American Philosophical Society
Member History

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61Name:  Dr. Arthur F. Burns
 Year Elected:  1947
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1904
 Death Date:  6/26/87
   
62Name:  Dr. James MacGregor Burns
 Institution:  Williams College & University of Richmond
 Year Elected:  1971
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  July 15, 2014
   
 
James MacGregor Burns was a Pulitzer Prize-winning Presidential biographer, a pioneer in the study of leadership, and a senior scholar at the Academy of Leadership at the University of Maryland that bears his name. He was also a Senior Scholar at the Jepson School of Leadership at the University of Richmond. Author of more than a dozen books, Dr. Burns devoted his professional life to the study of leadership in American political life. His books include Packing the Court: Judicial Leadership on Trial (2009),The Three Roosevelts: Patrician Leaders Who Transformed America , with Susan Dunn (2001), Dead Center: Clinton-Gore Leadership and the Perils of Moderation , with Georgia Sorenson (1999). Dr. Burns won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award for his biographies Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox (1956) and Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom (1970). His book Leadership (1978) is still considered the seminal work in the field of leadership studies, and his theory on transformational leadership has been the basis of more than 400 doctoral dissertations. Dr. Burns received his doctorate in political science from Harvard University, attended the London School of Economics and taught at Williams College. He was a Democratic nominee for the 1st Congressional District of Massachusetts in 1958 and also served as a delegate to four Democratic National Conventions. While in the military, he served as combat historian in the Pacific Theater from 1943-46 and was awarded the Bronze Star and four Battle Stars. Dr. Burns is a former president of the American Political Science Association, former president of the International Society of Political Psychology and former chair of the Berkshire Country Commission Against Discrimination. James MacGregor Burns died July 15, 2014, at the age of 95 in Williamstown, Massachusetts.
 
63Name:  The Honorable Guido Calabresi
 Institution:  U.S. Court of Appeals & Yale Law School
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Guido Calabresi came to the United States in 1939 with his parents, who left Italy to escape Fascism. After a productive career as a scholar, he became Dean of the Yale Law School in 1985 and a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals in 1994. A scholar with pronounced administrative abilities, he began teaching at Yale in 1959; he remains Sterling Professor of Law Emeritus and Professorial Lecturer in Law. Known as a true humanist, Judge Calabresi is recognized as one of the founding fathers of law and economics. His two most seminal contributions to the field are the application of economics to tort law and a legal interpretation of the Coase theorem. His major publications include The Costs of Accidents: A Legal and Economic Analysis (1970) and (with D. Melamed) Property Rules, Liability Rules and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral (1972). Judge Calabresi holds B.A. and M.A. degrees from Oxford University and B.S. and LL.B. degrees from Yale. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences.
 
64Name:  Dr. Craig Calhoun
 Institution:  Arizona State University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Craig Calhoun is University Professor of Social Sciences at Arizona State University. He had served as President of the Social Science Research Council from 1999 to 2012, while also University Professor of Social Sciences and Director of the Institute of Public Knowledge at New York University. From 2012 to 2016, he was Director of the London School of Economics and Social Science, after which he was President of the Beggruen Institute from 2016 until 2018. Calhoun received his doctorate from Oxford University and has also been a professor and dean at the University of North Carolina and a visiting professor in Asmara, Beijing, Khartoum, Oslo, Paris, and Berlin. Under Calhoun’s leadership, the SSRC initiated major projects on public social science, global security and cooperation, gender and conflict, digital media and learning, the privatization of risk, religion and the public sphere, intellectual property rights, humanitarian emergences, HIV/AIDS, the social sciences in Africa, trans-regional integration in Asia, and a range of other issues. It has also substantially increased the number of fellowships it offers annually. As an individual scholar Calhoun has done research on a variety of themes in historical sociology, political economy, social movements, social theory, and the history of social sciences. His publications include The Roots of Radicalism: Tradition, the Public Sphere, and Early 19th Century Social Movements (Chicago 2012), Nations Matter: Culture, History, and the Cosmopolitan Dream (Routledge 2007), Nationalism (Minnesota 1997), Critical Social Theory: Culture, History and the Problem of Specificity (Blackwell, 1995), and Neither Gods Nor Emperors: Students and the Struggle for Democracy in China (California 1994). Calhoun edited a three-volume collection, Possible Futures (NYU 2011), which explores the impact of financial crisis, the challenges of global governance addressing issues from war to climate change, and the future of development.
 
