American Philosophical Society
Member History

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3. Social Sciences[X]
1Name:  Dr. Nicholas Canny
 Institution:  Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities and Social Studies, National University of Ireland, Galway
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Nicholas Canny, a historian, has been a Member of the Scientific Council of the European Research Council since 2011. He held an Established Chair in History at the National University of Ireland, Galway, 1979-2009, where he also served as Founding Director of the Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities, 2000-11, and as Vice President for Research, 2005-8. He was President of the Royal Irish Academy 2008-11and in 2020 received it's highest honor, the Cunningham Medal. He is a Member of Academia Europaea, a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy and of the Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid). He was elected a Member of the American Philosophical Society in 2007. He has been a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton; professeur invité at the École des Hautes Études, Paris, and was Parnell Senior Research Fellow at Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, 2005-6. An expert on early modern history broadly defined, he edited the first volume of The Oxford History of the British Empire (1998) and, with Philip D. Morgan, edited The Oxford Handbook of the Atlantic World, c1450-c1850 (2011). His major book is Making Ireland British, 1580-1650 (Oxford, 2001), for which he was awarded the Irish Historical Research Prize 2003; a prize he had previously won in 1976 for his first book The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: a Pattern Established, 1565-76. He was invited to give the Raleigh Lecture for 2011 to the British Academy which has been published as ‘A Protestant or Catholic Atlantic World? Confessional Divisions and the Writing of Natural History’ in Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 181, pp. 83-121.
 
2Name:  Dr. Susan E. Carey
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Susan Carey is Henry A. Morss, Jr. and Elizabeth W. Morss Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. Her research illuminates the development and nature of human knowledge and charts the intuitive theories that organize children's and adults' concepts of numbers, living things and the material world. Concepts are the basic units of thought. Dr. Carey has shown how children's concepts gain meaning and functional use from theories they construct about the world, starting from a few innate notions. She initiated modern experimental studies of children's understanding of numbers and counting, of physical causation, and of biology with its associated concepts of person, animal, and living thing, arguing for parallels between infants' developing concepts of number and causality and similar changes over mankind's intellectual history. She has also made seminal contributions to areas such as language acquisition, cognitive neuroscience, comparative primate cognition, and science education. Her research sheds light on children's thought and language and shows how educators can enhance the teaching of science and mathematics. Dr. Carey has been a Fulbright Fellow and William James Fellow and has been elected a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2001) and the National Academy of Sciences (2002).
 
3Name:  Dr. Anne Cutler
 Institution:  University of Western Sydney, Australia
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1945
 Death Date:  June 7, 2022
   
 
Born in Australia, as a postwar baby-boomer, Anne Cutler could benefit from a little-known side-effect of the wartime disruption of Europe: the extraordinarily high quality of language teaching in 1950s Australian schools. Overqualified refugee academics surviving by teaching their native language included her Belgian high-school teacher of French, and her Austrian teacher of German (with a University of Vienna Ph.D.). This background led her to study languages - at Melbourne University, where, thanks to regulations mandating a "science subject" in BA degrees, she discovered psychology as well. Psycholinguistics, investigating language with the methods of experimental psychology, emerged as an independent discipline in nice time for her Ph.D. study (at the University of Texas). Her research has centred on the recognition of spoken language, beginning (in her Ph.D.) with the role of rhythm and intonation in comprehension; since these vary greatly across languages, this prompted her to cross-linguistic comparisons. Her most important discoveries have concerned how adult processing of spoken language is exquisitely adapted to suit the native language (making for great efficiency in listening to the native language, but difficulty in listening to structurally different foreign languages). Her research was conducted from 1982 to 1993 at the Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Unit in Cambridge, UK (which she joined after postdoctoral fellowships at MIT and the University of Sussex), and from 1993 at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, where she served as director until 2013. She is currently Research Professor at Australia's MARCS Institute at the University of Western Sydney. Her awards include the Spinoza Prize of the Dutch Science Council (1999); further, she is a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences, the Academia Europaea, the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, and the National Academy of Sciences (US).
 
