American Philosophical Society
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1Name:  Sir Michael Atiyah
 Institution:  University of Edinburgh
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  January 11, 2019
   
 
One of the greatest mathematicians of his times, Sir Michael Atiyah made fundamental contributions to many areas of mathematics, but especially to topology, geometry and analysis. From his first major contribution - topological K-theory - to his later work on quantum field theory, Sir Michael has been influential in the development of new theoretical tools and has supplied far-reaching insights. He was a notable collaborator, with his name linked with other oustanding mathematicians through their joint research. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1966 and was President of the Royal Society and Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. A superb lecturer, he possesses the ability to explain sophisticated mathematics in a simple geometric way. Formerly a professor at both Oxford and Cambridge Universities and the Institute for Advanced Study, he was an inspiring teacher who instructed an outstanding group of former students. Sir Michael Atiyah was the recipient of many honors and awards, including election as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1962, a knighthood in 1983 and the Order of Merit in 1992. He served as Chancellor of the University of Leicester from 1995-2005, as President of the Royal Society London from 1990-1995, as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh from 2005-2008, and was later an Honorary Professor at Edinburgh University in Scotland. In 1993 he was awarded the American Philosophical Society's Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences. The citation read "in recognition of significant contributions to a remarkable range of mathematical topics, which established links between differential geometry, topology, and analysis; and creating useful mathematical tools for physicists." Sir Michael Atiyah died on January 11, 2019 at the age of 89.
 
2Name:  Dr. Barbara Aronstein Black
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Barbara Aronstein Black is George Welwood Murray Professor of Legal History Emerita at Columbia University. She received her B.A. from Brooklyn College in 1953, as well as an LL.B. from Columbia University in 1955 and a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1975. She holds honorary doctorates from Brooklyn College, Marymount Manhattan, Osgoode Hall, New Rochelle, New York Law School, Smith College, Vermont Law School and Georgetown University Law Center. Dr. Black was an editor of the Columbia Law Review and was an associate in law at Columbia from 1955-56. In 1965 she began a doctoral program in history at Yale, specializing in Anglo-American legal history. She served as an instructor and lecturer in history while completing graduate study, and, on award of the Ph.D. degree, became assistant professor of history at Yale. She was appointed associate professor of law at Yale in 1979. Dr. Black has also been a visiting lecturer at Harvard Law School and a visiting professor at Columbia Law School. She joined the Columbia faculty in 1984, retiring in 2008, and served as Dean of the Faculty of Law from 1986-91. She was president of the American Society for Legal History from 1986-87 and 1988-89 and is a member of the Selden Society; the Massachusetts Historical Society; and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She is on the Board of Directors of the Supreme Court Historical Society; the Board of Guarantors for the Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America at Columbia University; and the Permanent Advisory Board for the Jay Papers Project at Columbia University. She was also a member of the New York State Ethics Commission from 1992-95 and served on the Board of Trustees of New York Law School from 1992-98. Dr. Black has published widely, and her principal areas of interest are legal history and contracts.
 
3Name:  Mr. McGeorge Bundy
 Institution:  Carnegie Corporation of New York
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  9/16/96
   
4Name:  Mr. James E. Burke
 Institution:  Partnership for a Drug-Free America & Johnson & Johnson
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  September 28, 2012
   
 
In his nearly forty years (1953-89) with the Johnson & Johnson Corporation, James E. Burke earned much respect for the quality of his executive ability and his concern for those less fortunate in life than he. He was involved in several causes benefiting others, and he held many posts that reflect leadership and sound judgment. As chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Johnson & Johnson, he enhanced the importance of business ethics and corporate social responsibility by challenging and rededicating the principles of the Johnson & Johnson credo throughout the corporation. With primary concern for public safety, he recalled millions of bottles of Tylenol capsules during criminal tampering incidents in 1982 and 1986. Recognizing humankind's yearning for a longer and healthier life, he initiated a comprehensive program of employee wellness called "Live for Life." During a time when American industry was forsaking the research and development necessary to stay competitive, he saw the need to invest heavily, quadrupuling the corporation's R&D investment. Following his retirement, he became chairman of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a coalition of communications professionals dedicated to persuading children to reject substance abuse. For this work he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States, by President Clinton. He became Chairman Emeritus of PDFA at the end of 2002. Mr. Burke was a member of the National Business Hall of Fame, and Fortune magazine named him one of the ten greatest CEOs of all time. James Burke died September 28, 2012, at the age of 87, near New Brunswick, New Jersey.
 