65Name:  Dr. Donald Thomas Campbell
 Institution:  Lehigh University
 Year Elected:  1993
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  5/6/96
   
66Name:  Dr. Nicholas Canny
 Institution:  Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities and Social Studies, National University of Ireland, Galway
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Nicholas Canny, a historian, has been a Member of the Scientific Council of the European Research Council since 2011. He held an Established Chair in History at the National University of Ireland, Galway, 1979-2009, where he also served as Founding Director of the Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities, 2000-11, and as Vice President for Research, 2005-8. He was President of the Royal Irish Academy 2008-11and in 2020 received it's highest honor, the Cunningham Medal. He is a Member of Academia Europaea, a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy and of the Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid). He was elected a Member of the American Philosophical Society in 2007. He has been a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton; professeur invité at the École des Hautes Études, Paris, and was Parnell Senior Research Fellow at Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, 2005-6. An expert on early modern history broadly defined, he edited the first volume of The Oxford History of the British Empire (1998) and, with Philip D. Morgan, edited The Oxford Handbook of the Atlantic World, c1450-c1850 (2011). His major book is Making Ireland British, 1580-1650 (Oxford, 2001), for which he was awarded the Irish Historical Research Prize 2003; a prize he had previously won in 1976 for his first book The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: a Pattern Established, 1565-76. He was invited to give the Raleigh Lecture for 2011 to the British Academy which has been published as ‘A Protestant or Catholic Atlantic World? Confessional Divisions and the Writing of Natural History’ in Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 181, pp. 83-121.
 
67Name:  Dr. Susan E. Carey
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Susan Carey is Henry A. Morss, Jr. and Elizabeth W. Morss Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. Her research illuminates the development and nature of human knowledge and charts the intuitive theories that organize children's and adults' concepts of numbers, living things and the material world. Concepts are the basic units of thought. Dr. Carey has shown how children's concepts gain meaning and functional use from theories they construct about the world, starting from a few innate notions. She initiated modern experimental studies of children's understanding of numbers and counting, of physical causation, and of biology with its associated concepts of person, animal, and living thing, arguing for parallels between infants' developing concepts of number and causality and similar changes over mankind's intellectual history. She has also made seminal contributions to areas such as language acquisition, cognitive neuroscience, comparative primate cognition, and science education. Her research sheds light on children's thought and language and shows how educators can enhance the teaching of science and mathematics. Dr. Carey has been a Fulbright Fellow and William James Fellow and has been elected a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2001) and the National Academy of Sciences (2002).
 
68Name:  Edward Hallett Carr
 Year Elected:  1967
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1892
 Death Date:  11/--/82
   
69Name:  Dr. Edward C. Carter
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society
 Year Elected:  1983
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  October 1, 2002
   
70Name:  Dr. Anne Case
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2017
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1957
   
 
Anne Case’s best known early work was on the political economy of competition between states, and how it affected the elections of governors; this work remains heavily cited today. Today, she is best known for a wide range of work on health, family structure, and demography. Her prize-winning work on the origin of the gradient showed that the effect of family income on child health steepens as the child grows older. She discovered that the inferior morbidity and superior mortality of women comes from the composition of disease: roughly, women get conditions that make them sick, and men get conditions that make them dead. She has made challenging discoveries on the effects of step-parenting, and on the premium that taller people receive in the labor market, which she attributes to nutritional and cognitive deficiencies in very young children. She is one of the leading scholars of the effects of the AIDS epidemic on child and family outcomes in South Africa. Her paper on the deaths of despair among midlife whites in the U.S. won the PNAS’s Cozzarelli Prize and attracted enormous attention. In 2020 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Anne Case was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2017.
 
