American Philosophical Society
Member History

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Class
2. Biological Sciences[X]
Subdivision
204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology[X]
1Name:  Dr. Robert Austrian
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
 Year Elected:  1987
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  March 25, 2007
   
2Name:  Dr. Clyde Frederick Barker
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society; University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Clyde F. Barker is a native of Salt Lake City and a graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy, Cornell University, and Cornell University Medical College. His internship and residency in surgery were at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, where he has served his entire academic and professional career. Following residency training he was a fellow in vascular surgery and then a postdoctoral fellow in medical genetics under Rupert Billingham, studying transplantation biology. He was appointed to the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in 1966 and became Professor of Surgery in 1973. From 1966 to 2001 he was Chief of Transplantation Surgery and, from 1982 to 2001, Chief of the Division of Vascular Surgery. From 1983 to 2001 he was the John Rhea Barton Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery, and Director of the Harrison Department of Surgical Research. He is now Donald Guthrie Professor of Surgery. The Clyde F. Barker Transplant House at University of Pennsylvania Hospital is named in his honor. Clyde Barker’s research interests have been primarily in transplantation, especially transplantation of the kidney and pancreas and of isolated pancreatic islets. His research was continuously funded for more than 25 years by grants from the National Institutes of Health, including an NIH Merit Award from 1987-95. He has published more than 400 scientific papers and has served on 12 editorial boards, including the Journal of Surgical Research, Diabetes, Transplantation, Archives of Surgery, Surgery, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, and The Annals of Surgery. Clyde Barker is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and the Association of American Physicians. He has been President of the American Society of Transplantation Surgeons, the International Society of Surgery, and the American Surgical Association. He has served as visiting professor at 80 different universities and is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. He is the recipient of lifetime achievement awards from the American College of Surgeons and the Society of University Surgeons, the 2007 Jonathan E. Rhoads Medal for Distinguished Achievement in Medicine, the Thomas E. Starzl Prize in 2009, and the 2010 Medawar Prize from the Transplantation Society. The Medawar Prize is recognized as the world’s highest award dedicated to the outstanding contributions in the field of transplantation. In 2010 he was awarded the American Philosophical Society’s Henry Allen Moe Prize in the Humanities in recognition of his Jayne Lecture delivered to the members of the Society at its 2007 November Meeting and published in the Society’s Proceedings, March 2009, entitled "Thomas Eakins and His Medical Clinics." Clyde Barker was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1997 and has served on Council and as a Vice President. He served as the Society’s President from April 2011 through April 2017.
 
3Name:  Dr. Alexander G. Bearn
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society
 Year Elected:  1972
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  May 15, 2009
   
 
Alexander G. Bearn was Executive Officer of the American Philosophical Society from 1997 until his retirement in 2002. A physician, scientist and author, Dr. Bearn became a member of the Society in 1972 and served as a vice president from 1988-96. He received the Society's Benjamin Franklin Medal in 2001. The citation read "in recognition of distinguished contributions as a physician and scientist, represented by his service as Stanton Griffis Distinguished Professor and Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Cornell University Medical College and Physician-in-Chief at the New York Hospital, as Senior Vice President for Medical and Scientific Affairs at Merck, Sharp and Dohme and as Editor of the American Journal of Medicine. The Society places on record its profound appreciation for his outstanding service, wise leadership and exemplary devotion to the life and work of the Society and its members. As Executive Officer, he revitalized the Society's meetings, instituted Mellon sabbatical fellowships in the humanities and social sciences, led the Society's gift support to record levels, created joint programs with scholarly societies in Sweden and the United Kingdom, oversaw the renovation of Philosophical Hall and the purchase of additional office space, launched a successful program of scientific exhibits, redefined the focus of the Society's publications and, not least, brought to these and all his dealings a warmth, grace and generosity of spirit which have enlivened and enriched the corporate life of the Society. In expressing its admiration and gratitude for Dr. Bearn's enlightened leadership, the Society also places on record its best wishes for a long and happy retirement and its anticipation of a long continuing association with him as one of the Society's most eminent members. It hereby awards to him its highest honor in recognition of his loyal and devoted service, and as a mark of the admiration, appreciation and affection of its members." Dr. Bearn was educated in England, and received his M.B., B.S. and M.D. degrees from the University of London. He came to the U.S. in 1951 for the first time to work at Rockefeller University for one year and soon embarked on the study of genetics of rare metabolic diseases. In 1964 he was named professor and senior physician. In 1966 Dr. Bearn was appointed professor and chairman of the department of medicine at Cornell University Medical College and physician-in-chief of New York Hospital. He established the first human genetics laboratory at the Medical College and with former Rockefeller colleagues initiated the joint M.D./Ph.D. program between the institutions. He remained at Cornell until 1979 when he was named senior vice-president for medical and scientific affairs of Merck, Sharpe & Dohme, International Division, a post he held until 1988. A frequent lecturer and author of numerous scientific articles, Dr. Bearn is also the author of Archibald Garrod and the Individuality of Man (Oxford, 1993), Sir Clifford Allbutt: Scholar and Physician (London, 2007), Sir Francis Richard Fraser; A Canny Scott Shapes British Medicine (Brighton, 2008). In 1970 Dr. Bearn joined the Rockefeller Board of Trustees and after serving for twenty-eight years, was elected emeritus trustee in 1998; he continues as a visiting professor and physician. In 2002 he received the David Rockefeller Award. Since 1987 Dr. Bearn has been a Trustee of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and has also served as a trustee of the Helen Hay Whitney Foundation, the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation and as an overseer of the Jackson Laboratory. He became a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1972 and is a member of its Institute of Medicine and numerous other academies and societies, including the Harvey Society (president 1972-73) and the American Society of Human Genetics (president, 1971).
 
