American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. James S. Ackerman
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  December 31, 2016
   
 
James Ackerman's first book, The Cortile del Belvedere (1954), brought clarity to the history of Bramante's largest palace commission through a balanced analysis of archival documents and drawings of the structure. The Architecture of Michelangelo (now in 3rd edition) marked a new stage in Michelangelo studies and has become the standard monograph both in English and Italian. His two volumes on Palladio have thoroughly revised our notions of the Venetian architect's work and provided a new understanding to the economic repertoire of villas built by Venetians on the mainland. Dr. Ackerman served as editor of the Art Bulletin of the College Art Association and of the Annali di Architettura of the Centro di Storia d'architettara in Vicenza. His early interest in the history of film led him to found the University Film Study Center for a consortium of universities in New England. His theoretical writings have made a substantial contribution to a non-Marxist social history of art. A professor at Harvard University since 1961, Dr. Ackerman held emeritus status since 1990. He has also taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1952-60), Cambridge University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Columbia University and New York University and has been honored with membership in the British Academy; the Royal Academy of Arts; the Accademia Olimpica; the Royal Academy of Uppsala; the Bavarian Academy of Sciences; and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He was awarded the International Balzan Prize (2002) and the Leone d'oro prize of the Biennale of Architecture at Venice (2008) for career achievement in the history of architecture and urbanism and was named an Honorary Citizen of Padua in 2008. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. James Ackerman died December 31, 2016, at the age of 97, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
 
2Name:  Dr. Gordon Alan Baym
 Institution:  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign & Niels Bohr Institute
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Gordon Baym received a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University in 1960. He was an NSF postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen (1960-62), and then a lecturer and assistant research physicist at the University of California, Berkeley (1962-63). In 1963, he moved to the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign where he has served as Center for Advanced Study Professor of Physics and George and Ann Fisher Distinguished Professor of Engineering. He is currently Professor Emeritus and Research Professor at University of Illinois, as well as Adjunct Professor at the Niels Bohr Institute of the University of Copenhagen. He was an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research fellow (1965-67) and an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation fellow (1983-88). A theoretical physicist of unusual depth and breadth, he pioneered the application of field-theoretic methods to quantum condensed matter systems. He is a leading theorist of quantum solids and liquids, nuclei, astronomical objects, and ultracold trapped atomic systems. His papers on neutron stars described the unusual matter they contain, their structure, and formation in supernova explosions. He played a key intellectual role in building the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven. Active in the history of science, he chaired the American Physical Society Forum on the History of Physics (1995-97). Dr. Baym is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. Among his awards are three from the American Physical Society: the Hans A. Bethe Prize in 2002, the Lars Onsager Prize in 2008, and the Medal for Exceptional Achievement in Research in 2021. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000.
 
3Name:  Mr. Louis Begley
 Institution:  Debevoise & Plimpton
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
LOUIS BEGLEY, b. Poland, October 6, 1933. Author of: Wartime Lies (1991), The Man Who Was Late (1993), As Max Saw It (1994), About Schmidt (1996), Mistler’s Exit (1998), Schmidt Delivered (2000), Das Gelobte Land (2001), Venedig unter vier Augen (with Anka Muhlstein, 2003), Shipwreck (2003), Matters of Honor (2007), Zwischen Fakten und Fiktionen (2008), The Tremendous World I Have Inside My Head: Franz Kafka (2008), Why the Dreyfus Affair Matters (2009), Schmidt Steps Back (2012), Memories of a Marriage (2013), Killer, Come Hither (2015), Kill and Be Killed (2016);, and numerous essays and articles. Retired partner, Debevoise & Plimpton. Education: AB (s.c.l), Harvard, 1954; LL.B. (m.c.l.), Harvard, 1959. Prizes include: The Irish Times-Aer Lingus International Fiction Prize, National Book Award Finalist, National Book Critics’ Circle Finalist, PEN/Ernest Hemingway Foundation Award, Prix Médicis Étranger, Jeanette-Schocken-Preis, Bremerhavener Bürgerpreis für Literatur, American Academy of Letters Award in Literature, and Konrad Adenauer-Stiftung Literaturpreis. Past Trustee and President, PEN American Center. Chevalier, Ordre des Arts et Lettres. Ph. D. (h.c.), University of Heidelberg.
 