4Name:  Dr. John W. Dower
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
John Dower has been Ford International Professor of History at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 2003. He holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University and has also taught at the University of Wisconsin and the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Dower has achieved remarkable success in four areas: academic writing on modern Japanese history; writing for popular audiences; curriculum development; and public spokesman on current affairs related to East Asian and United States security policies. His books have won the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award, the Bancroft Prize, and the National Book Critics Circle Award. They include Empire and Aftermath: Yoshida Shigeru and the Japanese Experience, 1878-1954 (1979); War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986); and Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (1999). In over 15 years at MIT, Dr. Dower has shaped the institute's history curriculum and has taught popular courses on Japanese history and World War II.
 
5Name:  Dr. John R. Anderson
 Institution:  Carnegie Mellon University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
As winner of his field's highest honors, member of most honorary societies, recipient of numerous research grants, and publisher of hundreds of important articles and influential books, John Anderson has made numerous critically important contributions to cognitive psychology. These include: production of large scale architectures of human cognition that predict behavior from sensory input and perception to cognition, decision making and motor behavior; initiation of the field's movement to encompass adaptation to the demands of the environment, in large part through Bayesian modeling; the bringing of scientific models to practical applications in education, with highly successful computer based algebra and programming tutors; experimental demonstrations using functional magnetic resonance imaging that his system architecture is implemented in the brain in neural systems; and the linkage of formal behavioral models with neural architectures. His impact is hinted at by an enormous yearly citation count but goes well beyond this measure. Dr. Anderson is one of the pre-eminent cognitive scientists/psychologists in the world today. Since 2002 he has been Richard King Mellon Professor of Psychology and Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, where he has taught since 1978. He has also served on the Yale University faculty and holds a Ph.D. from Stanford University. Most recent among his numerous awards is the 2011 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science from the Franklin Institute.
 
6Name:  Dr. Robert O. Keohane
 Institution:  Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Robert O. Keohane is a professor of public and international affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. He is the author of After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (1984) and Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World (2002). He is co-author (with Joseph S. Nye, Jr.) of Power and Interdependence (third edition 2001) and (with Gary King and Sidney Verba) Designing Social Inquiry (1994). Dr. Keohane has taught at Swarthmore College and Stanford, Brandeis, Harvard and Duke Universities. At Harvard he was Stanfield Professor of International Peace, and at Duke he was the James B. Duke Professor of Political Science. Professor Keohane obtained his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1966. Between 1974 and 1980 he was editor of the journal International Organization. He has also been president of the International Studies Association (1988-89) and of the American Political Science Association (1999-2000). Dr. Keohane is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has held a Guggenheim Fellowship and fellowships at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and the National Humanities Center. He was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science in 2005 and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences that same year. He was listed as the most influential scholar of international relations in a 2005 Foreign Policy poll.
 
7Name:  Dr. Ronald D. Lee
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Professor Ronald Lee holds an M.A. in Demography from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University. He spent a postdoctoral year at the National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED, France). After teaching for eight years at the University of Michigan in the Economics Department and working at the Populations Studies Center, he joined Demography at Berkeley in 1979, with a joint appointment in Economics. He has taught courses here in economic demography, population theory, population and economic development, demographic forecasting, population aging, indirect estimation, and research design, as well as a number of pro-seminars. Honors include Presidency of the Population Association of America, the Mindel C. Sheps Award for research in Mathematical Demography, the PAA Irene B. Taeuber Award for outstanding contributions in the field of demography. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Philosophical Society and a corresponding member of the British Academy . He has chaired the population and social science study section for NIH and is a former chair of the NAS Committee on Population. He has served on the National Advisory Council on Aging and currently serves on the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council. Professor Lee is the founding Director of the Center for the Economics and Demography of Aging at UC Berkeley, funded by the National Institute of Aging. He has received MERIT awards from NIA for two projects. His research projects include modeling and forecasting demographic time series, population aging and intergenerational transfers, evolutionary theory, and public pensions. He is married to Melissa L. Nelken and has three daughters. He enjoys tennis and hiking.
 
