American Philosophical Society
Member History

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81Name:  Dr. Gregory C. Chow
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1929
   
 
Gregory C. Chow has been a major figure in econometrics and applied economics. Every beginning econometrics student learns the "Chow test", a statistical test for structural change in a regression. However, Dr. Chow's work extends far beyond his eponymous test. He was a major figure in the postwar flowering of econometrics, and his applied work included important research in microeconomics, macroeconomics, and development economics (particularly in reference to Southeast Asia). He has also been a major adviser on economic policy, economic reform, and economic education in both Taiwan and mainland China. Gregory Chow grew up in Guangdong province in South China, one of seven children in a wealthy family. His father, Tin-Pong Chow, served as the chairman of the Chamber of Commerce of Guangzhou (the capital city of Guangdong, formerly Canton) for many years; his mother, Pauline Law Chow, studied in England. When the Japanese invaded China in 1937, the Chow family moved from Guangzhou to Hong Kong where Gregory attended primary school. In 1942, after the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, the family moved to Macao. The Chow family returned to Guangzhou in 1945, at the end of World War II. At the age of five Gregory learned swimming and the Chinese art of Taichi, both his father's hobbies, and he still practices both almost daily. Dr. Chow entered Cornell University as a sophomore in 1948, after one year at Lingnan University in Guangzhou. Being mathematically inclined, he took advantage of the strong mathematics department at Cornell. But in the economics department, mathematical economics and econometrics were largely absent from the curriculum, and Dr. Chow had to study these topics on his own. He learned enough to know that he wanted to specialize in econometrics. He went on to graduate study at the University of Chicago, entering in the fall of 1951. The 1950s were a heroic period for Chicago economics, with Milton Friedman the dominant intellectual figure. Dr. Chow was strongly influenced by Friedman's views that economic models should be kept simple and judged mainly on their ability to explain the data. At Chicago Dr. Chow took courses from other luminaries, such as the philosopher Rudoph Carnap, Henrik Houthakker, Tjalling Koopmans, William Kruskal, Jacob Marschak, L. J. Savage, and Allan Wallis. He also attended a seminar on methodology in the social sciences organized by Friedrich Hayek. The seminar's participants included the physicist Enrico Fermi, Friedman, Savage, Wallis, and fellow student Gary Becker. Dr. Chow's doctoral dissertation, which became a standard reference in empirical economics, was a study of the factors determining the demand for automobiles. After the publication of his thesis, Dr. Chow was invited by Al Harberger of Chicago to write a paper extending his work. Dr. Chow was curious to see whether the equations he had estimated in his thesis were applicable to data outside the sample period, and so he developed a statistical test for stability of the coefficients of a regression over time. This work was the origin of the Chow test. Dr. Chow's first position after receiving his Ph.D. in 1955 was at the Sloan School of Management of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which had the only economics department that rivaled Chicago in the early 1950s. At M.I.T. during those years Paul Samuelson was doing pioneering work in mathematical economics, and Robert Solow was developing the model of economic growth that remains central to current thinking on growth and business cycles. Thus, at both Chicago and M.I.T., Dr. Chow was fortunate to have been exposed to some of the most fertile thinkers in early postwar economics. From M.I.T., Dr. Chow accepted a tenured position at Cornell, his alma mater, in 1959. But he found the environment there less suitable, and so he accepted an offer from Ralph Gomory to join the IBM Thomas Watson Research Center at Yorktown Heights, New York, for a year. Dr. Chow so liked IBM that after a few months he resigned his professorship at Cornell to join the company---quite an unusual career move at the time. Dr. Chow was highly productive at IBM, doing work in econometrics, applied economics (including studies of the demand for money, the demand for computers, and the multiplier-accelerator model of Keynesian macroeconomics), and dynamic economics. While at IBM Dr. Chow also applied his economic analysis and judgment together with his econometric skills to advise on corporate planning and to solve business problems for the company. Beginning in the middle 1960s, he also visited Taiwan often and served as a major economic adviser to the Taiwanese government. In 1970 Dr. Chow accepted a professorship at Princeton University, succeeding Oskar Morgenstern as the Director of the Econometric Research Program. He remained director for almost three decades, stepping down in 1997. In 2001 Princeton University renamed the Program the Gregory C. Chow Econometric Research Program in his honor. At Princeton he continued to do innovative research in both econometrics and applied economics. His econometric research included the study of simultaneous equation systems, both linear and nonlinear; full-information maximum likelihood estimation; estimation with missing observations; estimation of large macroeconomic models; and modeling and forecasting with time series methods. Combining econometrics, economic theory, and macroeconomics, Dr. Chow did path-breaking work on optimal control theory and its application to stochastic economic systems. In more recent years he developed and championed a solution approach for dynamic optimization problems using Lagrange multiplier methods. Dr. Chow also published a number of monographs and popular textbooks (his econometrics textbook has been translated into Chinese and Polish). Among his eleven books are: Demand for Automobiles for the United States (1957); Analysis and Control of Dynamic Economic Systems (1975); Econometrics (1983); The Chinese Economy (1985); Dynamic Economics (1997); China's Economic Transformation (2002) and Knowing China (2004). From the middle 1960s Dr. Chow became increasingly interested in the economies of Taiwan and later China and Hong Kong, an interest that would result in many scholarly books and articles. Dr. Chow visited East Asia many times, establishing contacts with policy-makers and businesspeople. He observed and influenced the remarkable growth of Taiwan and Hong Kong and played a role in the transformation of the economy of mainland China from a centrally planned economy to one with a large and robust market sector. In the process Dr. Chow has become a well-known figure in China. He also did a great deal for ties between China and the United States, including supporting education programs for Chinese students in both countries. His experiences and writings on China were the basis for a popular undergraduate course on the Chinese economy that Dr. Chow taught regularly at Princeton for many years. What may yet become his most influential book, China's Economic Transformation, was published by Blackwell in early 2002. In this book Dr. Chow studied the process of Chinese economic transformation, as influenced by a combination of historical-institutional factors, government policy choices, and market-based incentives. Dr. Chow is a member of Academia Sinica and a fellow of the American Statistical Association and of the Econometric Society. He was chairman of the American Economic Association's Committee on Exchanges in Economics with the People's Republic of China from 1981-94 and co-chairman of the U.S. Committee on Economics Education and Research in China from 1985-94. He served as adviser to the Premier and the Commission on Restructuring the Economic System of the PRC on the reform of China's economy. He has been appointed Honorary Professor at Fudan, Hainan, Nankai, Shandong, the People's and Zhongshan Universities and the City University of Hong Kong, and has received honorary doctorate degrees from Zhongzhan University and Lingnan University in Hong Kong. Dr. Chow's wife, Paula K. Chow, is the director of Princeton's International Center. She co-founded the center in 1974, with Louise Sayen, as a volunteer organization. With the help of over one hundred volunteers, friends and students, the center serves the needs of Princeton's international and internationally-minded students and scholars. It also has initiated many intercultural programs on and off campus. Paula Chow is a popular figure in the Princeton community, and Gregory often jokes that he is best known in Princeton as Paula's husband. The couple has two sons, John and James, both engineers, and a daughter, Meimei, a radiologist.
 
