American Philosophical Society
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1Name:  Dr. Lawrence D. Bobo
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Lawrence D. Bobo is the W. E. B. Du Bois Professor of the Social Sciences at Harvard University. He holds appointments in the Department of Sociology and the Department of African and African American Studies. His research focuses on the intersection of social inequality, politics, and race. Professor Bobo is an elected member of the National Academy of Science as well as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a Guggenheim Fellow, an Alphonse M. Fletcher Sr. Fellow, a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and a Russell Sage Foundation Visiting Scholar. He has received research grants from the National Science Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Spencer Foundation. He has held tenured appointments in the sociology departments at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, the University of California, Los Angeles, and at Stanford University where he was Director of the Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity. His research has appeared in the American Sociological Review, the American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, the American Political Science Review, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Social Psychology Quarterly, and Public Opinion Quarterly. He is a founding editor of the Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race published by Cambridge University Press. He is co-author of the award winning book Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations (Harvard University Press, 1997, with H. Schuman, C. Steeh, and M. Krysan) and senior editor of Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles (Russell Sage Foundation, 2000, with M. L. Oliver, J. H. Johnson, and A. Valenzuela). His most recent book Prejudice in Politics: Group Position, Public Opinion, and the Wisconsin Treaty Rights Dispute (Harvard University Press, 2006, with M. Tuan) was a finalist for 2007 C. Wright Mills Award. He is currently working on the "Race, Crime, and Public Opinion" project. Lawrence D. Bobo was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
2Name:  Dr. David Botstein
 Institution:  Princeton University; Calico
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
In 2013 David Botstein retired as the Director of the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics at Princeton University and joined Calico as Chief Scientific Officer. Calico is a Google startup that will focus on aging and life-extension. Previously he served as Griswold Professor of Genetics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; as vice president of science for Genentech, Inc.; and as Acherman Professor and chairman of the Department of Genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. A native of Switzerland, he holds a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan (1967). David Botstein is one of the greatest geneticists working today and a pioneer in more ways than one. His early genetic work contributed to the discovery and understanding of transposable elements in bacteria. In the 1970s, his studies were instrumental in making the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a major model organism that continues to be prominent in both fundamental biological research and biotechnology. A seminal 1980 paper by Botstein and colleagues suggested to employ restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for producing a linkage map of the human genome. That visionary proposal became the foundation of the new science of genomics. He also co-founded the Saccharomyces Genome Database, which continues to be a leading international resource that connects genomic sequences with biological functions. In addition, Botstein is a pioneering educator who revamped the Princeton biological curriculum through the teaching of biology in close juxtaposition to physics, mathematics and chemistry. David Botstein is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1981); the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1985); and the Institute of Medicine (1993). Other professional honors include the Eli Lilly Award (1978); the Genetics Society of America Medal (1988); the Rosenstiel Award (1992); the Gruber Prize in Genetics (2003); and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences (2013). David Botstein was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
3Name:  Dr. Vinton G. Cerf
 Institution:  Google
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Vinton G. Cerf is vice president and chief Internet evangelist for Google. Cerf served as a senior vice president of MCI from 1994-2005, as vice president of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives from 1986-1994, as vice president of MCI from 1982-1986, and as Principal Scientist, United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Information Processing Techniques Office from 1976-1982. Cerf was a member of the Stanford University faculty from 1972-1976. He served as chairman of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) from 2000-2007 and was founding president of the Internet Society. Widely known as one of the "Fathers of the Internet," Cerf is the co-designer of the TCP/IP protocols and the architecture of the Internet. He received the U.S. National Medal of Technology in 1997 and the 2004 ACM Alan M. Turing Award. In November 2005, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and in April 2008 the Japan Prize. In 2018 he won a Science Award from the Franklin Institute. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, and American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Engineering Consortium, the Computer History Museum. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He is an honorary Freeman of the City of London. Cerf holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from Stanford University and Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from UCLA. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