71Name:  Dr. Gerhard Casper
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Gerhard Casper is President Emeritus of Stanford University and the Peter and Helen Bing Professor Emeritus at Stanford. He is also Professor of Law Emeritus, a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford (FSI), and a Professor of Political Science (by courtesy). In 2015 he served as President of the American Academy in Berlin, where he had been a Trustee Emeritus. Born in 1937, Gerhard Casper grew up in Hamburg, the port city on the Elbe River. Mr. Casper studied law at the universities of Freiburg and Hamburg, where, in 1961, he earned his first law degree. He attended Yale Law School, obtaining his Master of Laws degree in 1962. He then returned to Freiburg, where he received his doctorate in 1964. In the fall of 1964, Mr. Casper emigrated to the United States, spending two years as Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1966, he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School, and between 1979 and 1987 served as Dean of the Law School. In 1989, Mr. Casper was appointed Provost of the University of Chicago. He served as President of Stanford University from 1992-2000. Mr. Casper has written and taught primarily in the fields of constitutional law, constitutional history, comparative law, and jurisprudence. From 1977 to 1991, he was an editor of The Supreme Court Review. His books include a monograph on legal realism (Berlin, 1967), an empirical study of the Supreme Court's workload (Chicago, 1976, with Richard A. Posner), an empirical study of lay judges in criminal trials (Heidelberg, 1979, with Hans Zeisel), as well as Separating Power (Cambridge, MA, 1997) concerning the separation of powers practices at the end of the 18th century in the United States. About the Stanford presidency, he wrote Cares of the University (Stanford, CA, 1997). He is also the author of numerous scholarly articles and occasional pieces. He has been elected to membership in the American Law Institute (1977), the International Academy of Comparative Law, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1980), the Orden Pour le mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste (Order Pour le mérite for the Sciences and Arts) (1993), and the American Philosophical Society (1996). During the fall of 2006, he held the Kluge Chair in American Law and Governance at the Library of Congress. He has been awarded various honorary doctorates. At present, Mr. Casper serves as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Central European University in Budapest. He is also a member of various additional boards, including the Council of the American Law Institute and the Committee for Economic Development. From 2000-2008, he served as a successor trustee of Yale University. Mr. Casper is married to Regina Casper, M.D. Dr. Casper was a Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Chicago before taking an appointment as Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science in the School of Medicine at Stanford, from which she recently retired. She is an authority in the area of depression and eating disorders. The Caspers' daughter, Hanna, is a lawyer.
 
72Name:  Dr. Jorge G. Castañeda
 Institution:  New York University; National Autonomous University of Mexico
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
Jorge G. Castañeda has been Global Distinguished Professor of Politics and Latin American and Caribbean Studies at New York University since 1997. He was Foreign Minister of Mexico for three years under the Vicente Fox administration and served as professor of political science at the National Autonomous University of Mexico from 1978 to 2003. He has also been a visiting professor at Princeton University, the University of California, Berkeley, Cambridge University, the University of Paris and Dartmouth University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Paris in 1978. For three decades Jorge Castañeda has been a leading public intellectual, publishing widely in French, English and Spanish. He is the author of numerous books on political mobilization, political succession and international relations. Limits To Friendship: The United States and Mexico (1988) outlines the difficulties of foreign relations with a superpower; The Mexican Shock: Its Meaning for the United States (1995) examines the ways in which free trade has affected binational issues; and Perpetuating Power: How Mexican Presidents Were Chosen (2000) elucidates the byzantine process by which Mexico’s ruling party selected its presidents. He is also the author of Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War (1993) and Compañero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara (1997). His most recent book is Ex Mex: Mexicans in the U.S. – from Migrants to Immigrants (2008). Jorge Castañeda was an outspoken critic of the country’s autocratic political system prior to its transition to open elections in 2000. He has been active with a number of human rights organizations, serving on the board of directors of Human Rights Watch, as a member of Project Syndicate, and as senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He was awarded a MacArthur Foundation Grant in 1989. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
73Name:  Zachariah Chafee
 Year Elected:  1946
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1885
 Death Date:  2/8/57
   
74Name:  Joseph P. Chamberlain
 Year Elected:  1940
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1875
 Death Date:  5/21/51
   
75Name:  Dr. Alfred D. Chandler
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  May 9, 2007
   
76Name:  Dr. Joyce E. Chaplin
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2020
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1960
   