82Name:  Dr. Carlo M. Cipolla
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1981
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  September 5, 2000
   
83Name:  John M. Clark
 Year Elected:  1944
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1885
 Death Date:  6/27/63
   
84Name:  Prof. Ansley J. Coale
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1963
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  November 5, 2002
   
85Name:  Dr. Thomas C. Cochran
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1953
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1902
 Death Date:  5/2/99
   
86Name:  Dr. I. Bernard Cohen
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  June 20, 2003
   
87Name:  Dr. James S. Coleman
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1970
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  3/25/95
   
88Name:  John R. Commons
 Year Elected:  1936
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1862
 Death Date:  5/11/45
   
89Name:  Dr. Philip E. Converse
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  1988
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  December 30, 2014
   
 
Philip Converse was a leading scholar in the field of political behavior for three decades. Having conducted important research on political opinion and electoral behavior, he was central to transforming the descriptive study of government into today's comparative and analytical study of politics. His 1964 article "The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics" held that public opinion tended to be inconsistent across issues, unstable over time and not particularly considerate of ideology. Political Representation in France (1986), his comprehensive work with Roy Pierce, was immediately recognized as a landmark study, winning the 1987 Woodrow Wilson Foundation Book Award. Another work, The American Voter (1960), written with Angus Campbell, made proficient use of data from National Elections Studies, a seminal set of surveys of American public opinion that were carried out at the University of Michigan. Dr. Converse was associated with the University of Michigan since receiving his Ph.D. from that institution in 1958. He served as director of the university's Institute for Social Research and as Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Political Science, among other positions. Philip Converse died December 30, 2014, in Ann Arbor at age 86.
 
