the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris and the Chemistry Research Promotion Center in Taipei. Dr. Fox earned a bachelor's degree in science from Notre Dame College, a master's degree in science from Cleveland State University and a Ph.D. from Dartmouth College. She is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and has served on its executive committee, and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Dr. Fox has received numerous awards, including the Charles Lathrop Parsons Award (2005) from the American Chemical Society in recognition of outstanding public service and the 2010 National Medal of Science. She has received a long list of research awards from professional societies in the U.S. and abroad. She also has been honored with numerous teaching awards, as well as the Monie Ferst Award, a national award recognizing outstanding mentoring of graduate students. More than 50 students have received advanced degrees under her supervision, and over 100 postdoctoral fellows and sabbatical visitors have worked with her. Dr. Fox also served on numerous boards, including the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), where she chaired the Subcommittee on Infrastructure for the 21st Century in 2003; the National Academy's Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable; the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC); and a number of corporate boards. Dr. Fox, who was born in Canton, Ohio, is married to UCSD professor of chemistry James K. Whitesell. She has three sons and two stepsons. She died on May 9, 2021.
 
18Name:  Dr. Joseph S. Francisco
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania; Purdue University
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Joseph S. Francisco is the President's Distinguished Professor of Earth and Environmental Science and Professor of Chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his B.S. at the University of Texas at Austin, and he received his Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Francisco was a Research Fellow at University of Cambridge in England, and a Visiting Associate in Planetary Science at California Institute of Technology. His research has focused on bringing new tools from experimental physical and theoretical chemistry to atmospheric chemical problems to enhance our understanding of chemistry in the atmosphere at the molecular level. This work has led to important discoveries of new chemistries occurring on the interfaces of cloud surfaces as well as fundamental new chemical bonding controlling these processes. He has been an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow and a John Simon Guggenheim Fellow. He was awarded an Alexander von Humboldt U.S. Senior Scientist Award; appointed a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Institute of Advanced Studies at the University of Bologna, Italy; Professeur Invité at the Université de Paris-Est, France; a Visiting Professor at Uppsala Universitet, Sweden; an Honorary International Chair Professor at National Taipei University, Taiwan; and an Honorary Professor, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China. He served as President of the American Chemical Society in 2010. Dr. Francisco currently serves as Executive and Associate Editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society and on the Editorial Board of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Joseph S. Francisco was elected, to the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, as well as, a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2021.
 
19Name:  Dr. Joseph S. Fruton
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  1967
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1912
 Death Date:  July 29, 2007
   
20Name:  Dr. Harry B. Gray
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Harry Gray's research career has touched nearly every aspect of inorganic chemistry. His earliest work dealt with mechanisms of ligand substitution reactions in coordination complexes, and the principles that he and his coworkers elucidated are now found in every standard inorganic textbook. Dr. Gray's research then moved from mechanism to electronic structure, where he was a pioneer in the study of spectroscopy and bonding in transition metal complexes. More recently, Dr. Gray has brought his profound understanding of inorganic chemistry to the elucidation of the behavior of metal centers in proteins. Arnold O. Beckman Professor of Chemistry since 1981, Dr. Gray was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1986, the Wolf Prize in 2004, the Othmer Gold Medal of the Chemical Heritage Foundation in 2013, the Feynman Teaching Prize in 2018, and the Cotton Medal in 2018 for his achievements.
 
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