American Philosophical Society
Member History

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102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry[X]
1Name:  Dr. Lia Addadi
 Institution:  Weizmann Institute of Science
 Year Elected:  2020
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Born in Padova, Italy, Prof. Lia Addadi obtained her MSc degree in organic chemistry at the Università degli Studi di Padova (1973) and earned a PhD in structural chemistry from the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1979. After conducting postdoctoral research at the Weizmann Institute and at Harvard University, she joined the ranks of the Institute’s Department of Structural Chemistry (now the Department of Structural Biology) in 1982. Prof. Addadi served as Head of the Department of Structural Biology (1994-2001) and as Dean of the Faculty of Chemistry (2001-2004). In 2008, she became Dean of the Feinberg Graduate School, a position she held until 2014. Since 2018, she is the President’s Advisor for Advancing Women in Science. She received numerous prizes and honors, among them the 1998 Prelog Medal in Stereochemistry, and the 2011 Aminoff Prize by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. In 2017 she was elected to the US National Academy of Sciences, and in 2018 she received an honorary PhD from the ETH in Zurich. In her research, Lia Addadi addresses questions related to the formation of crystals in organisms, either fulfilling a physiological function, or pathologically induced, such as in atherosclerosis or osteoporosis. She studies the interactions between crystals and their biological environments, spanning several orders of magnitude from the molecular level to the cell and tissue level. In collaboration with Steve Weiner she investigates the strategies and design principles of mineralized tissues in biomineralization, from the formation pathways to the architecture, and finally to structure-function relations. Lia Addadi was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2020.
 
2Name:  Sir Derek H. R. Barton
 Institution:  Texas A & M University
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  3/16/98
   
3Name:  Dr. Robin J. H. Clark
 Institution:  University College London
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1935
 Death Date:  December 6, 2018
   
 
Robin Clark’s work employing Raman microscopy changed the thinking of art historians and conservators on much artwork and many archaeological artifacts. His identification of the blue pigment on the priceless Lindisfarne Gospels (715 AD) in the British Library as solely indigo, not lazurite, removed the need for the then (2004) current but improbable proposition that trade in lazurite from Afghanistan to Northumbria existed in 715 AD; in fact we know from Clark’s work that it was not established until more than two centuries later. The identification of key pigments on "Young Woman Seated on a Virginal" provided persuasive evidence consistent with a reattribution of this painting to Vermeer, in consequence of which it was sold in London for 30 million dollars in 2004. However, many Egyptian papyri supposedly worth $3 million each and dating to 1250 BC were easily identified to have been illuminated with at least 7 modern pigments, including copper phthalocyanine blue (first made in Manchester in 1936); they thus proved to be virtually worthless. Robin Clark was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2010. He died in London on December 6, 2018 at the age of 83.
 
4Name:  Dr. Paul J. Crutzen
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  January 28, 2021
   
 
Paul Crutzen was a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography's Center for Atmospheric Sciences from 1992 to 2008. He was also Professor Emeritus at the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Utrecht University, and the former director of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. He has made substantial and fundamental contributions to our understanding of the formation and decomposition of ozone - processes that are also affected by our emissions of different kinds of gas. In particular, he has shown the importance of nitrogen oxides for the ozone balance. Crutzen has also made contributions to the understanding of how the reactions that decompose ozone are considerably reinforced by cloud particles in the stratosphere. That the dilution of the ozone layer is strongest just above the poles of the earth - in particular over Antarctica - is due to this effect. The extremely low temperatures lead to the creation of a very large amount of cloud particles. Research on the chemical mechanisms in the ozone layer has shown signs of the negative impact of humans. There are now far-reaching international agreements on the prohibition of emission of freons and other gases destroying ozone in the so-called Montreal Protocol. Crutzen has also studied how ozone is created in the lower stratum of the atmosphere, the troposphere, where the amount of ozone has increased in the last century due to car exhausts and other emissions. Besides contributing to the greenhouse effect, ozone close to the ground also causes damage to crops and human health. Paul Crutzen shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Mario Molina and Sherwood Rowland. His most recent interests are in the following areas: global modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (2-D, 3-D) for troposphere, stratosphere and lower mesosphere; interactions of atmospheric chemistry with climate; studies of the potential role of halogen photochemistry with ozone in the marine boundary layer; and tropospheric chemistry, including the role of biomass burning in the tropics and subtropics. More recently Crutzen has involved himself with studies of geo-engineering to reduce the heating of Earth's climate by carbon dioxide emissions. He also published a paper showing that the production of biofuels (e.g. ethanol from maize and biodiesel from rapeseed) to replace fossil fuels may not cool climate. Crutzen also proposed that over the past 200 years human activities have grown so much that the introduction of a new geologic epoch, the Anthropocene, is justified. He died on January 28, 2021.
 