4Name:  Dr. John S. Chipman
 Institution:  University of Minnesota
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1926
   
 
John Chipman received a Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins University in 1951. He was assistant professor of economics at Harvard University from 1951-55 and moved to the University of Minnesota, where he is currently Regents' Professor of Economics Emeritus, in 1955. John Chipman is an economist's economist, enjoying the highest respect as a scholar who has made important contributions in several diverse fields within and on the borders of economics. His main contributions are to utility theory, to the theory of aggregation (with profound implications for questions such as how to conceptualise and measure trade in "similar" products, or what is called "intra-industry trade"), and to many other analytical issues in the theory of international trade. He is also an important scholar of the history of international trade theory and its evolution from the earliest times. Dr. Chipman is among the most important and influential theorists of his generation. He received the James Murray Luck Award from the National Academy of Sciences in 1981 and a Festschrift presented by students and scholars in 1999. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society, the American Statistical Association, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, a distinguished fellow of the American Economics Association, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000.
 
5Name:  Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone
 Institution:  National Academy of Sciences; University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  105. Physical Earth Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1943
 Death Date:  November 5, 2016
   
 
Ralph Cicerone received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering, with a minor in physics, from the University of Illinois in 1970. He joined the faculty of the University of Michigan in 1972 as a research scientist and assistant professor in the department of electrical and computer engineering. In 1978 he moved to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, where he was a research chemist. He served as a senior scientist and Director of the Atmospheric Chemistry Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research from 1980-89. He then became the Daniel G. Aldrich Professor of Earth System Science at the University of California, Irvine, where he chaired the department of Earth System Science from 1989-94. Dr. Cicerone was appointed Chancellor of the University of California, Irvine in 1998. In 2005 he became President of the National Academy of Sciences and was reelected in 2011. He served until 2016. Ralph Cicerone's research has greatly increased our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of trace gases through the atmosphere, especially concerning ozone depletion and increased greenhouse gases such as methane. He was one of the first to point out the potential for global ozone depletion by stratospheric chlorine. With Ramanathan and with Dickinson, he wrote early papers on the radiative forcing of global climate change due to trace gases and he lectured widely on human causes of climate change and energy usage. In addition to the cumulative body of research, he was a leader in science policy issues. Dr. Cicerone received the United Nations Environment Program Ozone Award in 1997, the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science from the Franklin Institute in 1998, and the American Geophysical Union's 2002 Roger Revelle Medal in recognition of outstanding research contributions to the understanding of the Earth's atmospheric processes, and the 2004 Einstein Prize for Science from the World Cultural Council. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the Accademia dei Lincei and the Russian Academy of Sciences, he also served as president of the American Geophysical Union. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Ralph Cicerone died November 5, 2016, at the age of 73.
 
6Name:  Dr. Alfred W. Crosby
 Institution:  University of Texas at Austin
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  March 14, 2018
   
 
Alfred W. Crosby received his Ph.D. from Boston University in 1961. He served as professor of history at Washington State University for eleven years before joining the University of Texas, Austin in 1977 as Professor of American Studies. He was a National Institutes of Health fellow, 1971-73, and a Guggenheim fellow, 1987-88. Alfred Crosby pioneered investigation of the biological side of European expansion, transforming older ideas of how and why European settlers thrived overseas in temperate climes. By analyzing the "cloud of organisms" which accompanied the Europeans - disease germs, pests, weeds, domesticated animals and plants - all accustomed to living in company with one another, Dr. Crosby made clear for the first time the crushing force of what he calls "ecological imperialism." This is a great advance in the understanding of our past. His last book is about time and its measurement in late medieval and early modern Europe, so he is a general historian as well as an expert in biological and epidemiological history. His books include: America, Russia, Hemp and Napoleon: American Trade with Russia and the Baltic, 1783-1812 (1965); The Columbia Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (1972); Epidemic and Peace, 1918 (1976); Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (1986); The Columbian Voyages, the Columbian Exchange and Their Historians (1987); Germs, Seeds and Animals (1994); The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600 (1997) (French, 2001); and Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology through History (2002). He was also the co-editor of Studies in Environment and History. Dr. Crosby was presented the Medical Writer's Association Award in 1976, the Ralph Waldo Emerson Prize in 1988, and the Distinguished Scholar Award from the American Society for Environmental History in 2001. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Alfred W. Crosby died March 14, 2018, at age 87 in Nantucket, Massachusetts.
 