90Name:  Dr. Karen S. Cook
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
KAREN S. COOK is the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology and Vice Provost for Faculty Development and Diversity at Stanford University. She is also the founding Director of the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences (IRiSS) at Stanford and a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation. Professor Cook has a long-standing interest in social exchange, social networks, social justice and trust in social relations. She has edited a number of books in the Russell Sage Foundation Trust Series including Trust in Society (2001), Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives (with R. Kramer, 2004), eTrust: Forming Relations in the Online World (with C. Snijders, V. Buskens, and Coye Cheshire, 2009), and Whom Can Your Trust? (with M. Levi and R. Hardin, 2009). She is co-author of Cooperation without Trust? (with R. Hardin and M. Levi, 2005). She has served on numerous National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine committees, including the council, and currently is a member of the DBASSE advisory committee. She also serves as chair of the NSF advisory committee for the social, behavioral and economic sciences (SBE). In 1996, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2007 to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2004 she received the ASA Social Psychology Section Cooley Mead Award for Career Contributions to Social Psychology. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018. Karen Cook conducts research on social interaction, social networks, social exchange, and trust. She is among the foremost scholars who have researched the role of trust dynamics in shaping organizational and institutional outcomes. Her early work focused on how power differentials shaped processes of social exchange within organizations and between individuals within networks, criticizing microeconomic theory for overlooking the social structures within which actors are embedded. Her latest work focuses on the origins and generation of trust in human society and its role in promoting effective use of social capital. In particular, she has done much influential research on the role of interpersonal and social relations in physician-patient relations. She argues that a general trust of others liberates people from safe but closed relationships and facilitates the creation of social capital in a variety of human domains.
 
91Name:  Edward S. Corwin
 Year Elected:  1936
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1878
 Death Date:  4/29/63
   
92Name:  Leonard Slater Cottrell
 Year Elected:  1957
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1899
 Death Date:  3/20/85
   
93Name:  Dr. Ruth Schwartz Cowan
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2014
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Ruth Schwartz Cowan is an historian of science, technology and medicine, with degrees from Barnard College (BA), the University of California at Berkeley (MA) and The Johns Hopkins University (PhD). She was a member of the History Department of the State University of New York at Stony Brook from 1967 to 2002, attaining the rank of Professor in 1984. Between 1997 and 2002 she was the Chair of the Honors College at SUNY-Stony Brook; she also served as Director of Women's Studies from 1985-1990. She became Professor Emerita at Stony Brook in 2002. In July, 2002 she became Janice and Julian Bers Professor of the History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania. Between 2003 and 2008 and again in 2011-2012 she was Chair of the Department. She became Professor Emerita at Penn in July, 2012. Professor Cowan is the author of six books and numerous articles. Her books are: Heredity and Hope: The Case for Genetic Screening (Harvard University Press, 2008); The Social History of American Technology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997); (with Neil M. Cowan) Our Parents' Lives: The Americanization of Eastern European Jews (New York: Basic Books, 1989) [revised second edition published as Our Parent's Lives: Everyday Life and Jewish Assimilation (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1996)]; Sir Francis Galton and the Study of Heredity in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Garland Press, 1985); and More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave (New York: Basic Books, 1983). With Daniel J Kevles and Peter Westwick she has recently begun a commissioned sesquicentennial history of the National Academy of Science. Currently, she is also working on a revision (for 2016) of her textbook, A Social History of American Technology. Professor Cowan has been a Fulbright Scholar, a Guggenheim Fellow, a Phi Beta Kappa Lecturer and a Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at the California Institute of Technology. She has had grants in support of her research from the Sloan Foundation, NSF, NEH, NIH (through ELSI) and the ACLS. Professor Cowan has been awarded the Leonardo daVinci Medal and the Dexter Prize of the Society for the History of Technology as well as the J.D. Bernal Prize of the Society for the Social Study of Science. She was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2014. Professor Cowan is active in the Society for the History of Technology (President,1992-1994). She serves on the editorial boards of Social Studies of Science and Science and Culture. She has been a member of the Smithsonian Council, and of the IEEE History Committee. For several years she was the Chair of the US National Committee, International Union for the History and Philosophy of Science, a member of the Visiting Committee for the Humanities, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Trustee of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. She is a founding board member of the Philadelphia Area Center for the History of Science (PACHS) and is currently the Chair of the Research Community Advisory Board, North Shore/LIJ Hospital System on Long Island.
 