5Name:  Dr. Christopher Martin Dobson
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1949
 Death Date:  September 8, 2019
   
 
Christopher Dobson's research greatly clarified the process of protein misfolding and its link to degenerative diseases. As a result, he contributed to the scientific understanding of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. He published over 800 papers and review articles. Additionally, his publications are unusually impactful, being cited frequently in the research of others. In addition to leading his productive research group, Dobson effectively performed the role of Master of St. John's College, notably by leading the expansion of full bursaries for disadvantaged students. Among his numerous honors is the Royal Medal, awarded to him in 2009 by the Royal Society, of which he was a member. Christopher Dobson was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018. He died September 8, 2019 in London, England at the age of 69.
 
6Name:  Dr. Jack David Dunitz
 Institution:  Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  September 12, 2021
   
 
Jack Dunitz's research interests concentrated on the use of crystal structure analysis as a tool for studying a diversity of chemical problems, such as the structure and reactivity of medium-ring compounds, ion-specificity of natural and synthetic ionophores, and molecular structure-energy relationships. From his laboratory came the method of deriving model pathways for prototypic chemical reactions from the structural information in crystal structures, thus making a connection between the "statics" of crystals and the "dynamics" of reacting chemical systems. Other work in related directions included new interpretations of atomic displacement tensors in crystals in terms of internal molecular motions, and studies of experimental electron density distributions from accurate low-temperature X-ray data. Later in his career, he turned to problems of polymorphism, phase transformations in solids and solid-state chemical reactions. Dr. Dunitz studied chemistry at Glasgow University (Ph.D. 1947) and held research fellowship at Oxford University (1946-1948, 1951-1953), the California Institute of Technology (1948-1951, 1953-1954), the U.S. National Institute of Health (1954-1955) and the Royal Institution, London (1956-1957) before accepting a professorship at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in 1957. He held that post until his retirement in 1990, when he became Emeritus Professor of Chemical Crystallography. Dr. Dunitz been elected to membership of several learned societies, including the Royal Society (1974) and has received several awards for his work. In 2001 he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He has more than 300 scientific papers to his credit and is the author of "X-Ray Analysis and the Structure of Organic Molecules" (1979) and "Reflections on Symmetry in Chemistry... and Elsewhere" (1993). Jack Dunitz died on September 12, 2021 at age 98.
 
7Name:  Professor Peter P. Edwards
 Institution:  University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Peter P. Edwards is currently Professor and Head of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Oxford, and has held this position since 2003. Born in, England, he received his Ph.D. from Salford University in 1974. He has won a number of awards, including the Liversidge Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry (1998), the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society (2003), and the Corday-Morgan Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry (2006). He is a member of the Royal Society (1996) and the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (2009). Peter Edwards’s work spans from inorganic and physical chemistry to condensed matter physics in both their purest and most applied aspects. He is the leading chemist studying the metal/insulator transition and superconductivity. He developed and championed a simple criterion for the metal-insulator transition applicable to many systems, including expanded fluid metals, hydrogen in the outer planets, transition metal oxides and doped semi-conductors. Motivated by the size induced metal/insulator transition, he discovered a wide variety of stoichiometrically defined metallic cluster compounds. Before the discovery of cuprates, Edwards identified doped transition metal oxides as possible superconductors, beginning with the superconducting spinel . He later discovered both the mercury-lead-based compounds which held the record high temperature transition and the fluoride-oxide superconductors. Edwards leads the U.K. Sustainable Hydrogen Energy Consortium. His scientific joie de vivre is illustrated by his paper on the materials aspects of Stradivarius violins. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
8Name:  Professor Manfred Eigen
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute
 Year Elected:  1968
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  February 6, 2019
   
 
German biophysicist Manfred Eigen was the director of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry. Recognized throughout the world for his outstanding work in the field of chemical kinetics, he received the Nobel Prize in 1967, along with Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter, for his study of extremely fast chemical reactions induced in response to very short pulses of energy. He also made significant contributions to the theory of the chemical hypercycle, the cyclic linkage of reaction cycles as an explanation for the self-organization of pre-biotic systems. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Dr. Eigen was the recipient of many awards, including the Otto Hahn Prize for Chemistry and Physics and the Kirkwood Medal and Harrison How Award of the American Chemical Society. In addition to his standing as a preeminent scientist, Dr. Eigen was also known for his courteous manner and his love of the piano, which he often played with chamber groups. Manfred Eigen died February 6, 2019 in Goettingen, Germany at the age of 91.
 