8Name:  Dr. Lawrence Lessig
 Institution:  Harvard Law School
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1961
   
 
Perhaps the world's leading scholar of law and the Internet, Lawrence Lessig is an expert on the effects of new digital technologies on traditional assumptions about copyright and constitutional law. His dazzling contributions to public debate about the balance between ownership of intellectual property and freedom of ideas extend beyond the academy. Author of three pioneering books and numerous articles on ideas and innovation in cyberspace, he is also the founder of Creative Commons, an international consortium of artists, scholars and writers who agree to allow others to use their work more broadly than ordinary copyright permits. In updating his now-classic book, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, he invited readers to contribute to the editing process itself, expanding the definition of a commons from physical space to the world of ideas. Lessig was a Professor of Law at Stanford Law School and founder of the school's Center for Internet and Society before he was appointed professor of law at Harvard Law School and director of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics at Harvard 2009 to 2015. He is currently Roy L. Furman Professor of Law and Leadership at Harvard Law School. Dr. Lessig previously served on the faculty of Harvard Law School, where he was the Berkman Professor of Law, and he has also taught at the University of Chicago. Professor Lessig earned a BA in economics and a BS in management from the University of Pennsylvania, an MA in philosophy from Cambridge, and a JD from Yale. He clerked for Judge Richard Posner on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals and Justice Antonin Scalia on the United States Supreme Court. Professor Lessig represented web site operator Eric Eldred in the ground-breaking case Eldred v. Ashcroft, a challenge to the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. Professor Lessig is the author of The Future of Ideas (2001), Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (1999), Free Culture (2004), Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress - and a Plan to Stop It (2011), and America, Compromised (2018). He serves on the board of the Free Software Foundation, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the Public Library of Science, and Public Knowledge. He is also a columnist for Wired. Lessig has won numerous awards, including the Free Software Foundation's Freedom Award, and was named one of Scientific American's Top 50 Visionaries, for arguing "against interpretations of copyright that could stifle innovation and discourse online." He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2007.
 
9Name:  Dr. Stanley Lieberson
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  March 19 2018
   
 
Stanley Lieberson was the Abbott Lawrence Lowell Research Professor of Sociology at Harvard University. He was born in Montreal and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. After two years at Brooklyn College, he was admitted to the graduate program at the University of Chicago, where he earned an M.A. and Ph.D. in Sociology. He taught at a number of institutions and had been a Professor of Sociology at Harvard University since 1988. Lieberson was named the Abbott Lawrence Lowell Professor of Sociology in 1991. Much of his career involved work on race and ethnic relations in both the United States and elsewhere. His dissertation won the University's Colver-Rosenberger Prize, and was later revised and published by the Free Press as Ethnic Patterns in American Cities. He wrote a number of other books dealing with race and ethnic relations, along with numerous papers on this topic in the leading journals. One of these books, A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880, received the Distinguished Contribution to Scholarship Award of the American Sociological Association. In later years, he had developed two new interests: one is a re-examination of the reasoning underlying our research. This led to the publication of Making It Count: The Improvement of Social Research and Theory. The second new interest was in using first names to study how tastes and fashions operate and, in turn, contribute to an understanding as to how cultural change occurs. A Matter of Taste: How Names, Fashions, and Culture Change (Yale University Press, 2000), used first names as a way to uncover the stunningly orderly mechanisms underlying changes in tastes and fashions, as well as cultural changes more generally. The book was the co-winner, Best Book in the Sociology of Culture, Culture Section (2001) from the American Sociological Association, and the winner of the Mirra Komarovsky Book Award, Eastern Sociological Society (2002). Lieberson's long-term project was to develop a new approach to a wide variety of issues connected with the use of evidence in the non-experimental social sciences. Lieberson was a President of the American Sociological Association, the Sociological Research Association, and the Pacific Sociological Association. He was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality at Stanford University. He was the co-recipient of the Paul M. Lazarsfeld Award for contributions in Methodology from the American Sociological Association. Lieberson was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and was named an honorary member of the Harvard College chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2007. Stanley Lieberson died March 19, 2018, at the age of 84, in Newton, Massachusetts.
 
