American Philosophical Society
Member History

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Class
3. Social Sciences[X]
181Name:  Edwin Francis Gay
 Year Elected:  1932
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1868
 Death Date:  2/8/1946
   
182Name:  Dr. Peter Gay
 Institution:  Center for Scholars and Writers, New York Public Library & Yale University
 Year Elected:  1987
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  May 12, 2015
   
 
Peter Gay was born Peter Joachim Fröhlich in Berlin in 1923. After witnessing Kristallnacht, he fled Nazi Germany in 1939 and arrived in the United States in 1941. After earning his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia University, Dr. Gay became a political science professor and history professor at Columbia. In 1969 he moved to Yale University, where he taught until his retirement in 1993 and became Sterling Professor Emeritus of History. Dr. Gay's richness and range of historical interests are suggested in his many publications, from Voltaire's Politics (1959) to Weimar Culture (1968) to the five-volume The Bourgeois Experience (1984-98). A leading champion of psychoanalytic history, Dr. Gay also examined the impact of Freudian ideas on German culture in Freud, Jews and Other Germans (1978). His last work was Modernism: The Lure of Heresy from Baudelaire to Beckett and Beyond (2007). A leading historian of the social history of ideas, Dr. Gay was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and received the National Book Award, Melchor Book Award, and Ralph Waldo Emerson Award, among other honors. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1987. Peter Gay died May 12, 2015, at the age of 91 at his home in Manhattan.
 
183Name:  Dr. Walter Gellhorn
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1965
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1906
 Death Date:  12/9/95
   
184Name:  Dr. Alexander L. George
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  August 16, 2006
   
185Name:  Alexander Gerschenkron
 Year Elected:  1970
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1904
 Death Date:  10/26/1978
   
186Name:  William P. Gest
 Year Elected:  1926
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1862
   
187Name:  Walter Sherman Gifford
 Year Elected:  1931
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1885
 Death Date:  5/7/1966
   
188Name:  Dr. Gerd Gigerenzer
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute for Human Development
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Gerd Gigerenzer is Director at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Director of the Harding Center for Risk Literacy in Berlin. He is former Professor of Psychology at the University of Chicago and John M. Olin Distinguished Visiting Professor, School of Law at the University of Virginia. He is also Member of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, the German Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and Batten Fellow at the Darden Business School, University of Virginia. He received honorary doctorates from the University of Basel and the Open University of the Netherlands. Awards for his work include the AAAS Prize for the best article in the behavioral sciences, the Association of American Publishers Prize for the best book in the social and behavioral sciences, the German Psychology Award and the Communicator Award of the German Research Foundation. His award-winning popular books Calculated Risks, Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious, and Risk Savvy: How to make good decisions have been translated into 21 languages. His academic books include Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart, Rationality for Mortals, Simply Rational, and Bounded Rationality (with Reinhard Selten, a Nobel Laureate in economics). In Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions (with Sir Muir Gray) he shows how better informed doctors and patients can improve healthcare while reducing costs. Together with the Bank of England, he works on the project "Simple heuristics for a safer world." Gigerenzer has trained U.S. Federal Judges, German physicians, and top managers in decision-making and understanding risks and uncertainties.
 
189Name:  Dr. Felix Gilbert
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study
 Year Elected:  1969
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1905
 Death Date:  2/14/91
   
190Name:  Professor Jane C. Ginsburg
 Institution:  Columbia Law School
 Year Elected:  2013
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Jane C. Ginsburg is the Morton L. Janklow Professor of Literary and Artistic Property Law at Columbia University School of Law, and Faculty Director of its Kernochan Center for Law, Media and the Arts. She teaches Legal Methods, Copyright Law, and Trademarks Law, and is the author or co-author of casebooks in all three subjects. With Professor Sam Ricketson, she is the co-author of INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS: THE BERNE CONVENTION AND BEYOND (Oxford University Press 2006). Other books include INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AT THE EDGE: THE CONTESTED CONTOURS OF IP (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming 2013), co-editor with Prof. Rochelle Dreyfuss; COPYRIGHT: CONCEPTS & INSIGHTS (Foundation Press 2012), co-author with Prof. Robert A. Gorman; COPYRIGHT AND PIRACY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY CRITIQUE (Cambridge University Press 2010), co-editor with Prof. Lionel Bently and Dr. Jennifer Davis; TRADE MARKS AND BRANDS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY CRITIQUE (Cambridge University Press 2008), co-editor with Prof. Lionel Bently and Dr. Jennifer Davis; and INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY STORIES (Foundation Press 2005), co-editor with Professor Rochelle Dreyfuss. With Professor Dreyfuss and Professor François Dessemontet, she was a Co-Reporter for the American Law Institute project on INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: PRINCIPLES GOVERNING JURISDICTION, CHOICE OF LAW AND JUDGMENTS IN TRANSNATIONAL DISPUTES (2008). Professor Ginsburg has taught French and U.S. copyright law and U.S. legal methods and contracts law at the University of Paris and other French universities. In 2004-05 she held the Arthur L. Goodhart Visiting Chair of Legal Science at the law faculty of the University of Cambridge, UK, where in Fall 2008 she was a Herbert Smith Fellow. In Spring 2009 she was an Affiliated Fellow at the American Academy in Rome. In 2009 she was also an Order of the Coif Distinguished Visitor, and the NZ Legal Research Foundation’s Visiting Scholar at the University of Auckland, and in 2010-11 she was a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar. In 2012 she inaugurated the Martin and Susan Adelman Visiting Professorship in Intellectual Property Law at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. A graduate of the University of Chicago (BA 1976, MA 1977), Professor Ginsburg received a JD in 1980 from Harvard, and a Diplôme d'études approfondies in 1985 and a Doctorate of Law in 1995 from the University of Paris II. She is a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy and an Honorary Fellow of Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge. Jane Ginsburg was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2013.
 