5Name:  The Honorable Jimmy Carter
 Institution:  Former President of the United States & The Carter Center, Inc. & Emory University & Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1924
   
 
Jimmy Carter (James Earl Carter, Jr.), thirty-ninth president of the United States, was born October 1, 1924, in the small farming town of Plains, Georgia, and grew up in the nearby community of Archery. He was educated in the Plains public schools, attended Georgia Southwestern College and the Georgia Institute of Technology, and received a B.S. degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1946. In the Navy he became a submariner, serving in both the Atlantic and Pacific fleets and rising to the rank of lieutenant. Chosen by Admiral Hyman Rickover for the nuclear submarine program, he was assigned to Schenectady, N.Y., where he took graduate work at Union College in reactor technology and nuclear physics, and served as senior officer of the pre-commissioning crew of the Seawolf. When his father died in 1953, he resigned his naval commission and took his family back to Plains. He took over the Carter farms, and he and and his wife Rosalynn operated Carter's Warehouse, a general-purpose seed and farm supply company. He quickly became a leader of the community, serving on county boards supervising education, the hospital authority, and the library. In 1962 he won election to the Georgia Senate. He lost his first gubernatorial campaign in 1966 but won the next election, becoming Georgia's 76th governor on January 12, 1971. He was the Democratic National Committee campaign chairman for the 1974 congressional elections. On December 12, 1974, he announced his candidacy for president of the United States. He won his party's nomination on the first ballot at the 1976 Democratic National Convention, and was elected president on November 2, 1976. Jimmy Carter served as president from January 20, 1977 to January 20, 1981. Significant foreign policy accomplishments of his administration included the Panama Canal treaties, the Camp David Accords, the treaty of peace between Egypt and Israel, the SALT II treaty with the Soviet Union, and the establishment of U.S. diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. He championed human rights throughout the world. On the domestic side, the administration's achievements included a comprehensive energy program conducted by a new Department of Energy; deregulation in energy, transportation, communications, and finance; major educational programs under a new Department of Education; and major environmental protection legislation, including the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Mr. Carter is the author of a long list of books, many of which are now in revised editions: Why Not the Best? (1975, 1996); A Government as Good as Its People (1977, 1996); Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President (1982, 1995); Negotiation: The Alternative to Hostility (1984); The Blood of Abraham (1985, 1993); Everything to Gain: Making the Most of the Rest of Your Life, written with Rosalynn Carter (1987, 1995); An Outdoor Journal (1988, 1994); Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age (1992); Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation (1993, 1995); Always a Reckoning (1995); The Little Baby Snoogle-Fleejer, illustrated by Amy Carter (1995); Living Faith (1996); Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for a Living Faith (1997); The Virtues of Aging (1998); An Hour before Daylight: Memoirs of a Rural Boyhood (2001); Christmas in Plains: Memories (2001); The Nobel Peace Prize Lecture (2002); The Hornet's Nest: A Novel of the Revolutionary War (2003); Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (2006); and White House Diary (2010). His most recent books are Beyond the White House: Waging Peace, Fighting Disease and Building Hope (2007); A Remarkable Mother (2008); We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land: A Plan That Will Work (2009); and A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence and Power (2014). In 1982, he became University Distinguished Professor at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and founded the Carter Center in Atlanta. Actively guided by President Carter, the nonpartisan and nonprofit center addresses national and international issues of public policy. Carter Center fellows, associates and staff join with President Carter in efforts to resolve conflict, promote democracy, protect human rights, and prevent disease and other afflictions. Through the Global 2000 program, the Center advances health and agriculture in the developing world. President Carter and The Carter Center have engaged in conflict mediation in Ethiopia and Eritrea (1989), North Korea (1994), Liberia (1994), Haiti (1994), Bosnia (1994), Sudan (1995), the Great Lakes region of Africa (1995-96), Sudan and Uganda (1999), and Venezuela (2002-2003). Under his leadership The Carter Center has sent forty-seven international election-monitoring delegations to elections in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. These include Panama (1989), Nicaragua (1990), Guyana (1992), Venezuela (1998), Nigeria (1999), Indonesia (1999), East Timor (1999), Mexico (2000), China (2001), Jamaica (2002), and Guatemala (2003).The permanent facilities of The Carter Presidential Center were dedicated in October, 1986, and include the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter volunteer one week a year for Habitat for Humanity, a nonprofit organization that helps needy people in the United States and in other countries renovate and build homes for themselves. He also teaches Sunday school and is a deacon in the Maranatha Baptist Church of Plains. For recreation, he enjoys fly-fishing, woodworking, jogging, cycling, tennis, and skiing. The Carters have three sons, one daughter, eight grandsons, and three granddaughters. On December 10, 2002, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2002 to Mr. Carter "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development." To this day, he continues to work for these goals and against the world's most intractable problems. In 2007 he joined the Elders, a freelance global diplomatic team dedicated to working for the common good. The alliance also includes former South African president Nelson Mandela, former Irish president Mary Robinson and the retired Anglican archbishop Desmond Tutu. In 2017 he was honored by the Ford Foundation with the Gerald R. Ford Medal for Distinguished Public Service as well as the O'Connor Justice Prize.
 