94Name:  Prof. Archibald Cox
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1980
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1912
 Death Date:  May 29, 2004
   
95Name:  Dr. Gordon A. Craig
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1963
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1913
 Death Date:  October 30, 2005
   
96Name:  Robert T. Crane
 Year Elected:  1941
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1880
 Death Date:  10/23/62
   
97Name:  Dr. Lawrence A. Cremin
 Institution:  Columbia University & The Spencer Foundation
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  9/4/90
   
98Name:  Dr. Lee J. Cronbach
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1967
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  October 1, 2001
   
99Name:  Dr. William J. Cronon
 Institution:  University of Wisconsin--Madison
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
William Cronon studies American environmental history and the history of the American West. His research seeks to understand the history of human interactions with the natural world: how we depend on the ecosystems around us to sustain our material lives, how we modify the landscapes in which we live and work, and how our ideas of nature shape our relationships with the world around us. His first book, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England (1983), was a study of how the New England landscape changed as control of the region shifted from Indians to European colonists. In 1984, the work was awarded the Francis Parkman Prize of the Society of American Historians. In 1991, Cronon completed a book entitled Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, which examines Chicago's relationship to its rural hinterland during the second half of the nineteenth century. In 1991, Dr. Cronon was awarded the Chicago Tribune's Heartland Prize for the best literary work of non-fiction published during the preceding year; in 1992, it won the Bancroft Prize for the best work of American history published during the previous year, and was also one of three nominees for the Pulitzer Prize in History; and in 1993, it received the George Perkins Marsh Prize from the American Society for Environmental History and the Charles A. Weyerhaeuser Award from the Forest History Society for the best book of environmental and conservation history published during the preceding two years. In 1992, he co-edited Under an Open Sky: Rethinking America's Western Past, a collection of essays on the prospects of western and frontier history in American historiography. In 1995 he edited an influential collection of essays entitled Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, examining the implication of different cultural ideas of nature for modern environmental problems. He is currently at work on a history of Portage, Wisconsin, that will explore how people's sense of place is shaped by the stories they tell about their homes, their lives, and the landscapes they inhabit. He is also completing a book entitled Saving Nature in Time: The Past and the Future of Environmentalism (based on the Wiles Lectures which he delivered at Queens University in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in May 2001) on the evolving relationship between environmental history and environmentalism, and what the two might learn from each other. In July 1992, Dr. Cronon became the Frederick Jackson Turner Professor of History, Geography, and Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison after having served for more than a decade as a member of the Yale University History Department. In 2003, he was also named Vilas Research Professor at UW-Madison, the university's most distinguished chaired professorship. He has been President of the American Society for Environmental History and serves as general editor of the Weyerhaeuser Environmental Books Series for the University of Washington Press. During the spring of 1994, he organized and chaired a faculty research seminar on "Reinventing Nature" at the University of California's Humanities Research Institute in Irvine, California. In 1996, he became Director of the Honors Program for the College of Letters and Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a post he held until 1998, and from 1997-2000 he served as the founding Faculty Director of the new Chadbourne Residential College at UW-Madison. He has served on the Governing Council of the Wilderness Society since 1995, and on the National Board of the Trust for Public Land since 2003. Cronon has been elected president of the American Historical Association for the year 2012. Born September 11, 1954, in New Haven, Connecticut, Dr. Cronon received his B.A. (1976) from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He holds M.A. (1979), M.Phil. (1980), and Ph.D. (1990) degrees from Yale and a D.Phil. (1981) from Oxford University. Dr. Cronon has been a Rhodes Scholar, Danforth Fellow, Guggenheim Fellow, and MacArthur Fellow; has won prizes for his teaching at both Yale and Wisconsin; and in 1999 was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society.
 
100Name:  Dr. Alfred W. Crosby
 Institution:  University of Texas at Austin
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  March 14, 2018
   
 
Alfred W. Crosby received his Ph.D. from Boston University in 1961. He served as professor of history at Washington State University for eleven years before joining the University of Texas, Austin in 1977 as Professor of American Studies. He was a National Institutes of Health fellow, 1971-73, and a Guggenheim fellow, 1987-88. Alfred Crosby pioneered investigation of the biological side of European expansion, transforming older ideas of how and why European settlers thrived overseas in temperate climes. By analyzing the "cloud of organisms" which accompanied the Europeans - disease germs, pests, weeds, domesticated animals and plants - all accustomed to living in company with one another, Dr. Crosby made clear for the first time the crushing force of what he calls "ecological imperialism." This is a great advance in the understanding of our past. His last book is about time and its measurement in late medieval and early modern Europe, so he is a general historian as well as an expert in biological and epidemiological history. His books include: America, Russia, Hemp and Napoleon: American Trade with Russia and the Baltic, 1783-1812 (1965); The Columbia Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (1972); Epidemic and Peace, 1918 (1976); Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (1986); The Columbian Voyages, the Columbian Exchange and Their Historians (1987); Germs, Seeds and Animals (1994); The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600 (1997) (French, 2001); and Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology through History (2002). He was also the co-editor of Studies in Environment and History. Dr. Crosby was presented the Medical Writer's Association Award in 1976, the Ralph Waldo Emerson Prize in 1988, and the Distinguished Scholar Award from the American Society for Environmental History in 2001. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Alfred W. Crosby died March 14, 2018, at age 87 in Nantucket, Massachusetts.
 
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