American Philosophical Society
Member History

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3. Social Sciences[X]
21Name:  Charles A. Beard
 Year Elected:  1936
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1875
 Death Date:  9/1/48
   
22Name:  Carl L. Becker
 Year Elected:  1936
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1874
 Death Date:  4/10/45
   
23Name:  Dr. Gary Stanley Becker
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1986
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  May 3, 2014
   
 
Gary Stanley Becker was born in 1930 in a coal mining town in eastern Pennsylvania. His family moved to Brooklyn a few years later, where he was first exposed to economics by his father, who gave him the task of reading stock quotations and other reports on financial developments. After graduating from Princeton University in three years, Dr. Becker earned his Ph.D. in 1955 from the University of Chicago, where he studied under Milton Friedman, Gregg Lewis and other prominent thinkers. Known for his distinction as an economic theorist and for pioneering the application of economic theory to human behavior (such as in welfare policy, population and the family), Dr. Becker published numerous important works, including the 1981 book A Treatise on the Family, in which he analyzed the effect of factors such as divorce, family size and changes in family composition and structure on inequality and economic growth. A greatly expanded edition of this pioneering work was published in 1991. In addition to his scholarly output, Dr. Becker also penned monthly articles for Business Week magazine beginning in 1985. He served on the faculty of Columbia University from 1957-70 and was University Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago beginning in 1970. A Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution as well, Dr. Becker held the presidency of the American Economic Association and had been recognized with the Seidman Award as well as the first social science Award of Merit from the National Institute of Health. He received the National Medal of Science in 2000 and then served on the committee that recommends medal recipients. Dr. Becker was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, in 2007 and the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1992. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1986. Gary Becker died May 3, 2014, at the age of 83, in Chicago, Illinois.
 
24Name:  Mr. Silvio A. Bedini
 Institution:  Smithsonian Institution
 Year Elected:  1975
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  November 14, 2007
   
25Name:  Dr. Whitfield J. Bell
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society
 Year Elected:  1964
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  January 2, 2009
   
 
Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. was Librarian and Executive Officer of the American Philosophical Society. He received his Bachelor's degree from Dickinson College in 1935 and went on to earn a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1947. Dr. Bell taught history at Dickinson College from 1937-54 and was visiting professor of history at the College of William and Mary and visiting editor of the William and Mary Quarterly. He left to edit the Papers of Benjamin Franklin. He was an adjunct professor at the University of Pennsylvania for two decades, beginning in 1977. Dr. Bell came to the American Philosophical Society Library in 1954, serving as librarian from 1966-80. He also served as Executive Officer from 1977-83. Dr. Bell was a member of many historical societies, including the American Antiquarian Society, the American Historical Association, and the American Association for the History of Medicine, of which he was president from 1970-72. He was an honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians and recently received the Distinguished Service Medal from the College in recognition of his bicentennial history of the College. He authored several books and many articles on history, history of science, history of medicine and Benjamin Franklin. He also authored "Patriot Improvers," a collection of biographical sketches of members of the American Philosophical Society. Whitfield Bell died January 2, 2009 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania at the age of 94.
 
26Name:  Dr. Daniel Bell
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  January 15, 2011
   
 
Daniel Bell was a sociologist and professor emeritus at Harvard University and a former scholar in residence of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He taught sociology at the University of Chicago from 1945-48 and Columbia University from 1952-69. He was also known for his contributions as an editor to The Public Interest Magazine, Fortune and The New Leader as well as for his studies of post-industrialism. Dr. Bell's influential books include The End of Ideology (1960), The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism (1976) and The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1973). The End of Ideology and The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism appeared on the Times Literary Supplement's list of the 100 most important books of the second half of the twentieth century. Dr. Bell has long theorized on a new kind of society that would be information-led and service-oriented. A perceptive and imaginative student of changing contemporary society, Dr. Bell has seen many of his forecasts come true.
 