6Name:  Prof. Edward Toner Cone
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  October 23, 2004
   
7Name:  Lord Dainton
 Institution:  University of Sheffield
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  12/5/97
   
8Name:  Dr. Anna Morpurgo Davies
 Institution:  University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1937
 Death Date:  September 27, 2014
   
 
Anna Morpurgo Davies was born in 1937 in Milan (Italy) to Maria (née Castelnuovo), a teacher, and Augusto Morpurgo, an industrial engineer. Her father died when she was one and a half years old, and her mother moved with her four children to Rome, where they miraculously survived Mussolini's anti-Jewish laws and the year of German occupation. Anna took her first degree in classics and comparative philology at the University of Rome with a dissertation on Mycenaean declensions (1959), and she then served for two years as an assistant to the Chair of Greek and Latin Grammar before obtaining a Junior Fellowship at the Center for Hellenic Studies newly founded by Harvard University in Washington DC (1961-62). In 1962 she married J.K. Davies, a British ancient historian (marriage dissolved 1978), and moved to Oxford, England, where in 1964 she was appointed to a University Lectureship in Classical Philology and in 1966 to a Fellowship of St. Hilda's College (Hon. Fellow from 1972). In 1963 she obtained an Italian libera docenza. In 1971 she was elected to the Oxford Chair of Comparative Philology (renamed the Diebold Chair of Comparative Philology from 2003) and to a Fellowship of Somerville College; she retired in September 2004. She was a member of the British Academy and of the Academia Europaea, a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, a Corresponding Member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Paris), of the Austrian Academy (Vienna) and of the Bavarian Academy (München). She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1991. In 1981 she received an Hon. D.Litt. From the University of St. Andrews (Scotland) and from 1993 she was an Honorary Member of the Linguistic Society of America. She was the President of the (British) Philological Society from 1976-80 (Hon. Vice-President 1980-), and she served as Delegate of Oxford University Press for twelve years. In 2001 she was awarded an Honorary D.B.E. for services to philology and linguistics. She was a Visiting Professor at the University of Pennsylvania in 1971, at Yale University in 1977, at the University of California, Berkeley in 2006 and 2007, and the Sather Professor of Classical Literature at the University of California, Berkeley in 2000; she had also given a series of named lectures at the University of Cincinnati, Stanford University, Harvard University and the Scuola Normale di Pisa. In 1975 she was the Collitz Professor of the Linguistic Society of America. In broad terms her work was concerned with Indo-European comparative and historical linguistics, but she has mainly concentrated on three areas: the history and prehistory of Ancient Greek; the Indo-European languages of Anatolia and in particular Hieroglyphic Luwian (often in collaboration with J .D. Hawkins), the history of Nineteenth Century Linguistics. Her first book (1963) was a lexicon of Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Second Millennium B.C. clay tablets written in Linear B (a syllabic script deciphered in 1952) and found in Crete and the Peloponnese. She continued to work on Mycenaean all through her career. She had also written extensively on the ancient Greek dialects of the First Millennium B.C. and in general on Greek historical linguistics. Her Nineteenth Century Linguistics (1998) was preceded by an Italian version (1996). In 2004 she was presented with a Festschrift published by Oxford University Press (Indo-European Perspectives. Studies in Honour of Anna Morpurgo Davies, edited by J.H.W. Penney; also Morpurgo Davies, Anna in K. Brown, ed., Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2006). For an autobiographical essay see K. Brown and V. Law eds., Linguistics in Britain: Personal Histories (Publications of the Philological Society, 36), Oxford 2002, pp. 213-227. Anna Morpurgo Davies died September 27, 2014 at the age of 77 in Oxford.
 
