American Philosophical Society
Member History

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Residency
International[X]
Class
3. Social Sciences[X]
1Name:  Raymond C. F. Aron
 Year Elected:  1966
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1905
 Death Date:  10/17/83
   
2Name:  Dr. Georges Balandier
 Institution:  Universite Rene Descartes & l' Ecole des Hautes
 Year Elected:  1976
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  October 5, 2016
   
 
A comparative anthropologist in the great French tradition, Georges Balandier was born in France in 1920. He completed his doctoral studies at the Sorbonne in 1946, became a professor of sociology there in 1962. Through UNESCO and similar agencies, he was a leading international figure in comparative structural studies. The author of important works such as Sociologie Actuelle de l'Afrique Noire and Sens et Puissance, Dr. Balandier was the recipient of the Chevalier des Palmes Academiques and the Medaille du Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, among other awards. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1976. He died October 5, 2016, at age 95 in Paris, France.
 
3Name:  Dr. Kenneth Bourne
 Institution:  London School of Economics, University of London
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  12/13/92
   
4Name:  Professor Karl Dietrich Bracher
 Institution:  University of Bonn
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  September 19, 2016
   
 
Karl Bracher is considered by German historians and analysts alike to be a pathbreaker in scholarly analyses of the Nazi regime. After receiving his D. Phil. from the University of Tübingen in 1948, he taught at the Free University of Berlin from 1955-58 before moving to the University of Bonn in 1959 as a professor of political science and contemporary history. In books such as Turning Points in Modern Times (1995), Dr. Bracher has constructed arguments against dictatorship, illuminated threats to democracy and offered blueprints for coming to terms with the legacies of Nazism, fascism and Communism. As a founder of the "new history" of Germany, he is known for considering historical events through the theories of social science and the values of liberalism and democracy. His book The German Dictatorship (1970), a penetrating and incisive study of Adolf Hitler, is considered to be his crowning achievement. Dr. Bracher is a past president of the German Association of Political Science and was a fellow of the Institute for Advanced Studies of Stanford and Princeton Universities. He became a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1971, the American Philosophical Society in 1978, and the British Academy in 1976.
 
5Name:  Ferdnand P. A. Braudel
 Year Elected:  1964
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1902
 Death Date:  11/28/85
   
6Name:  Dr. Nicholas Canny
 Institution:  Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities and Social Studies, National University of Ireland, Galway
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Nicholas Canny, a historian, has been a Member of the Scientific Council of the European Research Council since 2011. He held an Established Chair in History at the National University of Ireland, Galway, 1979-2009, where he also served as Founding Director of the Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities, 2000-11, and as Vice President for Research, 2005-8. He was President of the Royal Irish Academy 2008-11and in 2020 received it's highest honor, the Cunningham Medal. He is a Member of Academia Europaea, a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy and of the Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid). He was elected a Member of the American Philosophical Society in 2007. He has been a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton; professeur invité at the École des Hautes Études, Paris, and was Parnell Senior Research Fellow at Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, 2005-6. An expert on early modern history broadly defined, he edited the first volume of The Oxford History of the British Empire (1998) and, with Philip D. Morgan, edited The Oxford Handbook of the Atlantic World, c1450-c1850 (2011). His major book is Making Ireland British, 1580-1650 (Oxford, 2001), for which he was awarded the Irish Historical Research Prize 2003; a prize he had previously won in 1976 for his first book The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: a Pattern Established, 1565-76. He was invited to give the Raleigh Lecture for 2011 to the British Academy which has been published as ‘A Protestant or Catholic Atlantic World? Confessional Divisions and the Writing of Natural History’ in Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 181, pp. 83-121.
 