7Name:  Dr. Walter M. Fitch
 Institution:  University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  March 10, 2011
   
 
Walter Fitch received a Ph.D. in comparative biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley in 1958. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison for twenty-four years before moving to the University of California, Irvine in 1986, where he was Professor of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology. Walter Fitch may be considered the founder of the now widespread discipline of molecular phylogenetics. He developed a method for reconstructing phylogeny based on amino acid sequences and applied it first to the cytochrome c's of 20 species in one of the most cited papers in the field of molecular evolution (Science, 1967). He developed additional methods for phylogeny reconstruction, including parsimony, the most widely used (Systematic Zoology, 1971). Fitch's contributions in molecular evolution have contributed to settle issues such as the phylogeny of South American Indian tribes, the rate of evolution of mice strains, and albumin evolution in reptiles. He pioneered the theory of the molecular evolutionary clock. Most recently, he moved evolutionary theory from reconstructing the past to predicting the future. In a series of papers analyzing the pattern of evolution of the influenza virus, his method has correctly predicted in nine out of eleven years the strain that would predominantly infect the human population in the following season, a significant finding in developing vaccines. Dr. Fitch was the founder of the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, and served as editor-in-chief from 1983-93. He had also served on the editorial board of Systematic Zoology, Journal of Molecular Evolution, and Genomics, and was on the advisory board of Biochemical Genetics since 1966. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Human Genome Organization, and a foreign member of the Linnean Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Walter Fitch died on March 10, 2011, at the age of 81 in Irvine, California.
 
8Name:  Dr. Robert W. Fogel
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  June 11, 2013
   
 
Specializing in economic history from the point of view of statistical analysis, Robert Fogel was one of the most distinguished economists in the world. A deep student of the Simon Kuznets tradition, he later introduced formal econometrics in the statistical study of economic history, and his book on the economics of slavery, with Stanley Engerman, was a landmark study. Later, he has focused on research in the fields of demographics, health, medicine and technical change. A graduate of Johns Hopkins University (Ph.D., 1963), Dr. Fogel served on the faculties of the University of Rochester (1960-64, 1968-75), Harvard University (1975-81) and the University of Chicago (1963-75, 1981-2013), where he was Charles Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of American Institutions and director of the Center for Population Economics. He died on June 11, 2013, at the age of 86, in Oak Lawn, Illinois.
 
9Name:  Dr. Mary K. Gaillard
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Mary Gaillard is a theoretical physicist who has specialized in the physics of elementary particles. Since 1964 she has been a prolific contributor (well over 100 papers) to the understanding of the weak, the electroweak, and the strong interactions. Many of her early papers show how to use the weak decay interactions to examine the symmetries and dynamics of the strong. Several of her papers from the 1970s have turned out to be highly prescient and have become standard references in the field. Most recently she has been attempting to extract real physics from superstrings. In addition to these highly technical contributions, Dr. Gaillard has contributed greatly to the field in other ways. She has served on innumerable advisory and program committees for many different laboratories and national organizations. She was also chair of a committee of the American Physical Society to examine the status of women in physics and served on another which examined academic positions for women in physics and astronomy. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Physical Society, Dr. Gaillard has served as a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkelely since 1981. In 2015 she published her autobiography, A Singularly Unfeminine Profession: One Woman's Journey in Physics.
 
