American Philosophical Society
Member History

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3. Social Sciences[X]
161Name:  Dr. Robert W. Fogel
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  June 11, 2013
   
 
Specializing in economic history from the point of view of statistical analysis, Robert Fogel was one of the most distinguished economists in the world. A deep student of the Simon Kuznets tradition, he later introduced formal econometrics in the statistical study of economic history, and his book on the economics of slavery, with Stanley Engerman, was a landmark study. Later, he has focused on research in the fields of demographics, health, medicine and technical change. A graduate of Johns Hopkins University (Ph.D., 1963), Dr. Fogel served on the faculties of the University of Rochester (1960-64, 1968-75), Harvard University (1975-81) and the University of Chicago (1963-75, 1981-2013), where he was Charles Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of American Institutions and director of the Center for Population Economics. He died on June 11, 2013, at the age of 86, in Oak Lawn, Illinois.
 
162Name:  Dr. Eric Foner
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Eric Foner, DeWitt Clinton Professor Emeritus of History at Columbia University, is one of this country's most prominent historians. He received his doctoral degree at Columbia under the supervision of Richard Hofstadter. He is one of only two persons to serve as president of the three major professional organizations: the Organization of American Historians, American Historical Association, and Society of American Historians, and one of a handful to have won the Bancroft and Pulitzer Prizes in the same year. Foner's publications have concentrated on the intersections of intellectual, political and social history, and the history of American race relations. His best-known books are: Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970); Tom Paine and Revolutionary America (1976); Nothing But Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy (1983); Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (1988) (winner, among other awards, of the Bancroft Prize, Parkman Prize, and Los Angeles Times Book Award); The Story of American Freedom (1998); and Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World (2002). His survey textbook of American history, Give Me Liberty! An American History and a companion volume of documents, Voices of Freedom, appeared in 2004. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (winner, among other awards, of the Bancroft Prize, Pulitzer Prize for History, and The Lincoln Prize) was published in the fall of 2010. Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad, was published early in 2015 and the following year was awarded the American History Book Prize by the New-York Historical Society. His latest book, Battles for Freedom: The Use and Abuse of American History, a collection of essays from The Nation magazine, appeared in 2017. His books have been translated into Chinese, Korean, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, and Spanish. Eric Foner has also been the co-curator, with Olivia Mahoney, of two prize-winning exhibitions on American history: A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln, which opened at the Chicago Historical Society in 1990, and America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War, which opened at the Virginia Historical Society in 1995 and traveled to several other locations. He revised the presentation of American history at the Hall of Presidents at Disney World, and Meet Mr. Lincoln at Disneyland, and has served as consultant to several National Parks Service historical sites and historical museums. Eric Foner is a winner of the Great Teacher Award from the Society of Columbia Graduates (1991), and the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching from Columbia University (2006). He is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the British Academy, and has been awarded honorary degrees by Iona College, Queen Mary University of London, the State University of New York, Dartmouth College, Lehigh University, and Princeton University. He has taught at Cambridge University as Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions, Oxford University as Harmsworth Professor of American History, Moscow State University as Fulbright Professor, and at Queen Mary, University of London as Leverhulme Visiting Scholar. He has written for the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, London Review of Books, and many other publications, and has appeared on numerous television and radio shows, including Charlie Rose, Book Notes, The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, The Colbert Report, Bill Moyers Journal, Fresh Air, and All Things Considered, and in historical documentaries on PBS and the History Channel. He has lectured extensively to both academic and non-academic audiences. In 2007, a group of Professor Foner's former graduate students published Contested Democracy: Freedom, Race, and Power in American History, edited by Manisha Sinha and Penny Von Eschen, a collection of essays, or "festschrift," in his honor. Foner's works have been highly praised in scholarly journals and by reviews in periodicals across the political spectrum. In The Nation, Theodore Rosengarten wrote that Reconstruction is "monumental in scope ... a feat of research and synthesis that is not likely to be repeated for a generation." The introduction to a recent collection of essays on the Civil War era refers to Reconstruction as "one of the masterworks of the historical profession." Robert H. Ferrell, in the National Review declared that The Story of American Freedom "approaches brilliance." In the Los Angeles Times, Wendy Smith wrote of Gateway to Freedom, "intellectually probing and emotionally resonant, [it] reminds us that history can be as stirring as the most gripping fiction." In a recent book review, Professor Steven Hahn of the University of Pennsylvania wrote of Eric Foner: "Like his mentor Richard Hofstadter, he has had an enormous influence on how other historians, as well as a good cut of the general reading public, have come to think about American history. This is the result of his voluminous scholarship and of his decades as a teacher. Indeed, when one considers the chronological and topical range of Foner's many books and essays--not to mention those of his doctoral students--only Hofstadter, C. Vann Woodward, David Brion Davis, and, in an earlier era, Charles Beard (who was also at Columbia) would seem to be his genuine rivals in impact and accomplishment." On a somewhat different note, the Oklahoma Gazette recently wrote of a lecture at Oklahoma University, "suffice it to say that his giving a free lecture on OU's campus is just really, incredibly, super cool."
 