 
Joyce Chaplin is currently James Duncan Phillips Professor of Early American History at Harvard University. She earned her Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1986, after which she spent a decade and a half at Vanderbilt University before moving to Harvard. Joyce Chaplin is a wide-ranging and innovative historian of early America who has made a special study of Benjamin Franklin, colonialism, and environment. Her interests include the oceans as trading routes and she has occasionally taught in a maritime studies program. She is director of the American Studies program at Harvard. Her book, Round About the Earth: Circumnavigation from Magellan to Orbit (2012), has been translated into several languages. She is perhaps best known for her biography, The First Scientific American: Benjamin Franklin and the Pursuit of Genius (2006). Other interests include historical food studies. She is currently a Guggenheim Fellow working on a history of resource conservation, climate change, and settler colonialism, “The Franklin Stove: Heat and Life in the Little Ice Age.” Joyce Chaplin has won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize (2006) and the Sidney N. Zubrow Award of the Pennsylvania Hospital (2006). She is a member of the American Antiquarian Society (2007), Massachusetts Historical Society (fellow & trustee 2008), and the Colonial Society of Massachusetts (2011). In addition to those mentioned earlier, her works include: An Anxious Pursuit: Agricultural Innovation and Modernity in the Lower South, 1730-1815, 1993; Subject Matter: Technology, the Body, and Science on the Anglo-American Frontier, 1500-1676, 2001; Benjamin Franklin's Political Arithmetic: A Materialist View of Humanity, 2009; Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography, Norton Critical Edition, 2012; (edited with with P. Freedman, K. Albala) Food in Time and Place, 2014; (edited with D. McMahon) Genealogies of Genius, 2015; (with A. Bashford) The New Worlds of Thomas Robert Malthus: Rereading the Principle of Population, 2016. Joyce Chaplin was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2020.
 
77Name:  Dr. John T. Chew
 Institution:  W.H. Newbold's Son & Co.
 Year Elected:  1974
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  1/4/88
   
78Name:  Edward P. Cheyney
 Year Elected:  1904
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1861
 Death Date:  2/1/47
   
79Name:  Dr. John S. Chipman
 Institution:  University of Minnesota
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1926
   
 
John Chipman received a Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins University in 1951. He was assistant professor of economics at Harvard University from 1951-55 and moved to the University of Minnesota, where he is currently Regents' Professor of Economics Emeritus, in 1955. John Chipman is an economist's economist, enjoying the highest respect as a scholar who has made important contributions in several diverse fields within and on the borders of economics. His main contributions are to utility theory, to the theory of aggregation (with profound implications for questions such as how to conceptualise and measure trade in "similar" products, or what is called "intra-industry trade"), and to many other analytical issues in the theory of international trade. He is also an important scholar of the history of international trade theory and its evolution from the earliest times. Dr. Chipman is among the most important and influential theorists of his generation. He received the James Murray Luck Award from the National Academy of Sciences in 1981 and a Festschrift presented by students and scholars in 1999. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society, the American Statistical Association, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, a distinguished fellow of the American Economics Association, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000.
 
80Name:  Dr. Noam Chomsky
 Institution:  University of Arizona
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1928
   
 
Noam Chomsky is currently Laureate Professor of Linguistics, Agnese Nelms Haury Chair at the University of Arizona, having moved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the fall of 2017. He has created a theory of generative grammar that unites formal analysis of natural language with the search for explanatory models in linguistics, and has adapted that theory to the description of individual languages. Dr. Chomsky holds that grammar represents the speaker's tacit knowledge of the language and so must be part of the mind/brain structure. He has argued that children learning a first language do not receive sufficient information to account for the knowledge they come to have; hence some knowledge of language must be genetically determined as part of a species-universal faculty of mind he calls Universal Grammar. For over 50 years Dr. Chomsky served on the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; he has held the title of Institute Professor since 1976. When he left, he held the title of Institute Professor Emeritus and Professor of Linguistics Emeritus and had just won the 2016 Peace Abbey Foundation Courage of Conscience Award. He is the author of numerous works, including Syntactic Structures (1957); Current Issues in Linguistic Theory (1964); Language and Mind (1968); Linguistic Theory (1975); Knowledge of Language (1986); The Minimalist Program (1995); and On Nature and Language (2002). Dr. Chomsky is also well known for his political activism, from his 1967 essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals" to more recent explorations of media control, terrorism, anarchism and democracy. His 2003 book Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance received considerable attention following a recommendation from Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez during his 2006 speech at the United Nations. According to the Arts and Humanities Citation Index, between 1980 and 1992 Dr. Chomsky was cited as a source more often than any other living scholar, and the eighth most cited scholar overall. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences and holds a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.
 
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