10Name:  Dr. Alexander L. George
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  August 16, 2006
   
11Name:  Dr. Robert J. Glaser
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  June 7, 2012
   
 
Robert Joy Glaser received an M.D. at Harvard Medical School. He served as Associate Dean at Washington University from 1955-57, then as Dean and Professor of Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine until 1963, and as Professor of Social Medicine at Harvard University from 1963-65. In 1965 he became the Vice President for Medical Affairs, Dean of the School of Medicine, and professor at Stanford University, also serving as acting president in 1968. He was Professor of Medicine Emeritus at Stanford University and he received that institution's Dean's Medal in 2009. Dr. Glaser had been a trustee and board member of many educational institutions and foundations, including the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust, Georgetown University, Morehouse College, the David & Lucille Packard Foundation, UCLA School of Medicine, Center for the Future of Children, Packard Humanities Institute, and the Foundation for Biomedical Research. He was a consultant for Medical Philanthropy and Biomedical Science. In 1986 the Robert J. Glaser Award was established by the Society of General Internal Medicine. Robert Glaser is a legendary figure in the field of medicine and biomedical research. His uniqueness is based on a complex combination of personal characteristics: scientific ability, demonstrated early in his career as a successful clinical microbiologist, and widely acclaimed administrative leadership. His accomplishments in support of education and research in medicine and his stature as a wise and trusted leader within biomedicine are unparalleled. In addition, his deep commitment to support and stimulate young minds and to foster their education and training was coupled with a realistic sense of the need to find financial resources to realize these dreams. Dr. Glaser was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000 and a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 2009. He died on June 7, 2012, at the age of 93 in Palo Alto, California.
 
12Name:  Dr. Mary Lowe Good
 Institution:  University of Arkansas & Venture Capital Investors, LLC & American Association for the Advancement of Science
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  November 20, 2019
   
 
Mary Good exemplified intellectual biodiversity. She was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dean of the Donaghey College of Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Arkansas, Little Rock, and managing director of the Fund for Arkansas, LLC. She also served on the board of Aexiom Inc., a successful information company, and on several not-for-profit boards. Good served four years as the Under Secretary for Technology in the Department of Commerce, a Presidentially appointed, Senate confirmed, position. She chaired the National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Technological Innovation and was a member of the National Science Board, appointed by President Carter in 1980. Before joining the federal administration, she was for many years Senior Vice-President of Technology at Allied Signal, Inc. She was its chairman from 1988 to 1991. Prior to Allied Signal, she served for more than 25 years in academia. In 1991, she was appointed by President Bush to the President's Committee of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST). She was an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mary Good was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. She died November 20, 2019 in Little Rock, Arkansas at the age of 88.
 
13Name:  Dr. Harry B. Gray
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Harry Gray's research career has touched nearly every aspect of inorganic chemistry. His earliest work dealt with mechanisms of ligand substitution reactions in coordination complexes, and the principles that he and his coworkers elucidated are now found in every standard inorganic textbook. Dr. Gray's research then moved from mechanism to electronic structure, where he was a pioneer in the study of spectroscopy and bonding in transition metal complexes. More recently, Dr. Gray has brought his profound understanding of inorganic chemistry to the elucidation of the behavior of metal centers in proteins. Arnold O. Beckman Professor of Chemistry since 1981, Dr. Gray was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1986, the Wolf Prize in 2004, the Othmer Gold Medal of the Chemical Heritage Foundation in 2013, the Feynman Teaching Prize in 2018, and the Cotton Medal in 2018 for his achievements.
 
14Name:  Mr. Alan Greenspan
 Institution:  Greenspan Associates LLC; Federal Reserve System
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1926
   
 
As the longtime chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, Alan Greenspan piloted the United States economy, the world's largest, for nearly 20 years. First appointed Fed chairman by President Ronald Reagan in 1987, he was reappointed at successive four-year intervals until retiring on January 31, 2006, at which time he relinquished the chairmanship to Ben Bernanke. Mr. Greenspan was lauded for his handling of the Black Monday stock market crash that occurred very shortly after he first became chairman, as well as for his stewardship of the Internet-driven, "dot-com" economic boom of the 1990s. He remains a leading authority on American domestic economic and monetary policy, and his active influence continues to this day. In 1998 Mr. Greenspan was awarded the American Philosophical Society's Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Public Service. The citation read "in recognition of his leadership and his work as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. His wise formation and skillful execution of monetary policy has contributed significantly to the longest period of prosperity in the United States on record." Mr. Greenspan has published several books, including The Age of Turbulence (2007) and The Map and the Territory (2013). He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005.
 