4Name:  Dr. Richard John Bing
 Institution:  Huntington Medical Research Institutes & University of Southern California
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1909
 Death Date:  November 8, 2010
   
 
Richard J. Bing was born in Germany in 1909 and went on to become one of the great cardiologists of our time. In a career spanning more than sixty years, he pioneered the application of basic sciences to the study of the human heart. His early investigations were devoted to the mechanism of hypertension. He made seminal discoveries on the mechanism of congenital heart disease and of congestive heart failure by using physical and biochemical techniques and pioneered coincidence counting in the determination of coronary flow and in heart imaging. This work laid the foundation for modern PET scanning techniques. His investigation on cardiac metabolism showed that heart failure is related to possible defects in contractile proteins. Dr. Bing taught and conducted research at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Alabama and was chairman of medicine at Washington University's Veterans Administration Hospital. In 1959 he became chairman of the Department of Medicine at Wayne State University and in 1969 he was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Southern California. He joined Huntington Medical Research Institutes in 1969 to do biomedical research and also started the internal medicine residency program at Huntington Hospital. His major achievements there have included high-speed cinematography of coronary vessels and studies of the chemistry of the heart after a heart attack. Dr. Bing also followed a highly successful second career as a distinguished musician and composer. His chamber music has been performed by professional ensembles including the Chamber Players of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. His Mass had its premier performance by the Vienna Philharmonic at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna in 1993. Richard John Bing died on November 8, 2010, at the age of 101, at his home in the Los Angeles-area community of La Canada Flintridge.
 
5Name:  Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg
 Institution:  NASA Astrobiology Institute & Fox Chase Cancer Center & University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1986
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  April 5, 2011
   
 
Baruch S. Blumberg served as the President of the American Philosophical Society 2005-2011. He was a Distinguished Scientist at Fox Chase Cancer Center and University Professor of Medicine and Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. From May 1999 until October 2002, he served as Director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute headquartered at Ames Research Center (ARC). He was Senior Advisor to the Administrator of NASA (2000-01), and Principal Scientist of the NASA Division of Fundamental Space Biology (2002-04). In October 2008 he was appointed Distinguished Scientist at ARC associated with the NASA Lunar Science Institute and the Astrobiology Institute. He was Master of Balliol College, Oxford University, from 1989 to 1994 and, prior to that, Associate Director for Clinical Research at Fox Chase. He was on the staff of the National Institutes of Health from 1957 to 1964. Dr. Blumberg earned his M.D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, in 1951 and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Oxford University in 1957. Dr. Blumberg's research covered many areas including clinical research, epidemiology, virology, genetics, anthropology, and space-related biological science. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1976 for "discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases" and specifically, for the discovery of the Hepatitis B virus. In 1993 he and his co-inventor, Dr. Irving Millman, were elected to the National Inventors Hall of Fame for their Hepatitis B vaccine and the diagnostic test for Hepatitis B. Dr. Blumberg was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1986. He died April 5, 2011, at the age of 85, in Moffett Field, California.
 