4Name:  Dr. Gretchen Cara Daily
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1964
   
 
Gretchen Daily is a professor of biological sciences; the director of the Tropical Research Program at the Center for Conservation Biology; a senior fellow at CESP; and the Director of the Interdisciplinary Program on Environment and Resources at Stanford University. An ecologist by training, she is working to develop a scientific basis - and political and institutional support - for managing Earth's life support systems. Professor Daily's greatest contributions have been in developing a framework for illuminating the benefits generated by natural capital and the tradeoffs associated with alternative paths of development as a basis for implementing new conservation finance and policy. To this end, she has led interdisciplinary teams, worked closely with economists and other ecologists and authored or edited influential publications that have given the subject great prominence. She has been involved both in developing the theoretical framework and in applying it to case studies. Her efforts in this area have also led her to create the new discipline of countryside biogeography. Daily organized and is the director of the path-breaking Natural Capital Project, which seeks to align conservation and financial incentives. She has also done important studies of the carrying capacity of Earth, humanity's deteriorating epidemiological environment and the importance of equity in solving human problems. Gretchen Daily has published approximately 150 scientific and popular articles. Her most recent book, coauthored with Katherine Ellison, is The New Economy of Nature: The Quest to Make Conservation Profitable (2002). She was presented with the Japanese Cosmos Award in 2009. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2003) and the National Academy of Sciences (2005), she was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
5Name:  Dr. Ronald Dworkin
 Institution:  New York University; University College, Oxford
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  February 14, 2013
   
 
Ronald Dworkin was Professor of Philosophy and Frank Henry Sommer Professor of Law at New York University and Professor of Jurisprudence at University College, Oxford. He received his L.L.B. from Harvard Law School in 1957 and went on to clerk for Judge Learned Hand. He taught at Yale University Law School from 1962-69, serving as Holhfeld Professor of Law, and from 1969-98 was Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford University and Fellow of University College. In 1994 he was awarded the American Philosophical Society's Henry M. Phillips Prize in Jurisprudence in recognition of "his book Law's Empire and his other jurisprudential writings over the past quarter century." His 2007 award of the Holberg Prize confirmed more widely what Dworkin's professional colleagues have come to take for granted: that there is no more influential thinker now at work in the fields radiating from the intersections of moral philosophy, political philosophy, and the philosophy of law. With the publication of Rawls' Theory of Justice, moral philosophy was brought back to the center of philosophical study, and Dworkin has expanded its reach both by essentially linking the interpretation of law with the perspective of morality, and by his unique position as a public intellectual. The position is unique in demonstrating in practice one of Dworkin's guiding ideas, namely that freedom of speech is fundamental to that responsibility for civic conversation apart from which society cannot know itself, that is, know what it values politically. Ronald Dworkin's publications include Taking Rights Seriously (1977); A Matter of Principle (1985); Law's Empire (1986); Philosophical Issues in Senile Dementia (1987); A Bill of Rights for Britain (1990); Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia and Individual Freedom (1993); Freedom's Law: The Moral Reading of the American Constitution (1996); Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality (2000); and Is Democracy Possible Here? Principles for a New Political Debate (2006). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1979). Ronald Dworkin was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. He died on February 14, 2013, at the age of 81 in London.
 
6Name:  The Honorable Albert A. Gore
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
In three decades as a widely respected politician and public figure, Albert A. (Al) Gore, Jr. has called attention to, and helped develop solutions to, many of the key issues of our time. During his sixteen years in Congress he supported a range of productive legislation, from progressive environmental policies (he held the first congressional hearings on climate change in the late 1970s and on global warming in the 1980s) to communications initiatives that had a significant effect on the development of the Internet. As vice president in the Clinton administration, he was heavily involved in areas of government from the economy to the environment. Since his near-election to the presidency in 2000, Gore has channeled his environmental expertise into activism, lecturing widely on the climate crisis and starring in the film An Inconvenient Truth, which won the 2006 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. In 2007 he shared the Nobel Peace Prize (with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for his "efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change." Al Gore was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. His book The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change came out in 2013.