7Name:  Edward Hallett Carr
 Year Elected:  1967
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1892
 Death Date:  11/--/82
   
8Name:  Dr. Jorge G. Castañeda
 Institution:  New York University; National Autonomous University of Mexico
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
Jorge G. Castañeda has been Global Distinguished Professor of Politics and Latin American and Caribbean Studies at New York University since 1997. He was Foreign Minister of Mexico for three years under the Vicente Fox administration and served as professor of political science at the National Autonomous University of Mexico from 1978 to 2003. He has also been a visiting professor at Princeton University, the University of California, Berkeley, Cambridge University, the University of Paris and Dartmouth University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Paris in 1978. For three decades Jorge Castañeda has been a leading public intellectual, publishing widely in French, English and Spanish. He is the author of numerous books on political mobilization, political succession and international relations. Limits To Friendship: The United States and Mexico (1988) outlines the difficulties of foreign relations with a superpower; The Mexican Shock: Its Meaning for the United States (1995) examines the ways in which free trade has affected binational issues; and Perpetuating Power: How Mexican Presidents Were Chosen (2000) elucidates the byzantine process by which Mexico’s ruling party selected its presidents. He is also the author of Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War (1993) and Compañero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara (1997). His most recent book is Ex Mex: Mexicans in the U.S. – from Migrants to Immigrants (2008). Jorge Castañeda was an outspoken critic of the country’s autocratic political system prior to its transition to open elections in 2000. He has been active with a number of human rights organizations, serving on the board of directors of Human Rights Watch, as a member of Project Syndicate, and as senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He was awarded a MacArthur Foundation Grant in 1989. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
9Name:  Dr. Carlo M. Cipolla
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1981
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  September 5, 2000
   
10Name:  M. Michel Crozier
 Institution:  Center for the Sociology of Organizations
 Year Elected:  1975
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  May 24, 2013
   
 
French sociologist Michel Crozier was founder and director of the Centre de Sociologie des Organisations in Paris. One of the world's leading authorities on modern social organization and a critical analyst of bureaucracy, Dr. Crozier became a member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques in 1999. He was also an officer of the Légion d'honneur and a commander of the Ordre National du Mérite as well as a laureate of the Prix Tocqueville. His major works include The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (1963), The World of the Office Worker (1965), The Crisis of Democracy (1975), Strategies for Change: The Future of French Society (1979) and The Trouble with America (1980), all of which have been translated into English. He was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 1975. Michel Crozier died May 24, 2013, at the age of 90 in Paris, France.
 
11Name:  Dr. Anne Cutler
 Institution:  University of Western Sydney, Australia
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1945
 Death Date:  June 7, 2022
   
 
Born in Australia, as a postwar baby-boomer, Anne Cutler could benefit from a little-known side-effect of the wartime disruption of Europe: the extraordinarily high quality of language teaching in 1950s Australian schools. Overqualified refugee academics surviving by teaching their native language included her Belgian high-school teacher of French, and her Austrian teacher of German (with a University of Vienna Ph.D.). This background led her to study languages - at Melbourne University, where, thanks to regulations mandating a "science subject" in BA degrees, she discovered psychology as well. Psycholinguistics, investigating language with the methods of experimental psychology, emerged as an independent discipline in nice time for her Ph.D. study (at the University of Texas). Her research has centred on the recognition of spoken language, beginning (in her Ph.D.) with the role of rhythm and intonation in comprehension; since these vary greatly across languages, this prompted her to cross-linguistic comparisons. Her most important discoveries have concerned how adult processing of spoken language is exquisitely adapted to suit the native language (making for great efficiency in listening to the native language, but difficulty in listening to structurally different foreign languages). Her research was conducted from 1982 to 1993 at the Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Unit in Cambridge, UK (which she joined after postdoctoral fellowships at MIT and the University of Sussex), and from 1993 at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, where she served as director until 2013. She is currently Research Professor at Australia's MARCS Institute at the University of Western Sydney. Her awards include the Spinoza Prize of the Dutch Science Council (1999); further, she is a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences, the Academia Europaea, the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, and the National Academy of Sciences (US).
 