163Name:  Worthington Chauncy Ford
 Year Elected:  1922
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1858
 Death Date:  3/7/1941
   
164Name:  Guy Stanton Ford
 Year Elected:  1939
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1873
 Death Date:  12/29/1962
   
165Name:  Dr. Franklin L. Ford
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1974
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  August 31, 2003
   
166Name:  Raymond B. Fosdick
 Year Elected:  1931
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1883
 Death Date:  7/17/1972
   
167Name:  Dixon R. Fox
 Year Elected:  1935
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1887
 Death Date:  1/30/1945
   
168Name:  Dr. Renée Claire Fox
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  September 23, 2020
   
 
Renée C. Fox, a summa cum laude graduate of Smith College, earned her Ph.D. in Sociology in 1954 from Radcliffe College, Harvard University, where she studied in the Department of Social Relations. Before joining the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in 1969, she was a member of the Columbia University Bureau of Applied Social Research, taught for twelve years at Barnard College, and then spent two years as a Visiting Lecturer in the Department of Social Relations at Harvard. At the University of Pennsylvania, she was a professor in the Department of Sociology with joint, secondary appointments in the Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, and in the School of Nursing; and she held an interdisciplinary chair as the Annenberg Professor of the Social Sciences. From 1972-1978 she was the Chair of the Penn Sociology Department. On July 1, 1998, she became the Annenberg Professor Emerita of the Social Sciences. She is also an Emerita Senior Fellow of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. Renée Fox’s major teaching and research interests - sociology of medicine, medical research, medical education, and medical ethics - have involved her in first-hand, participant observation-based studies in Continental Europe (particularly in Belgium), in Central Africa (especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo), and in the People’s Republic of China, as well as in the United States. She has lectured in colleges, universities, and medical schools throughout the United States, and has taught in a number of universities abroad. During the 1996-1997 academic year, she was the George Eastman Visiting Professor at the University of Oxford. Her books include: Experiment Perilous: Physicians and Patients Facing the Unknown; The Sociology of Medicine: A Participant Observer’s View; Essays in Medical Sociology; In the Belgian Château: The Spirit and Culture of a European Society in an Age of Change; In the Field: A Sociologist’s Journey, and (in co-authorship with Judith P.Swazey), The Courage to Fail: A Social View of Organ Transplants and Dialysis, Spare Parts: Organ Replacement in American Society, and Observing Bioethics. Her most recent book is her "ethnographic autobiography," In the Field: A Sociologist’s Journey, published in 2010. Fox is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and an Honorary Member of Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. She is the holder of a Radcliffe Graduate School Medal, and of a Centennial Medal from the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Harvard University, and is a recipient of the American Sociological Association’s Leo G. Reeder Award for Distinguished Contributions to Medical Sociology. She has received several teaching awards: an E. Harris Harbison Gifted Teaching Award of the Danforth Foundation, and a Lindback Foundation Award for Teaching at the University of Pennsylvania. She holds eleven honorary degrees, and in 1995, the Belgian Government named her Chevalier of the Order of Leopold II. In October 2007, she was the recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. In 2015 she was the recipient of the Hastings Center for Bioethics' Henry Knowles Beecher Award. She died on September 23, 2020, at age 92.
 