27Name:  Dr. Robert Bellah
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  July 30, 2013
   
 
Robert N. Bellah was Elliott Professor of Sociology Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. He was educated at Harvard University, receiving his B.A. in 1950 and his Ph.D. in 1955. He began teaching at Harvard in 1957 before moving to the University of California, Berkeley ten years later. From 1967-97 he served as UC Berkeley Ford Professor of Sociology and also chaired the Center for Japanese and Korean Studies from 1968-74. Dr. Bellah was the author and editor of several essays and books, including the influential articles "Civil Religion in America" (1967) and "Religious Evolution" (1964), the latter of which he transformed into a book. His books include Tokugawa Religion, Beyond Belief, The Broken Covenant, The New Religious Consciousness, Varieties of Civil Religion and Uncivil Religion: Interreligious Hostility in America, and Religion in Human Evolution (2011). In 1985, the University of California Press published Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life , a cultural analysis of American society that Professor Bellah wrote in collaboration with Richard Madsen, William Sullivan, Ann Swidler and Steven Tipton. In 1991 he published a follow-up, The Good Society, written by the same five authors as Habits of the Heart. Dr. Bellah was known for his studies of the relations between religion and related value systems and social functioning and individual development in the United States; his sociological studies were suffused with concern for public morality and the search for deep-rooted community. Among his many honors, Dr. Bellah received the United States National Humanities Medal in 2000. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1996. Robert Bellah died July 30, 2013, at the age of 86, in Oakland, California.
 
28Name:  Dr. Reinhard Bendix
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1977
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  2/28/91
   
29Name:  Dr. Benedict Anderson
 Institution:  Cornell University
 Year Elected:  2009
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1936
 Death Date:  December 12, 2015
   
 
Benedict Anderson had been the Aaron L. Binenkorb Professor Emeritus of International Studies at the Government and Asian Studies Department in Cornell University since 2002, where he had taught since 1967. He died December 12, 2015, at age 79 in Batu, Indonesia. He was an expert on Indonesia and Southeast Asia and a leading theorist and historian of nationalisms whose work is standard reading in the humanities as well as the social sciences. His 1983 work, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, highlights the role of national myths and print culture in creating the idea of a national community and analyzes the development of European nation-states as derivative from the creation of nations in the Americas. His other works include Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944-46 (1972), Language and Power: Exploring Political Cultures in Indonesia (1990), The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, Southeast Asia and the World (1998), and Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-colonial Imagination (2005). He was the 1998 winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Asian Studies from the Association of Asian Studies and the 2000 winner of the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize, 2000.
 
30Name:  Dr. Abram Bergson
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1965
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  April 23, 2003
   
31Name:  Adolf A. Berle
 Year Elected:  1965
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1895
 Death Date:  2/17/71
   
32Name:  Dr. Ben Bernanke
 Institution:  Brookings Institution
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
Ben S. Bernanke is a Distinguished Fellow in Residence with the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. He served two terms as chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States from 2006 to 2014. He is a leading economist who has carried out important research on macroeconomic and monetary history and policy. In a 1983 article in the American Economic Review he noted and analyzed the non-monetary effects of the financial crisis in the Great Depression, and in a 1991 article in the Journal of Political Economy he critically examined competing theories of the business cycle and the phenomenon of pro-cyclical movements in labor productivity. He returned to the analysis of the Great Depression in 1995, and in an influential 2001 article in the American Economic Review he tackled the question of whether central banks should respond to asset prices (i.e., financial bubbles). His analysis of deflation and its consequences in the Japanese economy was very influential in recent policy-making. Ben Bernanke was nominated to succeed Alan Greenspan as the fourteenth chairman of the Federal Reserve in 2005, and he was easily confirmed in 2006. He was confirmed for a second term in January 2010. He served on the Federal Reserve Board of Governors from 2002-05 and also held the chairmanship of the White House Council of Economic Advisors. A graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1979), he has served on the faculties of Stanford (1979-85) and Princeton (1985-2005) Universities, chairing the latter's economics department from 1996-2005. He was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2001 and a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2006.
 