 
7Name:  Dr. Philip Gossett
 Institution:  University of Chicago; University of Rome
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1941
 Death Date:  June 13, 2017
   
 
Philip Gossett was the Robert W. Reneker Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Music and in the College at The University of Chicago, where he has been on the faculty since 1968. From 1989 to 1999 he was Dean of the Division of the Humanities. He had taught at the Universities of Paris, Parma, and Rome; in 1989 he delivered the Gauss Seminars at Princeton University in 1991, and in 2001 was the Hambro Visiting Professor of Opera Studies at Oxford University. In 2002-2003 he was a Visiting Scholar for Phi Beta Kappa and gave a series of seminars at the Beinecke Library of Yale University. In 2004 he had also become a Professor at the Università "La Sapienza" of Rome. Gossett was general editor of The Works of Giuseppe Verdi (published by The University of Chicago Press and G. Ricordi-Universal Music of Milan) and of Works of Gioachino Rossini (published by Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel). He served on many editorial boards, including the critical editions of the works of Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, Gilbert & Sullivan, and Kurt Weill, as well as several periodicals. He published widely in the area of Italian opera. His books include "Anna Bolena" and the Maturity of Gaetano Donizetti (Oxford, 1985) and Divas and Scholars: Performing Italian Opera (The University of Chicago Press, 2006). The latter won the Kinkeldey award of the American Musicological Society in 2007 as the best book in music of the previous year and the Laing Prize of The University of Chicago Pressin 2008 for the recent book by a member of the University's faculty that brought the most "distinction" to the Press's list. The Accademia di Santa Cecilia, Rome, has published his studies of the autograph manuscripts of Rossini's Il barbiere di Siviglia (1993) and Donizetti's Don Pasquale (1999), together with facsimiles of these manuscripts. His scholarly articles have appeared in many journals and collections of essays. His 1971 translation of the Treatise on Harmony by Jean-Philippe Rameau continues to be used by music theorists. He also published essays on the compositional process of Beethoven and on music aesthetics. His notes are featured in opera programs in America and Europe and in many CDs. His essays have appeared in The New York Review of Books and The New Republic. Gossett worked closely with opera companies in the performance of operas based on the critical editions he supervised, including the Metropolitan Opera of New York, the Santa Fe Opera, Chicago Lyric Opera, New York City Opera, the Teatro alla Scala of Milan, and Finnish National Opera. He served as the 'Consulente musicologica' for the Verdi Festival in Parma in 2000-2001 and played a similar role at the Rossini Opera Festival of Pesaro from 1980 through 2000. He also worked individually with numerous singers, suggesting repertory, writing embellishments, etc., including Cecilia Bartoli, Rockwell Blake, Renée Fleming, Cecilia Gasdia, Jennifer Larmore, Samuel Ramey, and Vivica Genaux. His edition of Verdi's La forza del destino, in collaboration with the late William Holmes, had its first performances in November 2005 at San Francisco Opera (1869 version) and at the Stadttheater of Bern in April 2006 (1862 version). Gossett earned his B.A., summa cum laude, from Amherst College in 1963 and his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1970. He held fellowships from the Fulbright program, the Woodrow Wilson Fellowship Foundation, the Martha Baird Rockefeller Foundation, the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and received a Doctor of Humane Letters from Amherst College in 1993. He served as Vice President (1986-88), then President (1994-96) of the American Musicological Society, and President (1993-95) of the Society for Textual Scholarship. He was three times President of the Jury of the Premio Borciani competition for young String Quartets (1997, 2002, 2008). He was on the Board of Directors of the International Musicological Society and of Il Saggiatore Musicale. Among his other awards and honors are the Alfred Einstein award of the American Musicological Society (1969), the Quantrell award of The University of Chicago for excellence in undergraduate teaching (1974), the Medaglia d'Oro, prima classe, of the Italian Government (1985), the Deems Taylor Award of ASCAP (1986 and 2007), and the Order of Rio Branca of the Republic of Brazil (1998). He was an honorary member of the Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna (1992), a socio straniero of the Ateneo Veneto (2001) and the Royal Swedish Academy of Music (2008), and an Accademico onorario of the Accademia di Santa Cecilia, Rome (2003). For his contributions to Italian culture, the Italian government named him a Grand Ufficiale dell'Ordine al Merito in 1997; in 1998 the President of Italy personally decorated him with the Cavaliere di Gran Croce, Italy's highest civilian honor. In 2004 he was granted a "Distinguished Achievement Award" by the Mellon Foundation, the first musicologist to be so honored. Philip Gossett was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. He died June 13, 2017, at age 75, in Chicago, Illinois.