169Name:  Felix Frankfurter
 Year Elected:  1939
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1883
 Death Date:  2/22/1965
   
170Name:  Dr. John Hope Franklin
 Institution:  Duke University & University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1973
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1915
 Death Date:  March 25, 2009
   
 
John Hope Franklin was the James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of History and for seven years was Professor of Legal History in the Law School at Duke University. He was a native of Oklahoma and a graduate of Fisk University. Dr. Franklin received his A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in history from Harvard University and taught at a number of institutions, including Fisk University, St. Augustine's College, North Carolina Central University and Howard University. In 1956 he went to Brooklyn College as Chairman of the Department of History, and in 1964 he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago, serving as Chairman of the Department of History from 1967-70. At Chicago, he was the John Matthews Manly Distinguished Service Professor from 1969-82, when he became Professor Emeritus. With fellow APS member Ying-Shih Yu, Dr.Franklin shared the 2006 John W. Kluge Prize for the Study of Humanity. Professor Franklin's numerous publications include The Emancipation Proclamation, The Militant South, The Free Negro in North Carolina, Reconstruction After the Civil War and A Southern Odyssey: Travelers in the Ante-bellum North. Perhaps his best known book is From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African-Americans (1947), now in its ninth edition. His Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities for 1976 was published in 1985 and received the Clarence L. Holte Literary Prize for that year. In 1990, a collection of essays covering a teaching and writing career of fifty years was published under the title Race and History: Selected Essays, 1938-1988, and in 1993 he published The Color Line: Legacy for the Twenty-first Century. His most recent work is Mirror to America: The Autobiography of John Hope Franklin (2005). Professor Franklin was also active in numerous professional and educational organizations and for many years served on the editorial board of the Journal of Negro History. He is often spoken of as the outstanding African-American historian in the United States. A man of exceptional objectivity and fairness, he has said that the challenge of his work has been to "weave into the fabric of American history enough of the presence of blacks so that the story of the United States could be told adequately and fairly." In 2006 Dr. Franklin was presented with the American Philosophical Society's Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Public Service. The citation read "in recognition of his achievement as the first American black scholar to break triumphantly through the color barrier when he was appointed Chair of the Brooklyn College History Department in 1956, and in recognition of his pioneering role in rescuing African-American history from oblivion through seventy years of powerful scholarship and teaching, the American Philosophical Society salutes John Hope Franklin. His life-long commitment to civil rights for all Americans, and his life-long determination to combat racism in all of its ugly forms, has liberated us all." John Hope Franklin died in 2009 at the age of 94. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1973.
 
171Name:  Douglass Southall Freeman
 Year Elected:  1943
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1886
 Death Date:  6/13/1953
   
172Name:  Dr. Paul A. Freund
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1966
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1908
 Death Date:  2/5/92
   
173Name:  Dr. Milton Friedman
 Institution:  University of Chicago & Hoover Institution
 Year Elected:  1957
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1912
 Death Date:  November 16, 2006
   
174Name:  Dr. Victor R. Fuchs
 Institution:  Stanford University & National Bureau of Economic Research
 Year Elected:  1990
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1924
   