33Name:  Dr. Jagdish N. Bhagwati
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
A native of India, Jagdish Bhagwati attended Cambridge University where he graduated in 1956 with a first in Economics Tripos. He then continued to study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Oxford, returning to India in 1961 as Professor of Economics at the Indian Statistical Institute, and then as Professor of International Trade at the Delhi School of Economics. He returned to MIT in 1968, leaving it twelve years later as the Ford International Professor of Economics. He currently holds the position of University Professor of Economics and Law at Columbia University and is a Senior Fellow in International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr. Bhagwati was Economic Policy Advisor to the Director General of GATT from 1991-93 and also served as Special Advisor to the United Nations on Globalization and External Advisor to the Director General of the World Trade Organization. Additionally, he served as a member of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan's Advisory Group on the NEPAD process in Africa . Five volumes of his scientific writings and two of his public policy essays have been published by MIT Press. The recipient of six festschrifts in his honor, he has also received several prizes and honorary degrees. Professor Bhagwati has published more than three hundred articles and fifty volumes and also writes frequently for The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Financial Times and has reviewed for The New Republic and The Times Literary Supplement. Professor Bhagwati is described as the most creative international trade theorist of his generation and is a longtime defender of free trade. His most recent books include: The Wind of the Hundred Days: How Washington Mismanaged Globalization (2002), In Defense of Globalization (2004), and Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade (2008).
 
34Name:  John Biggs
 Year Elected:  1951
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1895
 Death Date:  4/15/79
   
35Name:  Dr. James H. Billington
 Institution:  Library of Congress
 Year Elected:  1988
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  November 20, 2018
   
 
James H. Billington served as the Librarian of Congress beginning in 1987. Born in Bryn Mawr, PA, he attended Princeton University and earned his D.Phil. degree in 1953 from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar at Balliol College. Following service in the military, Dr. Billington taught history at Harvard University (1957-62) and Princeton University (1962-74). In late 1973, Dr. Billington became director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, founding both the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russia Studies as well as the Wilson Quarterly during his fourteen-year tenure at the Center. His publications in the field of Russian history and culture included The Face of Russia (1998), a companion book to a three-part PBS television series of the same title narrated and written by Dr. Billington, and Russia in Search of Itself (2004). Dr. Billington received forty honorary degrees as well as the Woodrow Wilson Award of Princeton University and the UCLA Medal. He was a member of the Board of Foreign Scholarships (1971-76; chairman, 1973-75), which administers the Fulbright Exchange Program worldwide. He was the founder and Chairman of the Board of the Open World Exchange program. He received state honors from the governments of Brazil, Italy, Germany, the Republic of Korea, and the Kyrgz Republic, as well as the highest honors awarded to foreigners by France (The Legion of Honor) and Russia (The Order of Friendship). He championed the addition of digital collections to traditional analog materials and services to the Library of Congress and gained UNESCO backing in 2007 for a new World Digital Library of original and important primary materials from the world's varied cultures. Dr. Billington served on the Board of the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences as well as the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1988.
 
36Name:  Dr. Barbara Aronstein Black
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Barbara Aronstein Black is George Welwood Murray Professor of Legal History Emerita at Columbia University. She received her B.A. from Brooklyn College in 1953, as well as an LL.B. from Columbia University in 1955 and a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1975. She holds honorary doctorates from Brooklyn College, Marymount Manhattan, Osgoode Hall, New Rochelle, New York Law School, Smith College, Vermont Law School and Georgetown University Law Center. Dr. Black was an editor of the Columbia Law Review and was an associate in law at Columbia from 1955-56. In 1965 she began a doctoral program in history at Yale, specializing in Anglo-American legal history. She served as an instructor and lecturer in history while completing graduate study, and, on award of the Ph.D. degree, became assistant professor of history at Yale. She was appointed associate professor of law at Yale in 1979. Dr. Black has also been a visiting lecturer at Harvard Law School and a visiting professor at Columbia Law School. She joined the Columbia faculty in 1984, retiring in 2008, and served as Dean of the Faculty of Law from 1986-91. She was president of the American Society for Legal History from 1986-87 and 1988-89 and is a member of the Selden Society; the Massachusetts Historical Society; and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She is on the Board of Directors of the Supreme Court Historical Society; the Board of Guarantors for the Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America at Columbia University; and the Permanent Advisory Board for the Jay Papers Project at Columbia University. She was also a member of the New York State Ethics Commission from 1992-95 and served on the Board of Trustees of New York Law School from 1992-98. Dr. Black has published widely, and her principal areas of interest are legal history and contracts.
 