 
8Name:  Dr. James J. Heckman
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
James J. Heckman shared the 2000 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He is the Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago, where he has served since 1973. He directs the Economics Research Center and the Center for Social Program Evaluation at the Harris School for Public Policy. In addition, he is the Professor of Science and Society at University College Dublin and a Senior Research Fellow at the American Bar Foundation. Dr. Heckman received his B.A. in mathematics from Colorado College in 1965 and his Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University in 1971. His work has been devoted to the development of a scientific basis for economic policy evaluation, with special emphasis on models of individuals and disaggregated groups, and to the problems and possibilities created by heterogeneity, diversity, and unobserved counterfactual states. He developed a body of new econometric tools that address these issues. His research has given policymakers important new insights into areas such as education, job-training, the importance of accounting for general equilibrium in the analysis of labor markets, anti-discrimination law, and civil rights. He demonstrated a strong causal effect of the 1964 Civil Rights Act in promoting African-American economic progress, contrary to views of the "Chicago School" that claimed that market forces alone would erode discrimination. He has recently demonstrated that the high school dropout rate is increasing in the United States. Heckman has studied the economic benefits of sorting in the labor market, the ineffectiveness of active labor market programs, and the economic returns to education. His recent research focuses on inequality, human development and lifecycle skill formation, with a special emphasis on the economics of early childhood. He is currently conducting new social experiments on early childhood interventions and reanalyzing old experiments. He is also studying the emergence of the underclass in the United States and Western Europe. Heckman has published over 250 articles and several books. His most recent books include (with Alan Krueger) Inequality in America: What Role for Human Capital Policy? and (with C. Pages) Evaluating Human Capital Policy, and Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean. He is currently finishing a book on the problem of noncognitive skills in America. Heckman has received numerous awards for his work, including the John Bates Clark Award of the American Economic Association in 1983, the 2005 and 2007 Dennis Aigner Award for Applied Econometrics from the Journal of Econometrics, the 2007 Theodore W. Schultz Award from the American Agricultural Economics Association, the 2005 Jacob Mincer Award for Lifetime Achievement in Labor Economics, the 2005 Ulysses Medal from the University College Dublin, and the Spirit of Erikson Institute Award in 2014. He is currently associate editor of the Journal of Labor Economics and the Journal of Applied Econometrics. Heckman was awarded the distinction of fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2009. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences; the American Academy of Arts & Sciences; the Econometric Society; the Society of Labor Economics; the American Statistical Association; and the International Statistical Institute. James Heckman was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. In 2015 he was awarded the Madison Medal of Princeton University.
 
9Name:  Dr. John L. Hennessy
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
John L. Hennessy joined Stanford's faculty in 1977 as an assistant professor of electrical engineering. He rose through the academic ranks to full professorship in 1986 and was the inaugural Willard R. and Inez Kerr Bell Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from 1987 to 2004. From 1983 to 1993, Dr. Hennessy was director of the Computer Systems Laboratory, a research and teaching center operated by the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science that fosters research in computer systems design. He served as chair of computer science from 1994 to 1996 and, in 1996, was named dean of the School of Engineering. As dean, he launched a five-year plan that laid the groundwork for new activities in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. In 1999, he was named provost, the university's chief academic and financial officer. As provost, he continued his efforts to foster interdisciplinary activities in the biosciences and bioengineering and oversaw improvements in faculty and staff compensation. In October 2000, he was inaugurated as Stanford University's 10th president. In 2005, he became the inaugural holder of the Bing Presidential Professorship. A pioneer in computer architecture, in 1981 Dr. Hennessy drew together researchers to focus on a computer architecture known as RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer), a technology that has revolutionized the computer industry by increasing performance while reducing costs. In addition to his role in the basic research, Dr. Hennessy helped transfer this technology to industry. In 1984, he cofounded MIPS Computer Systems, now MIPS Technologies, which designs microprocessors. In recent years, his research has focused on the architecture of high-performance computers. Dr. Hennessy is a recipient of the 2000 IEEE John von Neumann Medal, the 2000 ASEE Benjamin Garver Lamme Award, the 2001 ACM Eckert-Mauchly Award, the 2001 Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award, a 2004 NEC C&C Prize for lifetime achievement in computer science and engineering, a 2005 Founders Award from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the 2013 Academic Leadership Award of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and the 2017 ACM A.M. Turing Award. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences, and he is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Association for Computing Machinery, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has lectured and published widely and is the co-author of two internationally used undergraduate and graduate textbooks on computer architecture design. Dr. Hennessy earned his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from Villanova University and his master's and doctoral degrees in computer science from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
10Name:  Dr. Joseph Leo Koerner
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and raised there and in Vienna, Joseph Leo Koerner studied at Yale University (B.A. 1980), Cambridge University (M.A. 1982), University of Heidelberg (1982-3), and University of California at Berkeley (M.A. 1985, Ph.D. 1988). After three years at the Society of Fellows, Harvard University (1986-9), he joined the Harvard faculty, where he was Professor of History of Art and Architecture until 1999. 1999-2000 he was Professor of Modern Art History at the University of Frankfurt; in 2000 he moved to London, where he was Professor first at University College London (until 2004), then at the Courtauld Institute of Art (until 2007). Koerner organized teaching exhibitions at Harvard on Early Netherlandish Painting (1990), German Renaissance Art (1993), Pieter Bruegel (1995) and Netherlandish prints 1550-1675 (1999). At the Austrian National Gallery in 1997, he curated a retrospective of the work of his father, the painter Henry Koerner. In 2002, he collaborated with Bruno Latour and others on the exhibition Iconoclash: Beyond the Image Wars at the Center for Art and Media in Karlsruhe. His books include Die Suche nach dem Labyrinth--Der Mythos von Daedalus und Ikarus (1983), Caspar David Friedrich and the Subject of Landscape (1990), The Moment of Self-Portraiture in German Renaissance Art (1993), and The Reformation of the Image (2004). Koerner wrote and presented the three-part series Northern Renaissance for BBC Television. He also wrote and presented the BBC feature-length documentary Vienna: City of Dreams. Koerner was awarded the Jan Mitchell Prize for the History of Art in 1992. He has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1995. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. In 2009 he was award a Distinguished Achievement Award from the Andrew W Mellon Foundation. He is a Senior Fellow at Harvard's Society of Fellows.
 
11Name:  Dr. Roger D. Kornberg
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  206. Physiology, Biophysics, and Pharmacology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Roger Kornberg is Winzer Professor in Medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He earned his Ph.D. from Stanford in 1972 and has been a faculty member there since 1978. His work has been recognized with the Gairdner International Award (2000); the Merck Award (2002); the Sloan Prize in Cancer Research (2005); and the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Roger Kornberg's first paradigm-changing discovery was the demonstration of the flip flop of lipids between two leaflets of a membrane. In 1974 he tackled and solved the age-old mystery of chromatin structure by discovering the nucleosome. That landmark advance stemmed from his insightful application of protein chemistry and a bold leap of reasoning. In the early 1980s, Kornberg combined lateral diffusion and protein chemistry in his invention of two dimensional protein crystallization. This ingenious approach led, ultimately, to the greatest triumph of his career to date, the atomic structure determination of the giant RNA polymerase complex in the act of gene transcription, a monumental achievement that was recognized by the (unshared) Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His discovery of transcriptional mediator is yet another landmark in a career most uncommonly rich in major discoveries. Roger Kornberg is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1998) and the National Academy of Sciences (2003). He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
12Name:  Dr. Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot, a sociologist, is a professor of education at Harvard University. She did her undergraduate work in psychology at Swarthmore College (1962-66); studied child development and teaching at Bank Street College of Education (1966-67); and did her doctoral work in sociology of education at Harvard (1968-72). Since joining the faculty at Harvard in 1972, she has been interested in studying the culture of schools, the patterns and structures of classroom life, the relationships between adult developmental themes and teachers' work, and socialization within families, communities and schools. Lawrence-Lightfoot is a prolific author of numerous articles, monographs, and chapters. She has written eight books: Worlds Apart: Relationships Between Families and Schools (1978); Beyond Bias: Perspectives on Classrooms (with Jean Carew, 1979); and The Good High School: Portraits of Character and Culture (1983), which received the 1984 Outstanding Book Award from the American Educational Research Association. Her book Balm in Gilead: Journey of a Healer (1988), which won the 1988 Christopher Award, given for "literary merit and humanitarian achievement," was followed by I've Known Rivers: Lives of Loss and Liberation (1994), and The Art and Science of Portraiture (with Jessica Hoffman Davis, 1997), which documents her pioneering approach to social science methodology -- one that bridges the realms of aesthetics and empiricism. In Respect: An Exploration (1999) Lawrence-Lightfoot reaches deep into human experience to find the essence of this powerful quality. Her newest book, The Essential Conversation: What Parents and Teachers Can Learn from Each Other (2003), captures the crucial exchange that occurs between parents and teachers across our country an estimated 100 million times a year -- a dialogue that is both mirror and metaphor for the cultural forces that shape the socialization of our children. In addition to her teaching, research, and writing, Lawrence-Lightfoot sits on numerous professional committees and boards of directors, including the Atlantic Philanthropies; the National Academy of Education; WGBH; Bright Horizons Family Solutions; and the Berklee College of Music. She is former chair of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Board of Directors. Lawrence-Lightfoot has been a fellow at the Bunting Institute at Radcliffe College and at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. In 1984, she was the recipient of the prestigious MacArthur Prize Award, and in 1993 she was awarded Harvard's George Ledlie Prize given for research that makes the "most valuable contribution to science" and "the benefit of mankind," and in 1995 she became a Spencer Senior Scholar. Lawrence-Lightfoot has been the recipient of 26 honorary degrees from colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. In 1993 the Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot Chair, an endowed professorship at Swarthmore College, was named in her honor. And in 1998, she was the recipient of the Emily Hargroves Fisher Endowed Chair at Harvard University, which upon her retirement will become the Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot Endowed Chair, making her the first African-American woman in Harvard's history to have an endowed professorship named in her honor. Lawrence-Lightfoot was recently named the 2008 Margaret Mead Fellow by the American Academy of Political and Social Science. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
13Name:  Dr. Joyce Marcus
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  403. Cultural Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
Joyce Marcus is Robert L. Carneiro Distinguished University Professor and Curator of Latin American Archaeology at the University of Michigan. A major figure in American archaeology, she is a prolific scholar who has made key contributions to understandings of the ancient civilizations of the Zapotecs (Mexico), the Maya (Mexico and Central America), and the Incas and their predecessors (Peru). With great theoretical sophistication, she has advanced archaeological knowledge on such key topics as pre-Columbian urban and political development in Mexico, the evolution of Zapotec civilization in Oaxaca over two millennia, and the nature of ancient Mesoamerican writing systems. Her writings are widely read and cited and are highly influential in the field. Dr. Marcus's publications include Emblem and State in the Classic Maya Lowlands: An Epigraphic Approach to Territorial Organization (1976); Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations (1992); and (with K. Flannery) Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico's Oaxaca Valley (1996). She received her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1974 and has served on the University of Michigan faculty since 1976. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1997) and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1997). Joyce Marcus was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
14Name:  Dr. James L. McClelland
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
James L. (Jay) McClelland received his Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1975. He served on the faculty of the University of California, San Diego, before moving to Carnegie Mellon University in 1984, where he became a University Professor and held the Walter Van Dyke Bingham Chair in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. He was a founding co-director of the Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, a joint project of Carnegie Mellon and the University of Pittsburgh. In 2006 he moved to Stanford University, where he is now Lucie Stern Professor in the Social Sciences, Chair of the Department of Psychology, and the founding director of the Center for Mind, Brain and Computation. Over his career, McClelland has contributed to both the experimental and theoretical literatures in a number of areas, most notably in the application of connectionist/ parallel distributed processing/ neural network models to problems in perception, cognitive development, language learning, and the neurobiology of memory. Together with David E. Rumelhart he led the group that produced, in 1986, the two volume book Parallel Distributed Processing, laying out a neurally inspired framework for cognitive modeling and applying it to a wide range of topics in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. McClelland and Rumelhart jointly received the 1993 Howard Crosby Warren Medal from the Society of Experimental Psychologists, the 1996 Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, the 2001 Garwemeyer Prize in Psychology, and the 2002 IEEE Neural Networks Pioneer Award for their pioneering work in this area. In 2014, he shared the NAS Prize in Psychological and Cognitive Sciences with Elizabeth Shilin Spelke. McClelland has served as senior editor of Cognitive Science, as president of the Cognitive Science Society, and as a member of the National Advisory Mental Health Council. He is currently president-elect of the Federation of the Psychological, Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and he has received the APS William James Fellow Award for lifetime contributions to the basic science of psychology. McClelland currently teaches cognitive neuroscience and conducts research on learning, memory, conceptual development, spoken language, decision making, and semantic cognition. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