12Name:  Lord Ralf Dahrendorf
 Institution:  House of Lords
 Year Elected:  1977
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  June 17, 2009
   
 
An outstanding figure in sociological theory, Lord Dahrendorf is also noted for his abilities as an academic statesman and scholarly administrator. Born in Hamburg, Germany in 1929, he studied at Hamburg University, becoming a doctor of philosophy and classics in 1956. He served as professor of sociology at Hamburg, Tübingen and Konstanz between 1957 and 1969, when he became a member of the German Parliament. In 1970 he became a Commissioner in the European Commission in Brussels. With the exception of another stint in Konstanz as professor of social science from 1984-86, he has spent much of his time in the United Kingdom since 1974, when he was appointed director of the London School of Economics. He subsequently became a governor of the school in 1986 and from 1987-97 served as warden of St. Anthony's College at Oxford University. Having adopted British nationality in 1988, Lord Dahrendorf was granted a life peerage and was created Baron Dahrendorf of Clare Market in the City of Westminster by Queen Elizabeth II in 1993. He sits in the House of Lords as a crossbencher.
 
13Name:  Sir Partha Sarathi Dasgupta
 Institution:  University of Cambridge; St. John's College, Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Partha Dasgupta has made pathbreaking contributions to social science, particularly on connections between population growth, natural resource use, and human welfare in developing countries. His theoretical work offers deep insights into the institutional and social causes of excessive resource depletion there, while proposing effective remedial policies. Dr. Dasgupta's important research on the definition and measurement of human welfare has greatly advanced understanding of the necessary conditions for sustainable development. He has detailed the crucial roles played by life-sustaining services provided by environmental assets in poorer countries, and the institutional reforms necessary to avoid serious environmental and social collapses in those countries. Educated at the University of Cambridge (Ph.D., 1968), Dr. Dasgupta went on to teach at the London School of Economics (1978-84) and Stanford University (1989-92), where he also directed the Program on Ethics and Society, before returning to Cambridge in 1985. In 1996 he was appointed Frank Ramsey Professor of Economics at Cambridge, and in 2007 he began a six year term as A.D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1991); the National Academy of Sciences (2001); the Royal Economic Society (president, 1998-2001); and the Royal Society (2004), Dr. Dasgupta has also been honored with the Volvo Environment Prize (2002) and the Ecological Economics Association's Kenneth Boulding Prize (2004). In 2016 he was selected as the Tyler Prize Laureate.
 
14Name:  Dr. Stanislas Dehaene
 Institution:  Collège de France
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1965
   
 
Stanislas Dehaene was initially trained in mathematics, at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1984), before receiving his PhD in cognitive psychology at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (1989), under the direction of psycholinguist Jacques Mehler. He simultaneously developed neuronal models of cognitive functions with molecular neurobiologist Jean-Pierre Changeux (1987-present). After a post-doctoral stay with Michael Posner at the University of Oregon, he oriented his research towards the cognitive neuroscience of language and mathematical abilities. His experiments use brain imaging methods to investigate the mechanisms of cognitive functions such as reading, calculation and language processing, with a particular interest for the differences between conscious and non-conscious processing. Since 2005, he teaches at the Collège de France, where he holds the chair of Experimental Cognitive Psychology. He also directs the INSERM-CEA Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit at NeuroSpin in Saclay, just south of Paris -- France’s advanced neuroimaging research center.
 