10Name:  Dr. David R. Mayhew
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
David R. Mayhew: I have been watching and trying to understand American politics since I was eleven or so. I remember the vote in my elementary school homeroom in 1948 in which Truman beat Dewey by 17 to 6. Later I came to realize that that was roughly a religious census of my Connecticut village with the Catholics voting one way and the Protestants the other. I started collecting newspaper and magazine articles about politics in 1950. I kept a choice Saturday Evening Post article, for example, telling how Everett Dirksen won his Illinois Senate seat that year. Only recently have I heaved out most of this material. At age seventy I am downsizing my possessions. Once in college I enlisted in political science quickly. It was at Amherst College in 1954. As a first-semester freshman I took a political science course replete with seniors and juniors where I earned a C+. This was not a good beginning. But I kept at it under the tutelage of Earl Latham, Karl Loewenstein, Dick Fenno, George Kateb and others, wrote a senior essay addressing the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1957, and then went on to a Ph.D at the Harvard Government Department. There I was lucky enough to work with Louis Hartz, Sam Beer, Bob McCloskey, and, as my dissertation advisor, V.O. Key, Jr. All of these figures had a vigorous interest in history. I grew into that interest too, and I pursued it at Harvard in courses taught by many of the American history specialists there at that time-Frank Freidel, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Oscar Handlin, and Bernard Bailyn. The roots of American policymaking is probably as good a tagline as any for my core interest as a professional academic. I have pursued that interest in a variety of writings at UMass/Amherst in the 1960s and at Yale University starting in 1968. A taste for simple statistics, time series, and history has gone into those writings. Parties, elections, institutional configurations, individual initiative, public moods, wars, and events in general have figured as routes to explanation or at least, I hope, illumination. Although not all that consciously, I probably followed V.O. Key, Jr., more than anyone else in developing this package of tendencies. Another powerful intellectual influence, though, was the Yale Political Science Department of the 1970s. From Robert Dahl and others I learned that a book could consist of a decently worked-out argument centering on rational action and could be short. In that spirit that I crafted a 1974 work, Congress: The Electoral Connection. If members of Congress are posited to be single-minded seekers of reelection, I asked, what might the consequences be for institutional structure and policy? I came back to the model of a short, worked-out argument book in a 2002 work, Electoral Realignments: A Critique of an American Genre. Yet starting in the 1986 I have also written works based on complicated time-series datasets that I spent a good deal of time and energy collecting and processing. In Divided We Govern (1991, since updated) I explored the consequences for legislative production of having unified as opposed to divided party control of the U.S. national government. There hasn't been a great deal of difference. Under divided party control have come, for example, the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, the Marshall Plan in 1948, the Federal Highway Act of 1956, the Clean Air Act of 1970, the Reagan tax cuts of 1981, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and the Iraq Resolution of 2002. In America's Congress (2000), I took a look at individual initiative engaged in by members of Congress from the days of James Madison in the early 1790s-as he spurred a House-based opposition to Alexander Hamilton-through the days of Edward Kennedy and John McCain. Lately I have investigated the role of events, notably wars, in generating policy and electoral change. Currently I am aiming toward a short book on U.S. separation of powers. With the often clanking relations between Senate, House, and presidency, why doesn't the American system fall apart?
 
11Name:  Dr. Jack Rakove
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Jack Rakove is the Coe Professor of History and American Studies and a professor of politial science at Stanford University. Long a leading authority on American constitutional, political, and legal history, he is the author of more than sixty scholarly articles critically analyzing issues from the Revolution to the early years of the Republic. Central to his work has been the analysis of the constitutional concept of "original intent." His books on the subject have won several prizes, including the Pulitzer Prize in History in 1997. He is also the author of an interpretive history of the Continental Congress and the American Library's edition of James Madison's writings. In line with his commitment to the public value of such scholarly issues, aside from his vigorous classroom teaching, he has, over the course of twenty years, also published scores of articles on constitutional and legal issues in major newspapers around the nation. His book The Annotated U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence is intended to continue his legacy of making constitutional issues available to the lay public, and his 2010 book Revolutionaries takes a look at the individual transformations made by both the well-known and the less well-known founders of America.
 
12Name:  Dr. Viviana Zelizer
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Viviana A. Zelizer, Lloyd Cotsen '50 Professor of Sociology at Princeton University, analyzes the interplay of economic activity and social practices with special reference to American experience from the 19th century onward. She is the author of books on life insurance, the value of children, and the social meaning of money. Her most recent book, The Purchase of Intimacy (Princeton University Press, 2005) deals with the integration of a variety of economic circumstances and intimate personal ties, both in everyday practice and in the law. It includes the formation of couples, the provision of personal care, and social relations within households.
 
Election Year
2007[X]