15Name:  Mr. Mark Morris
 Institution:  Mark Morris Dance Group
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Mark Morris was born on August 29, 1956, in Seattle, Washington, where he studied as a young man with Verla Flowers and Perry Brunson. In the early years of his career, he performed with Lar Lubovitch, Hannah Kahn, Laura Dean, Eliot Feld, and the Koleda Balkan Dance Ensemble. He formed the Mark Morris Dance Group in 1980, and has since created more than 120 works for the company. From 1988-1991, he was Director of Dance at the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels, the national opera house of Belgium. Among the works created during his tenure were three evening-length dances: The Hard Nut; L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato; and Dido and Aeneas. In 1990, he founded the White Oak Dance Project with Mikhail Baryshnikov. Morris is also much in demand as a ballet choreographer. He has created six works for the San Francisco Ballet since 1994 and received commissions from American Ballet Theatre, and the Boston Ballet, among others. His work is also in the repertory of the Pacific Northwest Ballet, Dutch National Ballet, New Zealand Ballet, Houston Ballet, English National Ballet, and The Royal Ballet. Morris is noted for his musicality and has been described as "undeviating in his devotion to music." He has worked extensively in opera, directing and choreographing productions for The Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, English National Opera, and The Royal Opera, Covent Garden. Morris was named a Fellow of the MacArthur Foundation in 1991. He has received honorary doctorates from The Boston Conservatory of Music, The Juilliard School, Long Island University, Pratt Institute, Bowdoin College, Bard College, Bates College, and George Mason University. In 2006, Morris received the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs Mayor's Award for Arts & Culture and a WQXR Gramophone Special Recognition Award. He is the subject of a biography by Joan Acocella (Farrar, Straus & Giroux) and Marlowe & Company published a volume of photographs and critical essays entitled Mark Morris' L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato: A Celebration. Morris is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 2007 he received the Samuel H. Scripps/American Dance Festival lifetime achievement award. Mark Morris was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
16Name:  Dr. Susan Naquin
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Susan Naquin is Professor of History and Professor of East Asian Studies at Princeton University. She received her Ph.D. from Yale University in 1974 and taught at the University of Pennsylvania from 1976-93. She was a Guggenheim Fellow from 1991-92 and has served on the editorial boards of Modern China and Asia Major. The breadth of Susan Naquin's scholarship and her ability to ask new and brilliantly perceptive questions about five centuries of Chinese history make her one of the most distinguished historians of East Asian history and culture at the present time. Peking: Temples and City Life carefully excavates the city's varied public arenas, its human engagements and rich cultural imprint. Her writing splendidly evokes a complex past and the radical transformation of a glittering city. Her understanding of religious organizations, their sites, and beliefs combines a knowledge of artifacts and space with a deep understanding of words, texts, and ritual. An active member of the history department and the East Asian Studies department, she is both an engaged scholar and an energetic teacher of both undergraduates and graduate students. She was a distinguished chair of East Asian Studies between 2001 and 2005 and directs the Chinese Rare Books Project at Princeton. She is frequently asked to lecture in China, in the United States and in Western Europe. Her other publications include Millenarian Rebellion in China: The Eight Trigrams Uprising of 1813 (1976); Shantung Rebellion: The Wang Lun Uprising of 1774 (1981); and (with E. Rawski) Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century (1987). Susan Naquin was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
17Name:  Mr. David Remnick
 Institution:  The New Yorker
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