9Name:  Mrs. Gladys Krieble Delmas
 Institution:  Philanthropist
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  500
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1913
 Death Date:  11/20/91
   
10Name:  Dr. Christian de Duve
 Institution:  Rockefeller University & Catholic University, Louvain
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  May 4, 2013
   
 
Belgian biochemist Christian de Duve had been Emeritus Professor at both Catholic University, Louvain (since 1985) and Rockefeller University (since 1988) prior to his death on May 4, 2013 at the age of 95 at his home in Nethen, Belgium. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Louvain in 1945, training under Albert Claude and Hugo Theorell. A specialist in subcellular biochemistry and cell biology, Dr. de Duve was credited with discovering peroxisomes, a cell organelle, and his unique improvements on zonal centrifugation in the early 1960s led to the identification of the lysosomal fractions and its most important function in health and disease. His work on cell fractionalization has also provided a great deal of insight into the function of cell structures. For his work describing the structure and function of organelles in biological cells, Dr. de Duve, together with Albert Claude and George E. Palade, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1974. He is also the recipient of the Heineken Medal (1973) and a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1975). He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1991.
 
11Name:  Dr. Leo Esaki
 Institution:  Tsukuba International Congress Center & University of Tsukuba
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1925
   
 
Born in Osaka, Japan, physicist Leo Esaki has made many fundamental contributions pertaining to the physics of semiconductor materials. In his early work he demonstrated electron tunnelling in special semiconductor structures, which became known as tunnel or Esaki diodes. This work earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973. In 1960 Dr. Esaki joined the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, and became an IBM Fellow in 1967. More recently he helped establish the field of superlattice physics, creating a new class of artificial materials which display remarkable electronic properties. Known for his technical leadership and accomplishments, Dr. Esaki also possesses a strong interest in the interaction of science with societal issues on an international scale. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Science and the Japan Academy. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Tokyo in 1959 and has been awarded the Japanese Government Order of Culture and the American Physical Society's International Prize for New Material, among other honors.
 
12Name:  Dr. Peter R. Grant
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
A key figure in modern evolutionary biology, Peter R. Grant is most interested in ecology, evolution and behavior. He specializes in the finches of the Galapagos Islands that were originally studied by Charles Darwin and has conducted long-term studies of individual finch populations on some of the smaller islands. He has been able to show that, even over a space of time as short as 15 years, there have been numerous climate changes which have led to clear evidence of natural selection influencing and modifying the genetically determined physical characteristics of the indiviudal finches within a population. With numerous publications to his credit, Dr. Grant has been a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at Princeton University since 1985. He was educated at the University of Cambridge, the University of British Columbia and Yale University and previously taught at McGill University and the University of Michigan. He has received awards including a Guggenheim Fellowship (1985-86), an Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship (1996) and the American Ornithologists' Union's Brewster Medal (1983). He is a fellow of the Royal Society of London (1987), the Royal Society of Canada and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1997) and a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences (2007). He has also shared numerous awards with his wife, fellow evolutionary ecologist Rosemary Grant. These include the Academy of Natural Science's Leidy Medal (1994), the E.O. Wilson Prize of the American Society of Naturalists (1998), the Darwin Medal for Evolutionary Biology (2003), the A.I.B.S. Outstanding Scientist Award (2005), the Balzan Prize in Population Biology (2005), the Linnean Society of London's Darwin-Wallace Medal (2008), the Kyoto Prize from the Inamori Foundation (2009), the Royal Medal in Biology from the Royal Society of London (2017), and the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award (2017)
 