191Name:  Dr. Carol Gluck
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2003
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Carol Gluck received her Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1977. She began as an assistant professor in the departments of history and East Asian languages and cultures, and is currently the George Sansom Professor of History. Carol Gluck is a brilliant intellectual historian of modern Japan whose writings have focused on Japanese historians' portrayal of their recent past. Her work has been published in Japan and Europe, and her leadership in both scholarship and education won her election to the presidency of the Association for Asian Studies (1996-1997) - the leading professional organization in the Asian field - and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1991. She lectures in the United States and abroad to university, corporate, and public audiences, and is active in efforts to develop East Asian studies in undergraduate education and in promoting the teaching of Asian and world history in the schools. Dr. Gluck is the author of Japan's Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period (1985) and Past Obsessions: War and Memory in the Twentieth Century (2006). She is the co-editor of Showa: The Japan of Hirohito (1992) and Asia in Western and World History (1997). She is the recipient of the Mark Van Doren Award for Columbia University (1982), the John King Fairbank Prize (1986) and the Lionel Trilling Award (1987) for Japan's Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period; the Great Teacher Award from Columbia University (1989); the Fulbright 50th Anniversary Distinguished Scholar Award (2002); and the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon, the second highest honor awarded by the Japanese government. Dr. Gluck was elected member of the American Philosophical Society in 2003.
 
192Name:  Dr. William H. Goetzmann
 Institution:  University of Texas at Austin
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  September 7, 2010
   
 
William H. Goetzmann received a Ph.D. in American Studies from Yale University in 1957. He served on the faculty of Yale University until 1964, then moved to the University of Texas, Austin where he was the Jack S. Blanton, Sr. Chair in History and American Studies. Pulitzer and Parkman prize winner, remarkable teacher (54 dissertations, 53 theses), writer of 18 books and some 145 reviews, designer of a major television show, Dr. Goetzmann, in the best Turner tradition, brought to the study of the West imagination, sophistication, and scholarship. He created an American Studies department at Texas and helped convert the university into a true multi-racial institution. He taught and lectured in a number of European institutions and helped make the American West a field not merely of regional antiquarianism but of study of the human condition in a remarkable setting. He is the author of many books, including Army Exploration in the American West 1803-63 (1959, 1991); Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West (1966); When the Eagle Screamed: The Romantic Horizon in American Diplomacy 1800-1865 (1966); The Mountain Man: Exploring the American West (1978); New Lands, New Men: America and the Second Great Age of Discovery (1986); The West of the Imagination (1986); The First Americans (1991); The Atlas of North American Exploration (1992); and Sam Chamberlin's Mexican War: The San Jacinto Paintings (1993). He has also been the editor of many books, including The American Hegelians (1973). His most recent work is entitled Beyond the Revolution: A History of American Thought from Paine to Pragmatism (2009). Dr. Goetzmann was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1999. He died on September 7, 2010, at the age of 80, in Austin, Texas.
 
193Name:  Dr. Claudia Goldin
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Claudia Goldin has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of labor market discrimination, gender roles in employment, the roles of education and health as major components of human capital and the role of human capital in economic growth. She has argued that it is difficult to rationalize occupational sex segregation and wage discrimination in terms of men’s taste for distance from women; instead she constructs a “pollution” model of discrimination in which a new female hire may reduce the prestige of a previously all male occupation. According to the model, occupations requiring productivity above the female median will tend to be segregated, while those below the median will tend to be integrated. In her analysis of the economic slowdown in the U.S. in the 1970s she finds that rising levels of inequality at the end of the 20th century was the root of the problem, not slow productivity growth or economic convergence between nations. In the U.S. educational system, she finds that the virtues characterizing it in the early 20th century may now be considered vices, in that the system that created social mobility now is beset by a lack of standards. In all her work she has illuminated fundamental questions of economic and social development. She won the Erwin Plein Nemmers Prize in Economics "for her groundbreaking insights into the history of the American economy, the evolution of gender roles and the interplay of technology, human capital and labor markets" in 2020.
 