David Remnick is the editor of The New Yorker magazine. He graduated from Princeton University in 1981 and the following year became a staff writer at The Washington Post. In 1988 he was appointed the newspaper's Moscow correspondent and won a Pulitzer Prize for his reporting during the break up of the Soviet Union. Also from that experience came a first rate and very original book, Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. At the age of forty, Remnick became the editor of The New Yorker, a magazine the importance of which in American cultural history cannot be overstated. Remnick not only stabilized the maagazine after a period of turmoil but brought it back to the traditions of the highest level of political and cultural journalism and critical writing on literature and the arts. At the same time, Remnick has continued to write extensively, producing first rate pieces on Russia and Israel as well as a thumping book on Muhammad Ali. Remnick's most recent publication is Reporting: Writings from The New Yorker (2006). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2006). David Remnick was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
18Name:  Dr. Francesca Rochberg
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404b
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Francesca Rochberg is Catherine and William L. Magistretti Distinguished Professor of Near Eastern Studies in the Department of Near Eastern Studies and the Office for the History of Science and Technology, and a member of the Graduate Group in Ancient History and Mediterranean Archaeology at the University of California, Berkeley. She received her B.A. in Oriental Studies from the University of Pennsylvania and her Ph.D. from the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, where she also worked on the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. At the age of 30 she received a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellowship. In 1987 she joined the faculty of the University of Notre Dame in the Department of History and the Program in History and Philosophy of Science. Her research focuses on ancient Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman traditions in the celestial sciences and their interrelation with religion. She has produced first editions of cuneiform texts and has published widely on Babylonian celestial sciences, setting the cuneiform material in various contexts, from cultural to cognitive history. She has introduced the evidence of ancient cuneiform science into the philosophy of science through investigations of empiricism, prediction, logic and reasoning. She has been a Guggenheim Fellow, a Visiting Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. She won the John Frederick Lewis Award from the American Philosophical Society in 1999 for her monograph Babylonian Horoscopes. Francesca Rochberg was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
19Name:  Dr. Martine A. Rothblatt
 Institution:  United Therapeutics
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Martine Rothblatt founded United Therapeutics in 1996 and has served as chairman and chief executive officer since the inception of the company. Prior to creating United Therapeutics, Dr. Rothblatt founded and served as chairman and chief executive officer of Sirius Satellite Radio and was principally responsible for several other unique applications of satellite communications technology. She also represented the radio astronomy interests of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Radio Frequencies before the Federal Communications Commission. On behalf of the International Bar Association, she led efforts to present the United Nations with a draft Human Genome Treaty. She moved to biotechnology from satellite technology and started United Therapeutics to find a cure or better treatment for the pulmonary hypertension that affects one of her daughters. Dr. Rothblatt received a combined law and Master of Business Administration degree from the University of California, Los Angeles. She earned her Ph.D. in medical ethics from the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary College, University of London. Her book, "Your Life or Mine: How Geoethics Can Resolve the Conflict Between Public and Private Interests in Xenotransplantation," was published by Ashgate in 2004. Dr. Rothblatt is a member of the International Institute of Space Law, the International Academy of Astronautics and the International Bar Association. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. She received the Meritorious Service to Aviation Award of the NBAA in 2021.
 
20Name:  Dr. Roald Zinnurovich Sagdeev
 Institution:  University of Maryland
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Roald Sagdeev is Distinguished University Professor of Physics and the Director of the East West Space Science Center at the University of Maryland. He is known for his pioneering work in nonlinear physics and hot plasmas, particularly collisionless shocks and plasma turbulence, cosmic rays, and planetary science as well as being a leading figure in the Soviet nuclear fusion program. As director of the Soviet Cosmic Research Institute, he led the development of pioneering planetary missions to Mars and Venus and the international missions to Halley's Comet. He served as science advisor to Mikhail Gorbachev and E. Shevardnadze on arms control and space exploration and later was elected to the USSR Supreme Soviet. At the age of 36, he became one of the youngest persons ever to be elected as a full member (academician) of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Sagdeev's honors and awards include the Tate Medal from the American Institute of Physics (1992); the Italian Prize Science for Peace (1994); the American Physical Society's Maxwell Prize (2001); and membership in the National Academy of Sciences (1987), the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1990) and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Roald Sagdeev was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
Election Year
2008[X]
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