15Name:  Professor Mireille Delmas-Marty
 Institution:  French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences; Collège de France
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1941
 Death Date:  February 12, 2022
   
 
Mireille Delmas-Marty is a French jurist, honorary professor at the Collège de France and a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of the French Institute. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Paris II in 1969. She has been a leader in European law reform projects, including the Criminal Code Reform Commission. She presided over the commission on “Criminal Justice and Human Rights” and coordinated the Committee of Experts of the European Union on the project “Corpus Juris.” She developed new standards that found a place in the work of the Supervisory Committee of the European Anti-Fraud Office. She has participated in the landmark effort for the President of the French Republic to revise the Constitution in 1992, the reform of the Penal Code in 1981 and the reform of criminal procedure in 1988. She is one of the international leaders in the comparative study of criminal law. Mireille Delmas-Marty's publications include: Les grands systèmes de politique criminelle, 1992; Le flou du droit, 1986; Pour un droit commun, 1994; Trois défis pour un droit mondial, 1998; Libertés et sureté dans un monde dangereux, 2010; Les forces imaginantes du droit, série en 4 volumes: Le relatif et l’universel, (2004), Le Pluralisme ordonné, (2006), La refondation des pouvoirs, (2007), Vers une communauté de valeurs?, (2011); Résister, responsabiliser, anticiper, 2013; Le travail à l’heure de la mondialisation, 2013; Aux quatre vents du monde, petit guide de navigation sur l’océan de la mondialisation, 2016. Her honors include: National Order of Merit (France), 2003; Beccaria Prize, International Society of Social Defense, 2007; Jeschek Prize, International Association of Penal Law, 2008; Prominent Woman in International Law Award, American Society of International Law, 2012; Grand Officer, Franch Order of the Legion of Honour, 2016. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2021.
 
16Name:  Dr. Jorge Durand
 Institution:  Princeton University; University of Guadalajara
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Jorge Durand is a Visiting Professor at Princeton University, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Guadalajara, México, and Co-Director, with Douglas S. Massey, of the Mexican Migration Project and the Latin American Migration Project sponsored by Princeton University and the University of Guadalajara. He is a member of the Mexican Academy of Sciences, a foreign member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a member of the American Philosophical Society. He was educated at the Universidad Iberoamericana (BA), El Colegio de Michoacán (MA), and the University of Toulouse - Le Mirail, France (Ph.D.). He is the author of La ciudad invade al ejido (1983) and Los obreros de Río Grande (1985). He has studied and written about Mexican migration to the United States for the last 20 years. His publications in this field include: Return to Aztlan (1987); Más allá de la línea (1984); Miracles on the Border (1995); Migrations mexicaines aux Etats-Unis (1995); La experiencia migrante (2000); Beyond Smoke and Mirrors (2002); and Clandestinos. Migración mexicana en los albores del siglo XX (2003).
 
17Name:  Prof. Jean-Baptiste Duroselle
 Institution:  Sorbonne & Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques
 Year Elected:  1975
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  9/12/94
   
18Name:  Dr. Shmuel Eisenstadt
 Institution:  Hebrew University
 Year Elected:  1973
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  September 2, 2010
   
 
Israeli sociologist Shmuel Eisenstadt was the Rose Isaacs Professor of Sociology Emeritus at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and worked at the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute. A truly international scholar, he applied in his work a comparative-studies approach to Jewish, Japanese, and European cultures. Known worldwide as a synthesizer and a bridge-builder to other disciplines, Prof. Eisenstadt coined the concept of "multiple modernities", according to which each civilization has its own strengths and weaknesses between which there can develop strong contestations. This concept is antithetical to that of a clash of civilizations. The author of works including Modernization, Protest and Change (1966), The Protestant Ethic and Change (1968) and Tradition, Change and Modernity (1992), Explorations in Jewish Historical Experience: The Civilizational Dimension (2004). Prof. Eisenstadt was also the editor of Multiple Modernities (2002). A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences, he held a Ph. D. from the Hebrew University and was recognized with awards including the Balzan Prize, the Max Planck research prize and the Holberg International Memorial Prize for 2006. S. N. Eisenstadt died on September 2, 2010, at the age of 87, at home in Jerusalem.
 
19Name:  Dr. Ernest Andre Gellner
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  1993
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  11/5/95
   
20Name:  Sir Raymond W. Firth
 Institution:  University of London
 Year Elected:  1965
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1901
 Death Date:  February 22, 2002
   
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