194Name:  Dr. Leo A. Goodman
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1976
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  December 22, 2020
   
 
Leo Goodman was a statistician and sociologist who has developed important statistical methods for quantitative research in the social sciences, particularly in sociology. His contributions to mathematical demography have significantly improved analyses of population growth by generalizing classical theories and broadening the range of variables. Born in New York City in 1928, Dr. Goodman holds M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Princeton University, and honorary D.Sc. degrees from the University of Michigan and Syracuse University. From 1950-86 he served on the faculty of the University of Chicago before moving to the University of California, Berkeley, as Class of 1938 Professor. The author of approximately 150 papers and four books, Dr. Goodman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences andthe American Academy of Arts & Sciences and has received honors including the American Statistical Association's Samuel S. Wilks Memorial Medal and the Career of Distinguished Scholarship Award presented by the American Sociological Association. His recent research has focused on the further development of statistical methods that bring the same kind of rigor to the analysis of qualitative/categorical data that has been available in the analysis of quantitative data. He died on December 22, 2020.
 
195Name:  Herbert Funk Goodrich
 Year Elected:  1937
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1890
 Death Date:  6/25/1962
   
196Name:  Carter Goodrich
 Year Elected:  1946
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1897
 Death Date:  4/ /1971
   
197Name:  Kermit Gordon
 Year Elected:  1971
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  6/21/1976
   
198Name:  Dr. Linda Gordon
 Institution:  New York University
 Year Elected:  2015
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Linda Gordon was Vilas Distinguished Research Professor at the University of Wisconsin until 1999 and is now University Professor of the Humanities and professor of history at NYU. Her PhD was in Russian history and her dissertation was published as Cossack Rebellions: Social Turmoil in the Ukraine (1983). Turning then to US history, her early books focused on the historical roots of social policy issues, particularly as they concern gender and family issues, including Woman's Body, Woman's Right: The History of Birth Control in America (1976), revised edition titled The Moral Property of Women (2002); Heroes of Their Own Lives: The History and Politics of Family Violence; and Pitied But Not Entitled (1988): Single Mothers and the History of Welfare (1994). She then turned to narrative or "microhistory" as a way of illuminating historical developments. Her 1999 book, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction, the story of a vigilante action against Mexican-Americans, won the Bancroft prize for best book in American history and the Beveridge prize for best book on the history of the Western Hemisphere. Her Dorothea Lange: A Life Beyond Limits won a second Bancroft prize, the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Biography, and the National Arts Club prize for best arts writing. She discovered (in archives) unnoticed and never published Lange photographs of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, commissioned and then impounded by the US Army because of their critical perspective; she published these in 2006 as Impounded: Dorothea Lange and Japanese Americans in World War II. Most recently she co-authored Feminism Unfinished: A Short, Surprising History of American Women’s Movements (2014) and edited for Aperture Dorothea Lange: Masters of Photography (2014).
 
199Name:  Professor Annette Gordon-Reed
 Institution:  Harvard Law School; Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Annette Gordon-Reed is currently Charles Warren Professor of American Legal History at Harvard Law School and University Professor and Professor of History at Harvard University. She earned her J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1984. She has taught at a number of institutions, including as Wallace Stevens Professor of Law at New York Law School, Board of Governors Professor of History at Rutgers University, and Carol K. Pforzheimer Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. In the vast library of Thomas Jefferson studies, few scholars have done more to challenge received wisdom than Gordon-Reed. Her first book challenged the dominant view that Jefferson could never have engaged in amorous relations with a woman of mixed African-American descent by carefully identifying the inherently racist and psychologically problematic claims that had long rejected this possibility. Gordon-Reed demonstrated that every source of evidence required equally scruplulous examination, and that the oral histories of the Hemings family were just as valuable than what turned out to be the contrived tales of later Jeffersons. The importance of that approach became evident after the 1998 publication of a study indicating that Hemings descendants were genetically linked to the male Jefferson line. Building on that finding, Gordon-Reed’s second book on The Hemingses of Monticello provided a reconstruction of this family’s life that was at once boldly imaginative yet again rigorously grounded in the evidence. The nuanced portrait of Jefferson that has in turn emerged from these two studies, and which is reflected in the book she recently co-authored with Peter Onuf, has made the field of Jefferson studies even more complicated. Annette Gordon-Reed has won a number of awards, including the National Book Award for Nonfiction in 2008, the Pulitzer Prize for History in 2009, a MacArthur Fellowship in 2010, and the National Humanities Medal in 2010. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 2011. Her works include Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (1998), Race on Trial: Law and Justice in American History (2002), The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family (2008), Andrew Johnson (2011), with Peter S. Onuf "Most Blessed of the Patriarchs": Thomas Jefferson and the Empire of the Imagination (2016), and On Juneteenth (2021). Annette Gordon-Reed was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2019.
 
200Name:  Louis R. Gottschalk
 Year Elected:  1951
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1899
 Death Date:  6/23/1975
   
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