13Name:  Hon. Henry John Heinz
 Institution:  U.S. Senate
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1938
 Death Date:  4/4/91
   
14Name:  Dr. Paul M. Kennedy
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Internationally known for his writings and commentaries on global political, economic and strategic issues, Paul M. Kennedy is currently J. Richardson Dilworth Professor of History at Yale University. Dr. Kennedy earned his B.S. at Newcastle University and his doctorate at the University of Oxford and is a former fellow of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton University and the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, Bonn. Books such as The Samoan Tangle (1974), The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (1976) and The Realities Behind Diplomacy: Background Influences on British External Policy (1981) reveal his mastery of diplomatic and military history, as well as his analytical precision, narrative skill, and courage in dealing with large subjects. Furthermore, he has employed comparative techniques to study the relationship between economic and military power in The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (1988). Dr. Kennedy has the rare ability to use history to illuminate contemporary problems. He is on the editorial board of numerous scholarly journals and writes for The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Atlantic Monthly, and many foreign-language newspapers and magazines. Dr. Kennedy also helped draft a report for an international commission on "The United Nations in its Second Half-Century," which was prepared for the 50th anniversary United Nations debate on how to improve the world organization, and he has co-edited two large collections of papers relating to contemporary strategic issues: The Pivotal States: A New Framework for U.S. Policy in the Developing World and From War to Peace: Altered Strategic Landscapes in the Twentieth Century. His latest book is entitled Preparing for the Twenty-First Century. In 2014 he was awarded the Hattendorf Prize for Distinguished Original Research in Maritime History by the US Naval War College.
 
15Name:  Dr. Alfred G. Knudson
 Institution:  Fox Chase Cancer Center
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  July 10, 2016
   
 
Alfred G. Knudson was a senior member at the Fox Chase Cancer Center's Institute for Cancer Research since 1976. He earned his M.D. from Columbia University in 1947 and his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1956. Prior to joining Fox Chase as scientific director (1976-83) and president (1980-82), he served as chairman of the City of Hope Medical Center's department of pediatrics (1956-62) and department of biology (1962-66); as professor and associate dean at State University of New York, Stony Brook (1966-69); and as professor and dean of the University of Texas, Houston's Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and professor at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (1970-76). Having advanced his two-hit hypothesis that hereditary cancers are due to the somatic loss or mutation of the second allele of a gene responsible for regulating cell growth and development, Dr. Knudson was known for having made the first rational explanation, in modern genetic terms, for the relationship between hereditary and non-hereditary cancers. His breakthrough led to a great surge of productivity in many laboratories and an advanced understanding of errors in the genetic program that turn normal cells into cancer cells. Dr. Knudson was the recipient of many distinguished awards, including the Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award (1998), the Gairdner Award (1997) and the Kyoto Prize (2004). Alfred Knudson died July 10, 2016, at the age of 93, at his home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
 
16Name:  Dr. Ludwig Koenen
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402b
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1931
   
 
Ludwig Koenen has taught at the University of Michigan since 1975. As Herbert C. Youtie Distinguished University Professor Emeritus of Papyrology, he is regarded as one of the world's most renowned papyrologists. His research has centered primarily on the religious history of the Roman Empire, especially the period in which Orthodox Christianity became established as a state religion. He has served as chair of the university's Department of Classical Studies and has overseen the organization, cataloguing and preparation for publication of its papyri collection, the largest in the Western Hemisphere. Dr. Koenen received his Ph.D. from the University of Cologne in 1957 and taught there from that time until his tenure at Michigan. He has been elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and, since 1975, has been a corresponding member of the German Archaeological Institute. He has also served as president of the American Philological Association.
 