9Name:  Sir Alan Roy Fersht
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Alan Fersht is the Herchel Smith Professor of Organic Chemistry at Cambridge University and Director of the MRC Centre for Protein Engineering. He enjoys combining the methods of chemistry with those of molecular biology for studying complex problems in the interface of chemistry, biology and medicine. In particular, he works in the general area of the structure, activity, stability and folding of proteins, and the role of protein misfolding and instability in cancer and disease. He was the first to apply site-directed mutagenesis to analyze the structure and activity of proteins and the strength and specificity of protein interactions and is one of the founders of protein engineering. His current work is mainly in two specific areas. The first is in elucidating at atomic resolution how proteins fold and unfold, using advanced structural and biophysical methods on engineered proteins. His method of Phi-value analysis of mutated proteins is now the standard procedure for experimentally characterizing transition states for protein folding and unfolding and benchmarking simulation at atomic resolution. The second is using the same structural and biophysical methods to study how mutation affects proteins in the cell cycle, particularly the tumor suppressor p53, in order to design novel anti-cancer drugs that function by restoring the activity of mutated proteins. Alan Fersht is a fellow of the Royal Society, a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences, an honorary foreign member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and a member of EMBO and Academia Europea. He has won several international awards, including the FEBS Anniversary Prize (1980); the NOVO Biotechnology Award (1986); the Charmian Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry (1986); the Gabor Medal of the Royal Society (1991); the Max Tishler Lecture and Prize, Harvard University (1992); the FEBS Data Lecture and Medal (1993); the Jubilee Lecture and Harden Medal of the Biochemical Society (1993); the Feldberg Foundation Prize (1996); the Distinguished Service Award for Protein Engineering, Miami Nature Biotechnology Winter Symposium (1997); the Davy Medal of the Royal Society (1998); the Chaire Bruylants (1999); the Natural Products Award of the Royal Society of Chemistry (1999); the Anfinsen (1999) and Stein and Moore (2001) Awards of the Protein Society; the Bader Award of the American Chemical Society; the Linderstrom-Lang Prize and Medal (2002); the Bijvoet Medal (2008); the G.N. Lewis Medal (2008), and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (2020). He was knighted in 2003 for his work on protein science, and he has honorary degrees from Uppsala, Brussels, Weizmann Institute, Imperial College, The Hebrew University, and Arhus University. He is associate editor of PNAS, senior editor of PEDS, and co-chairman of the editorial board of ChemBioChem. Alan Fersht was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
10Name:  Dr. Vitalii I. Gol'danskii
 Institution:  Academy of Sciences of the USSR & NN Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics
 Year Elected:  1989
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  January 14, 2001
   
11Name:  Dr. Joshua Jortner
 Institution:  Tel Aviv University
 Year Elected:  1990
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Joshua Jortner held the position of Heinemann Professor of Chemistry at Tel Aviv University from 1973-2003. He previously served as the Chair of the Chemistry Department, Deputy Rector, Acting Rector and Vice President of Tel-Aviv University (1965-72). He holds honorary doctorates from universities in Israel, France and Germany. Among his awards are the Wolf Prize in Chemistry (1998) and the EMET Prize in Exact Sciences (2008). He is a member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities and a foreign member of 13 academies and learned societies in the USA, Europe and Asia. Dr. Jortner's scientific work in physical and theoretical chemistry, which focuses on the elucidation of the dynamics of energy acquisition, storage and disposal in complex systems from large molecules and clusters to biomolecules, is summarized in 725 scientific articles and 29 books. He contributed to shaping the scientific research and public service in Israel. He served as the President of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities (1986-95) and as the first Chairman of the Israel National Science Foundation (1986-95). He acted as science advisor to three Prime Ministers of Israel. On the international level Dr. Jortner served as the President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1998-2000). His current public service activities span issues of science and public policy and the maintenance of scientific enterprise.
 
