American Philosophical Society
Member History

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International (51)
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Class
3. Social Sciences[X]
41Name:  Dr. Jerome Blum
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1979
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1913
 Death Date:  5/7/93
   
42Name:  Dr. Lawrence D. Bobo
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Lawrence D. Bobo is the W. E. B. Du Bois Professor of the Social Sciences at Harvard University. He holds appointments in the Department of Sociology and the Department of African and African American Studies. His research focuses on the intersection of social inequality, politics, and race. Professor Bobo is an elected member of the National Academy of Science as well as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a Guggenheim Fellow, an Alphonse M. Fletcher Sr. Fellow, a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and a Russell Sage Foundation Visiting Scholar. He has received research grants from the National Science Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Spencer Foundation. He has held tenured appointments in the sociology departments at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, the University of California, Los Angeles, and at Stanford University where he was Director of the Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity. His research has appeared in the American Sociological Review, the American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, the American Political Science Review, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Social Psychology Quarterly, and Public Opinion Quarterly. He is a founding editor of the Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race published by Cambridge University Press. He is co-author of the award winning book Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations (Harvard University Press, 1997, with H. Schuman, C. Steeh, and M. Krysan) and senior editor of Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles (Russell Sage Foundation, 2000, with M. L. Oliver, J. H. Johnson, and A. Valenzuela). His most recent book Prejudice in Politics: Group Position, Public Opinion, and the Wisconsin Treaty Rights Dispute (Harvard University Press, 2006, with M. Tuan) was a finalist for 2007 C. Wright Mills Award. He is currently working on the "Race, Crime, and Public Opinion" project. Lawrence D. Bobo was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
43Name:  Dr. Paul J. Bohannan
 Institution:  University of Southern California
 Year Elected:  1970
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  July 13, 2007
   
44Name:  Herbert E. Bolton
 Year Elected:  1937
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1871
 Death Date:  1/30/53
   
45Name:  James C. Bonbright
 Year Elected:  1946
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1891
 Death Date:  11/10/85
   
46Name:  Dr. Daniel J. Boorstin
 Institution:  Library of Congress
 Year Elected:  1981
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  February 28, 2004
   
47Name:  Karl R. Bopp
 Year Elected:  1958
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1906
 Death Date:  2/24/79
   
48Name:  Dr. Kenneth E. Boulding
 Institution:  University of Colorado
 Year Elected:  1960
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1910
 Death Date:  3/19/93
   
49Name:  Dr. Kenneth Bourne
 Institution:  London School of Economics, University of London
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  12/13/92
   
50Name:  Dr. William G. Bowen
 Institution:  Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  October 20, 2016
   
 
William G. Bowen was president of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation from 1988-2006. Previously he served as President of Princeton University from 1972-88, where he was also Professor of Economics and Public Affairs. A graduate of Denison University and Princeton University, he joined the Princeton faculty in 1958, specializing in labor economics, and served as provost there from 1967-72. In 1988 Dr. Bowen joined the Mellon Foundation, where his tenure was marked by increases in the scale of the foundation's activities, with annual appropriations now exceeding $180 million. To ensure that Mellon's grant-making activities would be better informed and more effective while also following his interest in studying questions central to higher education and philanthropy, he created an in-house research program to investigate doctoral education, collegiate admissions, independent research libraries and charitable nonprofits. Dr. Bowen's special interest in the application of information technology to scholarship has led to a range of initiatives including the foundation-sponsored creation of JSTOR (a searchable electronic archive of the full runs of core journals in many fields), the Mellon International Dunhuang Archive, ARTstor (a repository of high-quality digitized works of art and related materials for teaching and research) and Ithaka Harbors, Inc. (a new organization launched to help accelerate the adoption of productive and efficient uses of information technology for the benefit of the worldwide higher education community). Dr. Bowen was the author or co-author of 20 books, including most recently Equity and Excellence in American Higher Education. His other works include (with Sarah A. Levin) Reclaiming the Game: College Sports and Educational Values; The Game of Life: College Sports and Educational Values; (with Derek Bok) the Grawemeyer Award-winning The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions; and (with Neil L. Rudenstine) In Pursuit of the Ph.D. He was honored with the 2012 National Humanities Medal by President Obama. William G. Bowen died October 20, 2016, at age 83, at home in Princeton, New Jersey.
 
51Name:  Dr. Gordon H. Bower
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1932
 Death Date:  June 17, 2020
   
 
After receiving his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1959, Gordon H. Bower was associated with Stanford University as an assistant, associate and full professor of psychology, chair of the psychology department and associate dean of humanities and science. He had been Albert Ray Long Professor of Psychology since 1975. Dr. Bower's career centered on memory, its nature and manipulation. He began with animal learning but soon moved to mathematical modeling and human experiments, where he successfully championed all-or-none learning models. Next came studies of the key role of linguistic chunking in creating and storing memories, which led into a series of foci including the nature of associative memory, the role of memory structures both in facilitating and distorting memory, the impact of emotional states on memories, and most recently on the narrative organization of memory. His contributions have been most significant and influential, in part through many first-rate students. Dr. Bower was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973 and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1975. He recently received the nation's highest honor in science: the 2005 National Medal of Science.
 