 
Victor Fuchs is the Henry J. Kaiser, Jr., Professor of Economics and of Health Research and Policy, Emeritus at Stanford University; a Freeman Spogli Institute senior fellow; and a core faculty member at Stanford's Center for Health Policy/Primary Care and Outcomes Research. He uses economic theory to provide a framework for the collection and analysis of healthcare data. Dr. Fuchs has written extensively on the cost of medical care and on determinants of health, with an emphasis on the role of socioeconomic factors. He has been particularly interested in the role of physician behavior and financial incentives in determining healthcare expenditures. His current research examines inequality in the length of life, individual and social responsibility for health, and the economics of aging. He is also developing a proposal for a "universal healthcare voucher" system in which all families or individuals would be given a voucher -- financed by an earmarked value-added tax -- that would guarantee them coverage in a private health insurance plan with a standardized package of benefits, including basic health services and catastrophic coverage. Dr. Fuchs received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1955. He is the author of works including Who Shall Live? Health, Economics and Social Choice (1974) and The Health Economy (1986). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Institute of Medicine.
 
175Name:  John Farquahar Fulton
 Year Elected:  1949
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1899
 Death Date:  5/29/1960
   
176Name:  Prof. François Furet
 Institution:  Centre de Recherches Politiques Raymond Aron
 Year Elected:  1989
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  7/12/97
   
177Name:  Dr. John Kenneth Galbraith
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1980
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1908
 Death Date:  April 30, 2006
   
178Name:  Dr. Peter Galison
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Peter Galison is a main shaper of new thinking in the history of science. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University both in theoretical particle physics and in the history of modern science, and his wide-ranging expertise and innovative mind are evident in books such as How Experiments End, Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics, and Einstein's Clocks and Poincaré's Maps. Dr. Galison has also published essays on such diverse topics as the links between Bauhaus architecture and the philosophy of the Vienna Circle, and on the development of cybernetics. He has taught at Harvard University since 1992. He was the Mallinckrodt Professor of the History of Science and of Physics, 1994-2007, and is currently the Joseph Pellegrino University Professor. From 1982-92 he taught at Stanford University, where he was the recipient of a Distinguished Teaching Award. Dr. Galison's other honors include a MacArthur Fellowship and the Max Planck Research Award for International Cooperation. His latest work is a documentary film titled "Secrecy". Made with Harvard lecturer Robb Moss and screened at the Sundance Film Festival, it explores the complicated role that classified activity has played in American political affairs and in democracy at large. In 2018 he received the Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics.
 
179Name:  Dr. Howard Gardner
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Howard Gardner is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. A developmental psychologist by training, he has conducted research and written books in several areas, including developmental psychology, neuropsychology, cognitive science, arts education, structuralism, leadership, intelligence, ethics, creativity, and precollegiate education. Dr. Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists a single general intelligence that can be adequately assessed by psychometric instruments. Part of the original team of researchers at Project Zero when it was established by Nelson Goodman in 1967, Gardner went on to become co-director, then senior director. His research with Project Zero includes The Good Project (formerly the GoodWork Project), which promotes "excellence, engagement, and ethics in education, preparing students to become good workers and good citizens who contribute to the overall well-being of society," and Higher Education in the 20th Century, a large-scale national study of college today. Recently, he and colleagues on The Good Project have been studying the fate of professions during a time of rapid change and enormous market pressures. The recipient of 31 honorary degrees, Dr. Gardner received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship in 1981. He is the author of 30 books, notably Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983); the most recent of which are Extraordinary minds: Portraits of exceptional individuals and an examination of our extraordinariness (1997), The disciplined mind: What all students should understand (1999), Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st Century (1999), Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people’s minds (2004), and The App Generation (2013). Among his many awards are the Grawemeyer Award in Education, University of Louisville (1990), Presidential Citation, American Educational Research Association (1996), Presidential Citation, American Psychological Association (1998), George Ledlie Prize, President and Fellows of Harvard College (2000), Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, Pio Manzù (2001), Prince of Asturias Prize in Social Science (2011), Brock International Prize in Education (2015), and the Distinguished Contributions to Research in Education Award, the premier honor from the American Educational Research Association (2020).
 
180Name:  Thomas S. Gates
 Year Elected:  1930
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1873
 Death Date:  4/8/1948
   
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