6Name:  Sir Walter Bodmer
 Institution:  Hertford College, Oxford; Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine
 Year Elected:  1989
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Sir Walter Bodmer was principal of Hertford College at Oxford University from 1996-2005. Formerly director general and director of research of the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, he has served as president of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO); president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; chairman of the BBC Science consultative group; and chairman of the trustees of the Natural History Museum. The co-author of a classic book on human population genetics, he has contributed heavily to both the science and the theory of human genetics. Sir Walter has been a pioneer in elucidating the laws of tissue matches in humans, as well as in the mapping of genes on chromosomes by fusion of human and rodent cells in culture. He led the group that demonstrated that the gene for hereditary colonic polypsis is on chromosome 5. An eminently effective explicator of genetics and a public advocate for science, he has held academic appointments and honorary fellowships at Keble College, Oxford; Clare College, Cambridge; the Royal Colleges of Physicians and of Surgeons; and the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1974, was knighted in 1986 and is a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences and a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He was chancellor of the University of Salford from 1995 to 2005.
 
7Name:  Sir Christopher C. Booth
 Institution:  University College, London
 Year Elected:  1981
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1924
 Death Date:  July 13, 2012
   
 
Sir Christopher Booth was a distinguished physician who occupied many high-profile positions, including President of the British Medical Association, Director of the Medical Research Council's Clinical Research Centre and President of the Royal Society of Medicine. His early interests in medical history resulted in a paper on Dr. John Fothergill and angina pectoris that was published in the very first volume of Medical History in 1957 while he was a research registrar at the Hammersmith Hospital, London. Soon after, he commenced important research on vitamin B12 absorption and utilization. In 1971 he published, with Betsy Corner, selected correspondence of John Fothergill, an achievement for any historian, let alone one who was also a professor of medicine. As a historian, Sir Christopher pioneered unique fields, and his enthusiastic investigation of doctors from the Yorkshire Dales revealed a network of remarkable characters, many of them Quakers, whose influence spread from Yorkshire to have great effect in national and international medical worlds. Sir Christopher was an Honorary Professor and member of the Wellcome Trust Group for the study of 20th century medicine at University College, London from 1989 until his death on July 13, 2012. He was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 1981.
 
8Name:  Dr. Torbjörn Caspersson
 Institution:  Karolinska Sjukhuset
 Year Elected:  1974
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1910
 Death Date:  December 7, 1997
   
9Name:  Dr. William B. Castle
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1939
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1897
 Death Date:  8/9/90
   
10Name:  Sir Christopher H. Andrewes
 Year Elected:  1955
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1896
 Death Date:  12/31/88
   
11Name:  Dr. Lowell Thelwell Coggeshall
 Year Elected:  1957
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1901
 Death Date:  11/11/87
   
12Name:  Dr. Jean-Michel Dubernard
 Institution:  Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1; E. Herriot Hospital; French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé)
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1941
 Death Date:  July 10, 2021
   
 
Jean-Michel Dubernard is a surgeon in the Department of Urology and Transplantation Surgery at E. Herriot Hospital in Lyon. He is also a former Deputy Mayor of Lyon and a former member of the French National Assembly. Dr. Dubernard attended medical school in Lyon. He then served as a Research Fellow with Joseph Murray at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (1965-1967) in Boston. Dr. Dubernard received his Docteur en Medecine from Lyon University in 1967. He subsequently received his Docteur en Biologie Humaine in Transplantation Immunology in 1971. As a surgeon, Dr. Dubernard is an important pioneer. His research interests continue to lie in experimental surgery, clinical transplantation (especially renal transplantation in children), medical technology, general urology, renal and pancreatic lithotripsy, endoscopy of the upper urinary tract investigations of male impotence, vascular surgery and microsurgery. In 1998 he led the international team that performed the world’s first modern hand-forearm transplant and in 2005 Dr. Dubernard's team performed the world’s first partial face transplant. Dr. Dubernard is the President of the International Hand and Composite Tissue Allografts, as well as the Founder and President of the European College of Transplantation. Since 1980 he has been a member of the European Society for Organ Transplantation’s Founding Council. Dr. Dubernard was President of the International Microsurgical Society (1984-1986), President of the Société Française de Transplantation (1991-1994), and President of the International Pancreatic and Islet Transplant Association (1996-1997). His work has more than 400 scientific references in the form of articles, chapters of books, books, and films. In 2008 Dr. Dubernard received the Medawar Prize, the highest award of the International Transplantation Society.
 