37Name:  Robert P. Blake
 Year Elected:  1944
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1887
 Death Date:  5/9/50
   
38Name:  Dr. Peter M. Blau
 Institution:  University of North Carolina
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  March 12, 2002
   
39Name:  Dr. David W. Blight
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
David W. Blight is Sterling Professor of History and Director of the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition at Yale University. He previously taught at North Central College in Illinois, Harvard University, and Amherst College. He is the author or editor of a dozen books, including Frederick Douglass: Prophet of Freedom; American Oracle: The Civil War in the Civil Rights Era; Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory; American Oracle: The Civil War in the Civil Rights Era; and A Slave No More: Two Post-Civil War Slave Narratives, and annotated editions of Douglass’s first two autobiographiers. He has worked on Douglass most much of his professional life, and been awarded the Pulitzer Prize, the Bancroft Prize, the Abraham Lincoln Prize, and the Frederick Douglass Prize, among others. He writes frequently for the popular press, including the Atlantic, the New York Times, and many other journals. His lecture course on the Civil War and Reconstruction Era at Yale is on the internet at https://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-119. He is an elected member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, which award him the Gold Medal in History in 2020. Blight has always been a teacher first. At the beginning of his career, he spent seven years as a high school history teacher in his hometown of Flint, Michigan. Blight maintains a website, including information about public lectures, books, articles and interviews at http://www.davidwblight.com/.
 
40Name:  Dr. Alan S. Blinder
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Alan S. Blinder is the Gordon S. Rentschler Memorial Professor of Economics at Princeton University and Director of Princeton's Center for Economic Policy Studies, which he founded in 1990. He is also Vice Chairman of the Promontory Interfinancial Network. Dr. Blinder served as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from June 1994 until January 1996. In this position, he represented the Fed at various international meetings and was a member of the Board's committees on Bank Supervision and Regulation, Consumer and Community Affairs, and Derivative Instruments. He also chaired the Board in the Chairman's absence. He speaks frequently to financial audiences. Before becoming a member of the Board, Dr. Blinder served as a Member of President Clinton's original Council of Economic Advisors from January 1993 until June 1994. There he was in charge of the Administration's macroeconomic forecasting and also worked intensively on budget, international trade, and health care issues. During the 2000 and 2004 presidential campaigns, he served as an economic adviser to Al Gore and John Kerry. Dr. Blinder was born on October 14, 1945 in Brooklyn, New York. He earned his A.B. at Princeton University in 1967, his M.Sc. at the London School of Economics in 1968, and his Ph.D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1971--all in economics. Dr. Blinder has taught at Princeton since 1971, and chaired the Department of Economics from 1988-90. He is the author or co-author of more than a dozen books, including the textbook Economics: Principles and Policy (with William J. Baumol), now in its 11th edition, from which over two million college students have learned introductory economics. In 2013 he wrote After the Music Stopped: The Financial Crisis, the Response, and the Work Ahead. He has also written scores of scholarly articles on such topics as fiscal policy, monetary policy, and the distribution of income. From 1985 until joining the Clinton Administration, Dr. Blinder wrote a lively monthly column in Business Week magazine. Currently, he appears frequently on CNBC, CNN, Bloomberg TV, and elsewhere. Dr. Blinder served briefly as Deputy Assistant Director of the Congressional Budget Office when that agency started in 1975 and has testified many times before Congress on a wide variety of public policy issues. He is a of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the Bretton Woods Committee and the Bellagio Group, a former governor of the American Stock Exchange, and has been elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He was inducted into the American Academy of Political and Social Science and named the John Kenneth Galbraith Fellow in 2009. He and his wife, Madeline, live in Princeton, NJ; they have two sons, Scott and William, and two grandsons, Malcolm and Levi.
 
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