15Name:  Dr. Erich S. Gruen
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404a
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Erich Gruen is Professor of the Graduate School: Wood Professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Born in Vienna, he received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1964 and has taught history at Berkeley since 1966. A Rhodes Scholar and Guggenheim Fellow, Dr. Gruen has established a reputation as a leading international authority on the Roman Republic, its political antecedents in Hellenism, and the impact of both on the Jewish tradition. A master at seeing the macrocosm reflected in the microcosm, Dr. Gruen is the author of numerous articles and works including The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (1984), Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition (1998) and Diaspora: Jews amidst Greeks and Romans (2002). Dr. Gruen is a past president of the American Philological Association (1992) and a member of the American Historical Association and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1986).
 
16Name:  Dr. Seamus Heaney
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1939
 Death Date:  August 30, 2013
   
 
Born and educated in Northern Ireland, Seamus Heaney is widely recognized as Ireland's greatest poet since William Butler Yeats. His carefully crafted work received international praise for its powerful imagery, meaningful content, musical phrasing and compelling rhythms. In 1996, Seamus Heaney was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Educated at St. Columb's College and Queen's University in Belfast, he worked as a teacher at college and university level in Belfast in the 1960s, moving with his family to the Irish Republic in 1972. After some years as an independent writer, he resumed work as a college lecturer. In 1982 he began his long association with Harvard University, coming and going for a term each year until 1996. At that time, he resigned the Boylston Professorship to begin a more flexible affiliation as Ralph Waldo Emerson Poet in Residence, a position he resigned in 2007. Between 1989 and 1994 he also served as Professor of Poetry at Oxford University. Since the publication of Death of a Naturalist in 1966, Mr. Heaney produced many works of poetry, criticism and translation. Opened Ground: Poems 1966-1996 appeared in 1998 and Finders Keepers, his selected prose, in 2002. Other recent publications include Beowulf: A New Verse Translation (1998) and Electric Light (2001). His version of Sophocles' Antigone, entitled The Burial at Thebes, was produced as part of the Abbey Theatre's centenary celebrations. In 2007 he won the T.S. Eliot Prize for Poetry for his latest collection, District and Circle and in 2009 he won the Royal Irish Academy's Cunningham Medal. Seamus Heaney was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2000. He died on August 30, 2013, at the age of 74, in Dublin.
 
17Name:  Dr. Frederic Lawrence Holmes
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1932
 Death Date:  March 27, 2003
   
18Name:  Dr. Leroy Hood
 Institution:  Providence St. Joseph Health; Institute for Systems Biology
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Leroy E. Hood is the President and Director of the Institute for Systems Biology, a not-for-profit institution he recently established. He has helped start more than half a dozen companies, including Amgen, the largest biotech company, and Applied Biosystems, the leading maker of genetic analysis equipment. He received an M.D. at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1964 and a Ph.D. in biochemistry at California Institute of Technology in 1968. A member of the faculty of the California Institute of Technology for twenty-two years, he was also director of the Cancer Center, 1981-90, and director of the NSF Science and Technology Center for Molecular Biotechnolgy, 1989-92. From 1992-2000 he was the Director of the NSF Science and Technology Center for Molecular Biotechnology at the University of Washington, as well as William Gates III Professor and Chairman of the Department of Molecular Biotechnology, professor in the Departments of Bioengineering and Immunology, and an adjunct professor in the Departments of Medicine and Computer Science. Leroy Hood played a central role in deciphering the mechanisms of immunological diversity by being among the first to clone and characterize genes encoding antibodies, genes of the major histocompatibility complex, and T-cell receptors. His laboratory also developed four instruments widely used to synthesize and sequence genes and proteins. Dr. Hood also played a pioneering role in the Human Genome Project and co-edited The Code of Codes, covering the scientific, legal, and ethical aspects of the Human Genome Project. Dr. Hood initiated major programs for bringing hands-on, inquiry-based science to all levels of teachers in Seattle. Dr. Hood is the recipient of many awards, including the Louis Pasteur Award, Dickson Prize, Lasker Award, Rabbi Shai Shacknai Memorial Prize of Hebrew University, the American College of Physicians Award, the NAE's Fritz J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize, and the National Medal of Science (2012). In January 2017 he was awarded the National Academy of Sciences' Award for Chemistry in Service to Society. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and American Academy of Arts & Sciences and was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000.
 