13Name:  Dr. Lawrence H. Einhorn
 Institution:  Indiana University
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Lawrence Einhorn received his M.D. from the University of Iowa in 1968. He was a fellow in hematology/oncology at Indiana University Medical Center, 1971-72, and a fellow in oncology at the M.D. Anderson Hospital & Tumor Institute, 1972-73. He joined the Indiana University School of Medicine in 1973 where he has been a professor of medicine, clinical oncology and hematology and, since 1987, a Distinguished Professor of Medicine. In 2006 he became the first Lance Armstrong Foundation Professor of Oncology. Lawrence Einhorn achieved an international reputation as a young medical researcher who developed a very effective treatment for cancer of the testes. He is the Clinical Director of the Walther Oncology Center at the Indiana University Medical Center, where he has developed a talented team of investigators in oncology. His research has led to the improvement of treatment in a variety of cancers including the breast, bladder, lung and Hodgkin's Disease. He is well known among his peers in oncology and is well informed concerning the remarkable areas of research in his field. Solutions to cancer treatment and prevention will likely occur by teams of collaborators and institutions. Dr. Einhorn is well positioned to continue to make strong contributions in his important field. He is the recipient of many honors, including the Medal of Honor from the American Cancer Society (1983); the Gottlieb Award from M.D. Anderson Hospital (1986); the Bernard Schwartz Award from the Scripps Institute (1987); the Distinguished Clinician Award from the Milken Foundation (1989); the Kettering Prize for Cancer Research from General Motors Foundation (1992); the Presidential Medal of Honor from Indiana University (1996); the Jacquiatt Award in Oncology (1997); and the Vermeil Medal of Paris (2000). An active member of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, he served as its president, on the board of directors, and, for eight years, as editor of its Journal of Clinical Oncology. He was on the board of scientific counselors of the National Cancer Institute, where he was also an outstanding investigator grantee, 1985-92, 1993-2000. Dr. Einhorn was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2001.
 
14Name:  Dr. Ronald M. Fairman
 Institution:  Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Ronald Fairman, an internationally acclaimed vascular surgeon, has played a central role in shaping an entirely new field of medicine, endovascular therapy. This field has virtually transformed and vastly improved the care of patients afflicted with blood vessel disorders such as aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and blockage of arteries such as the carotid, renal and femoral. Fairman has been a pioneer in endovascular surgery. In this new treatment complex devices are inserted via catheters into peripheral arteries and with radiographic imaging advanced centrally to stent or seal off aortic aneurysms or to open and restore flow to narrowed or occluded arteries. Thus, intricate but less invasive procedures are substituted for major or more dangerous ones such as open operations to remove aneurysms or bypass arterial occlusions. Fairman’s research has developed, tested and improved endovascular procedures and the complex devices necessary for their conduct. Each new device must be subjected to extensive evaluation and clinical testing before it can be approved by the FDA. Approval can only be accomplished by demonstrated safety and effectiveness in well designed clinical trials. Fairman is at the forefront of these multi-institutional national trials, serving as the principal investigator, a major participant or advisor to the FDA on dozens of them. Members may recall his presentation of this work to the Society at its April 2015 Meeting. The results of these trials and other aspects of his clinical experience has been reported by Fairman in more than 140 peer reviewed publications in scientific journals, dozens of chapters and editorials and in lectures and visiting professorships around the world. He is a member of the editorial boards of four vascular journals. In 2014 he received the highest award from the Society for Vascular Surgery and in 2016 he will serve as its president
 
15Name:  Dr. Judah Folkman
 Institution:  Harvard Medical School & Children's Hospital
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  January 14, 2008
   
16Name:  Dr. Donald S. Fredrickson
 Institution:  National Library of Medicine & National Institutes of Health & Howard Hughes Medical Institute
 Year Elected:  1985
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1924
 Death Date:  June 7, 2002
   