52Name:  Professor Karl Dietrich Bracher
 Institution:  University of Bonn
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  September 19, 2016
   
 
Karl Bracher is considered by German historians and analysts alike to be a pathbreaker in scholarly analyses of the Nazi regime. After receiving his D. Phil. from the University of Tübingen in 1948, he taught at the Free University of Berlin from 1955-58 before moving to the University of Bonn in 1959 as a professor of political science and contemporary history. In books such as Turning Points in Modern Times (1995), Dr. Bracher has constructed arguments against dictatorship, illuminated threats to democracy and offered blueprints for coming to terms with the legacies of Nazism, fascism and Communism. As a founder of the "new history" of Germany, he is known for considering historical events through the theories of social science and the values of liberalism and democracy. His book The German Dictatorship (1970), a penetrating and incisive study of Adolf Hitler, is considered to be his crowning achievement. Dr. Bracher is a past president of the German Association of Political Science and was a fellow of the Institute for Advanced Studies of Stanford and Princeton Universities. He became a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1971, the American Philosophical Society in 1978, and the British Academy in 1976.
 
53Name:  Ferdnand P. A. Braudel
 Year Elected:  1964
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1902
 Death Date:  11/28/85
   
54Name:  Dr. Carl Bridenbaugh
 Institution:  Brown University
 Year Elected:  1958
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1903
 Death Date:  1/6/92
   
55Name:  Crane Brinton
 Year Elected:  1953
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1898
 Death Date:  9/7/68
   
56Name:  C. F. Tucker Brooke
 Year Elected:  1938
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1883
 Death Date:  6/[22-23]/46
   
57Name:  Dr. Jerome Bruner
 Institution:  New York University
 Year Elected:  1982
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  June 5, 2016
   
 
Psychologist Jerome Bruner was a prolific contributor of original ideas and research findings on perception, cognition, attention, learning, memory and early language acquisition and problem solving in young children. Born in New York City and educated at Duke and Harvard Universities, he worked as a social psychologist during World War II before becoming a professor of psychology at Harvard and cofounder and director of the Center for Cognitive Studies. In the 1940s Dr. Bruner worked with Leo Postman to study the ways in which needs, motivations and expectations influence perception, and later in the 1950s he became interested in studying aspects of schooling in the United States. The result of this latter quest, the landmark book The Process of Education (1960), had a direct effect on American educational policy, as it portrayed young students as active problem solvers who were ready to explore difficult subjects. Dr. Bruner developed his theory of cognitive growth throughout the 1960s and went on to become a professor of experimental psychology at Oxford University, where he began a series of explorations of children's language. He returned to Harvard University in 1979 and two years later joined the faculty of the School for Social Research in New York. He turned his attention to cultural psychology in later years, most significantly in his 1996 book The Culture of Education. Since 1986 he worked on cultural-psychological foundations of the law and teaching at the New York University School of Law, where he was University Professor. Jerome Bruner died June 5, 2016, at age 100, in Manhattan, New York.
 
58Name:  Dr. Diana L. Kormos Buchwald
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Diana Kormos Buchwald is the Robert M. Abbey Professor of History at the California Institute of Technology and is married to Jed Z. Buchwald (APS 2011), the Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Professor of History, also at Caltech. She is the Director of the Einstein Papers Project and General Editor of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. Under her leadership, the project has published nine volumes with Princeton University Press, in both the original language and in English translation (17 volumes). This ongoing research effort is aimed at making available in print and online Einstein’s massive written legacy, which ranges from his work on the special and general theories of relativity and the origins of quantum theory, to his active involvement with international collaboration and cooperation, human rights, education, and disarmament. More than 10,000 documents have been made available so far. Diana Kormos Buchwald was trained in physical chemistry at the Technion Institute (BSc ’81) and the University of Tel Aviv (MSc ’83) before turning to the study of the history of modern science at Harvard University (Ph.D. ’90). She specializes in 19th and 20th century history of physical sciences, scientific institutions, instruments, and interdisciplinarity. She is a fellow of the AAAS, the American Physical Society, and has been a member of the Institute for Advanced Study, the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, and the Internationales Forschungszentrum Kulturwissenschaften, Vienna. She has recently joined the Advisory Board of the Global Observatory on Academic Freedom.
 
59Name:  Ralph J. Bunche
 Year Elected:  1950
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1904
 Death Date:  12/9/71
   
60Name:  Warren R. Burgess
 Year Elected:  1942
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1889
 Death Date:  9/16/78
   
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