17Name:  Mr. H. C. Robbins Landon
 Institution:  University of Wales College of Cardiff
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  November 20, 2009
   
 
Musicologist Howard Chandler Robbins Landon is the John Bird Professor of Music Emeritus at the University of Wales College of Cardiff. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1926 and studied music at Swarthmore College and Boston University. He subsequently moved to Europe, where he worked as a music critic. From 1947 he did research in Vienna on Joseph Haydn, a composer on whom he would become a noted expert. His book Symphonies of Joseph Haydn was published in 1955, with the five volume Haydn: Chronicle and Works following at the end of the 1970s. He also edited a number of Haydn's works. Dr. Landon has also published work on other 18th century composers, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Antonio Vivaldi. His other books include Handel and his World (1984); Mozart, the golden years, 1781-1791 (1989); and Vivaldi: Voice of the Baroque (1993).
 
18Name:  Dr. Anthony J. Leggett
 Institution:  University of Illinois
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Anthony J. Leggett is the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Professor and Center for Advanced Study Professor of Physics. He has been a faculty member at the University of Illinois since 1983 and in 2020 donated his papers to the University of Illinois Archives. He is widely recognized as a world leader in the theory of low-temperature physics, and his pioneering work on superfluidity was recognized by the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences (foreign member) and is a Fellow of the Royal Society (U.K.), the American Physical Society and the American Institute of Physics. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Physics (U.K.) and was knighted (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005 "for services to physics." Professor Leggett has shaped the theoretical understanding of normal and superfluid helium liquids and other strongly coupled superfluids. He set directions for research in the quantum physics of macroscopic dissipative systems and use of condensed systems to test the foundations of quantum mechanics. His research interests lie mainly within the fields of theoretical condensed matter physics and the foundations of quantum mechanics. He has been particularly interested in the possibility of using special condensed-matter systems, such as Josephson devices, to test the validity of the extrapolation of the quantum formalism to the macroscopic level; this interest has led to a considerable amount of technical work on the application of quantum mechanics to collective variables and in particular on ways of incorporating dissipation into the calculations. He is also interested in the theory of superfluid liquid 3He, especially under extreme nonequilibrium conditions, in high-temperature superconductivity, and in the newly realized system of Bose-condensed atomic gases.
 
19Name:  Dr. A. Walton Litz
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  June 4, 2014
   
 
Arthur Walton Litz was Holmes Professor of English Emeritus at Princeton University, on whose faculty he served since 1958. One of the foremost scholars and critics of modern English and American literature, especially the novels and poems of James Joyce, Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens and Jane Austen, Dr. Litz authored a number of essays, articles and books, including The Art of James Joyce (1961), Modern Literary Criticism (1972) and Introspective Voyager: The Poetic Development of Wallace Stevens (1972). He held a D. Phil. degree from Oxford University and also taught at Bryn Mawr College, Swarthmore College, Temple University and Bread Loaf School. A Rhodes Scholar and Guggenheim Fellow, Dr. Litz also served as associate editor of the 63-volume Joyce Archive as well as on the editorial boards of the Princeton University Press and Oxford University Press. He was honored with awards including the Harbison Award for Gifted Teaching (1972) and Princeton's Behrman Award for Distinguished Achievement in the Humanities (1981). He died June 4, 2014, at the age of 84 in Princeton.
 
20Name:  Dr. Walter Eugene Massey
 Institution:  School of the Art Institute of Chicago; City Colleges of Chicago; Morehouse College
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Dr. Walter E. Massey is currently president of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He served as president of Morehouse College, the nation's largest liberal arts institution for men, from 1995 to 2007. Dr. Massey is a former provost and senior vice president of the University of California system, former director of the National Science Foundation and founding director of the Argonne National Laboratory at the University of Chicago. He received a B.S. in physics and mathematics from Morehouse, and a master's and doctorate in physics from Washington University, St. Louis. Dr. Massey is chairman of Great Schools Atlanta and a member of the Atlanta University Center Council for Presidents, the Atlanta Committee for Progress the Atlanta Regional Commission for Higher Education and the Rotary Club of Atlanta. He is also a member of the board of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and has been a member of the President's council of Advisors on Science and Technology, a position he held previously from 1990-1992, and the board of the Marine Biological Laboratory. Dr. Massey serves on the boards of the Gates Millennium Senior Advisory Council, the Mellon Foundation, the Commonwealth Fund, Motorola, Inc., Bank of America, McDonald's Corporation, BP, p.l.c., and the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. In 2016 he was awarded the Public Humanities Award of Illinois Humanities.
 
Election Year
1991[X]
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