17Name:  Dr. David Ginsburg
 Institution:  University of Michigan; Howard Hughes Medical Institute
 Year Elected:  2020
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
David Ginsburg is James V. Neel Distinguished University Professor of Internal Medicine and Human Genetics, Warner-Lambert/Parke-Davis Professor of Medicine, a member of the Life Sciences Institute at the University of Michigan Medical School, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. He received his B.A. degree in molecular biophysics and biochemistry from Yale University in 1974 and his M.D. degree from Duke University School of Medicine in 1978. Dr. Ginsburg is board certified in Internal Medicine, Hematology, Oncology, and Clinical Genetics. His postdoctoral clinical and research training was at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School. Dr. Ginsburg joined the faculty at the University of Michigan as an Assistant Professor in 1985. Dr. Ginsburg’s laboratory studies the components of the blood-clotting system and how disturbances in their function lead to human bleeding and blood-clotting disorders. The lab has studied the molecular basis of the common disorder von Willebrand disease and is identifying modifier genes that control severity for this and related diseases. The lab has also defined mutations in ADAMTS13, an enzyme that processes von Willebrand factor, as the cause of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura. The lab also studies the plasminogen activation system, the mechanism by which blood clots are broken down, and has explored the role of this system in a variety of disease processes including atherosclerosis and microbial infection. Finally, studies of the bleeding disease combined deficiency of factors V and VIII identified mutations in a novel pathway for the transport of a select subset of proteins from the ER to the Golgi, leading the Ginsburg lab to further exploration of the intracellular secretory machinery and its role in human disease. Dr. Ginsburg is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and recipient of the E. Donnall Thomas Lecture and Prize and Stratton Medal from the American Society of Hematology, the Basic Research Prize and the Distinguished Scientist Award from the American Heart Association, the Stanley J. Korsmeyer Award from the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the AAMC Award for Distinguished Research in the Biomedical Sciences, and the Lucian Award from McGill University. He is a past president of the ASCI and has served on the Councils for the AAP, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Academy of Medicine. Dr. Ginsburg has served on multiple Editorial Boards and Advisory Councils in both academics and industry. He recently served as a member of the Board of Directors for Shire plc, and is currently on Scientific Advisory Boards for Portola Pharmaceuticals and Syros Pharmaceuticals.
 
18Name:  Dr. Carl G. Groth
 Institution:  Karolinska Institute
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  February 16, 2014
   
 
Carl G. Groth, MD, Phd, Professor Emeritus of Transplantation Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, graduated from the Karolinska Institute, where he obtained his MD and PhD. Between 1966 and 1972 Groth was assigned to the Department of Surgery at the University of Colorado Medical School, first as an NIH international Post doctoral Fellow and later, as an Associate Professor of Surgery. At this department the first successful human liver transplantation in the world was carried out in 1967 by Dr. Thomas Strazl. Groth was a key member of Strazl's surgical team. Groth served as the Chairman of the Department of Transplantation Surgery at Huddinge Hospital in Stockholm from 1976 to 1995. He was appointed Professor of Transplantation Surgery at the Karolinska Institute in 1984, from which position he retired in 2000. His life time work focused on clinical kidney, liver and pancreas transplantations. He performed pioneer work in pancreatic transplantation as a means to treat patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly with regard to surgical techniques and the effects of the transplantation in the secondary complications of the disease. He has also led a number of highly important studies in transplant patients, examining the new immunosuppressive agents that became available in the 1990's. He performed some unique studies in xenotranspantation, including a pilot trial which fetal pig islets were transplanted to diabetic patients. Groth served as a principal investigator on numerous research projects including two major consortium grants (from Novartis Pharma and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation) on pig islet transplantation as a means to treat diabetes. He edited the fist monograph on pancreatic transplantation in 1988. His work includes approximately 700 scientific articles and some 25 book chapters. Groth served as President of the Transplantation Society in 2001-2002. He was the founding President of the International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association and the International Xenotransplantation Association. He was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the American Surgical Association, the American Society of Transplant Surgeons and the Swedish Society for Gastroenterology. In 1998 he was awarded the King's Medal for outstanding achievement in transplantation. He has also received the Medawar Prize, the foremost International Award in transplantation (2006) and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Pioneer Award (2008). In 2005 he became a member of the World Health Organization's expert advisory panel on cell, tissue and organ transplantation. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society om 2004. Carl G. Groth died February 16, 2014, at the age of 80, in Stockholm, Sweden.
 
19Name:  Dr. A. McGehee Harvey
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  1984
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1911
 Death Date:  5/8/98
   
20Name:  Dr. Harald zur Hausen
 Institution:  German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum)
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Harald zur Hausen is a world renowned virologist who has made pioneering discoveries on viruses that cause human tumors. He made major contributions to our knowledge of the Epstein-Barr virus, the agent involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. His most important discovery, for which he was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine, is the causative role of papillomaviruses in human anogenital cancer. His work has far-reaching implications for human health and well-being and provides the basis for antiviral vaccines that could prevent some of the most common human malignancies. As Director of the German Cancer Research Center since 1983, Dr. zur Hausen has had a major influence on the organization, development and support of science. He has turned this institution into a leading center for biological and clinical research. A graduate of the University of Dusseldorf (M.D., 1960), Dr. zur Hausen is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (1976); the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences (1986); the German Academy of Natural Sciences (1986); the Academia Europaea (1990); the Polish Academy of Sciences (foreign member) (1991); and the Venezuelan National Academy of Medicine (1993).
 
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