19Name:  Dr. William Chester Jordan
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404a
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
William Chester Jordan received a Ph.D. at Princeton University in 1973 and has remained at Princeton throughout his career. Professor of History since 1986, he also served as director of the Davis Center for Historical Studies from 1994-99. Dr. Jordan is a master medievalist. Beginning as a historian of the state, he has consistently made the development of the central political and social institutions of the great feudal monarchies the core of his work. Thorough investigations in the French national and provincial archives have enabled him to shed new light on classic subjects as diverse as the military organization of the Crusades and the dissolution of serfdom. At the same time, however, he has never lost sight of the many thousands of medieval people who had to forge communities and ways of living outside the central institutions of the great states, and sometimes in sharp opposition to them. His work on the lives of serfs, Jews and women in the Middle Ages applies to new sources, new problems, and unstudied social groups the same expert craftmanship exhibited in his work on serfdom. His book on the famine of the fourteenth century is a still broader account of the social and human consequences of catastrophe. Jordan's wide historical sympathies, remarkable linguistic gifts, and eloquence in speech and writing have won him an international reputation, and his rigorous undergraduate and graduate teaching has led brilliant younger scholars to devote themselves to careers in the field. A list of his publications include Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade: A Study in Rulership (1979); From Servitude to Freedom: Manumission in the Sénonais in the Thirteenth Century (1986); The French Monarchy and the Jews from Philip Augustus to the Last Capetians (1989); Women and Credit in Pre-Industrial and Developing Societies (1993); The Great Famine: Northern France in the Early Fourteenth Century (1996); Ideology and Royal Power in Medieval France: Kingship, Crusades and the Jews (2001); Europe in the High Middle Ages (2001); Unceasing Strife, Unending Fear: Jacques de Thérines and the Freedom of the Church in the Age of the Last Capetians, (2005). He won the American Philosophical Society's Henry Allen Moe Prize in the Humanities in 2012 for his lecture on "Count Robert's 'Pet' Wolf." In 2018 he was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. William Chester Jordan was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000.
 
20Name:  Professor Herma Hill Kay
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  June 10, 2017
   
 
Herma Hill Kay received a J.D. at the University of Chicago Law School in 1959. She was the Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, where she was Dean of the Law School from 1992-2000. Kay was only the second woman hired on the Berkeley Law faculty - when the first announced her plans to retire. But by the time Kay stepped down as dean, the student body was more than 50 percent female. That figure stood at 10 percent in 1969. "[Kay's] mentoring of women law students and young faculty opened the door to legal careers that simply did not exist before she and other women of her generation began to imagine them," wrote Berkeley emerita law professor Eleanor Swift in a 2016 article in the California Law Review. "The women law professors whom she mentored throughout her career constitute her enduring legacy to the law and to legal education." Kay's influence goes far beyond the legal academy, however. She was a driving force behind California's 1969 adoption of so-called no-fault divorce, when she sat on the state's Commission on The Family. California was the first to adopt the rule, which has since been embraced by nearly every other state. She also co-authored the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act, which provides a national standard for no-fault divorce. She was a recipient of the Research Award from the American Bar Foundation, the Margaret Brent Women Lawyers of Distinction award of the ABA Commission on Women in the Profession, and the Marshall-Wythe Medal. She was the author (with M. West) of Text, Cases, and Materials on Sex-Based Discrimination (6th edition, 2006); and of (with D. Currie, L. Kramer and K. Roosevelt) Conflict of Laws: Cases, Comments, Questions, (7th edition, 2006). Herma Hill Kay was a recognized leader in legal education and also a productive scholar in the important fields of family law, sex-based discrimination, and conflict of laws. Except for visiting professorships elsewhere, she spent her entire 45-year career at the University of California, Berkeley. She presided over such national organizations as the Association of American Law Schools, the Trustees of the Russell Sage Foundation, and the National Order of the Coif and was a valued, long-time member of the Council of the American Law Institute. Her writings in family law won her the prestigious Research Award of the American Bar Foundation in 1990. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Herma Hill Kay died June 10, 2017, at age 82, in Berkeley, California.
 
Election Year
2000[X]
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