12Name:  Dr. Jean-Marie Pierre Lehn
 Institution:  Collège de France
 Year Elected:  1987
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Jean-Marie Pierre Lehn is professor of chemistry at the Université de Strasbourg, France, where he is director of the Laboratory of Supramolecular Chemistry, ISIS (Institut de Science et d'Ingénierie Supramoléculaires), and professor emeritus at the Collège de France in Paris, where he directed the Laboratory of the Chemistry of Molecular Interactions. His undergraduate studies were conducted at the University of Strasbourg, and he received his doctorate there in 1963. After a year of postdoctoral research at Harvard University, he returned to the University of Strasbourg, becoming professor of chemistry at the Louis Pasteur University in 1970. In 1979, he also became a faculty member at the Collège de France. His work, for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1987, has defined the field of supramolecular chemistry. Ostensibly trained as an organic chemist, he has done highly innovative work in theoretical chemistry with ab initio calculations; in physical chemistry with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to study dynamic processes in solution; in inorganic chemistry through studies of inorganic complexes, electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide and inorganic photochemistry directed toward energy storage by the photochemical generation of hydrogen from the dissociation of water; in organic chemistry through the synthesis of terpenoids and a variety of new agents for complexing of ions of many kinds in water; and in biochemical research on the design of receptor molecules, transport across membranes and enzymatic reaction mechanisms.
 
13Name:  Dr. Raphael David Levine
 Institution:  Hebrew University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Raphael Levine is Max Born Professor of Natural Philosophy at Hebrew University. He describes his work like so: "A central concern of Chemistry is the transformation of matter to create new materials. We call such transmutations 'chemical reactions'. I try to understand what makes chemical reactions go. I also seek to view them on the most highly resolved level, that of the actual molecules undergoing the change. As the starting materials evolve into the products, how do the atoms move, what energetic constraints operate and are there any steric requirements. I am a theorist but I do attempt to find out what are the concerns of my experimental colleagues. Currently the systems we study are larger than before and we are able to explore further away from equilibrium. One line of such activity is chemistry under extreme conditions. We are also able to take into account inherently quantum mechanical features such as when processes occur simultaneously on several electronic states (so called, the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation)." His most recent book, Molecular Reaction Dynamics (2005) provides more details. Dr. Levine's research methods include molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanical methods. Often he seeks a more compact description. For this, methodologies based on information theory and on algebraic quantum mechanics are useful. In particular, they provide methods of data reduction (e.g., surprisal analysis) which can also be used in a predictive model. He prefers models that emphasize key aspects of the problem and allow for a simple conceptual picture of the dynamics as much as exact numerical simulations. He also indulges in examining more abstract issues.
 
14Name:  Lord Jack Lewis
 Institution:  Robinson College, Cambridge & University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  July 17, 2014
   
 
Sir Jack Lewis, Lord Lewis of Newnham, FRS was a British chemist working mainly in the area of the transition elements. He was a pioneer in the study of metallorganic compounds, especially in their magnetic properties, and has been a leader in synthesizing and characterizing compounds containing clusters of metal atoms. Sir Jack earned a bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of London and a Ph.D. in 1954 from the University of Nottingham. In 1954 he was appointed lecturer at the University of Sheffield. He returned to London in 1956 as a lecturer at Imperial College London. From 1961-67 he served as professor of chemistry at the University of Manchester, eventually moving to University College London (1967-70) and the University of Cambridge (1970-95). He was also the first Warden of Robinson College from its foundation until 2001. Knighted in 1982, he won the Royal Society's Davy Medal in 1985 and was created Baron Lewis of Newnham, of Newnham in the County of Cambridgeshire, in 1989. In 2004 he received the Royal Society's Royal Medal. He was a member of the House of Lords, where he sat as a cross bencher and was a member of a number of Select Committees on Science and Technology. He died July 17, 2014, in Cambridge, at the age of 86.
 
15Name:  Dr. Per-Olov Löwdin
 Institution:  University of Florida & Uppsala University
 Year Elected:  1983
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  October 22, 2000
   
16Name:  Dr. Yuri A. Ovchinnikov
 Year Elected:  1977
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  2/17/88
   
17Name:  Lord William G. Penney
 Year Elected:  1973
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1909
 Death Date:  3/3/91
   
18Name:  Dr. Max F. Perutz
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  1968
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  February 6, 2002
   
19Name:  Professor Lord Porter
 Institution:  Imperial College
 Year Elected:  1986
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  August 31, 2002
   
20Name:  Dr. Vladimir Prelog
 Institution:  Federal Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1976
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1906
 Death Date:  1/7/98
   
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