American Philosophical Society
Member History

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21Name:  The Honorable Elena Kagan
 Institution:  United States Supreme Court
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1960
   
 
Elena Kagan, Associate Justice, was born in New York, New York, on April 28, 1960. She received an A.B., summa cum laude, in 1981 from Princeton University. She attended Worcester College, Oxford University, as Princeton’s Daniel M. Sachs Graduating Fellow, and received an M. Phil. in 1983. In 1986, she earned a J.D. from Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude, where she was supervising editor of the Harvard Law Review. She served as a law clerk to Judge Abner Mikva of the U.S Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit from 1986-1987. She served as a law clerk to Justice Thurgood Marshall of the Supreme Court of the United States during the 1987 Term. She worked as an associate in the Washington, D.C. law firm of Williams & Connolly, LLP, from 1989-1991. She became an assistant professor at the University of Chicago Law School in 1991 and a tenured professor of law in 1995. From 1995-1999, she was associate counsel to President Clinton and then served as deputy assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and Deputy Director of the Domestic Policy Council. She joined Harvard Law School as a visiting professor in 1999 and became professor of law in 2001. She was the Charles Hamilton Houston Professor of Law and was appointed the 11th dean of Harvard Law School in 2003. President Obama nominated her to serve as the 45th Solicitor General of the United States and she was confirmed on March 19, 2009. President Obama nominated her as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on May 10, 2010, and she assumed this role on August 7, 2010.
 
22Name:  Mrs. Helene L. Kaplan
 Institution:  Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP & Carnegie Corporation of New York
 Year Elected:  1990
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Helene Kaplan received a J.D. from New York University School of Law. She is currently Of Counsel to Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, LLP. She has served in the not-for-profit sector as counsel or trustee of many scientific, arts, charitable and educational institutions and foundations. She is a trustee and Vice-Chair of the American Museum of Natural History, Carnegie Corporation of New York, The Commonwealth Fund, The J. Paul Getty Trust, and The Institute for Advanced Study. She was Chair of Mount Sinai School of Medicine and a trustee of Mount Sinai/NYU Health. Ms. Kaplan is Chair Emerita of Barnard College and has served as Chair of Carnegie Corporation of New York, where she is an honorary trustee. She was a member of the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, and chaired its Task Force on Judicial and Regulatory Decision Making. From 1985-87, Ms. Kaplan was a member of the U.S. Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on South Africa, and from 1986-90, she served as a member of New York Governor Mario Cuomo's Task Force on Life and the Law, concerned with the legal and ethical implications of advances in medical technology. Previously, Ms. Kaplan served as a trustee of The John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the MITRE Corporation, and the New York Foundation. She was Chair of the New York Council for the Humanities and Vice-Chair of the New York City Public Development Corporation. She is a retired director of JP Morgan Chase Corporation, The May Department Stores Company, Metlife, Inc., Exxon/Mobil, and Verizon Communications and a member and former director of the Council on Foreign Relations. Helene Kaplan is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1990.
 
23Name:  Mr. Nicholas deB. Katzenbach
 Institution:  Riker, Danzig, Scherer, Hyland & Perretti
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  May 8, 2012
   
 
Nicholas Katzenbach was born in Philadelphia on January 17, 1922. After graduating from Phillips Exeter Academy he joined the United States Air Force. During World War II he was captured by enemy troops and spent two years as a prisoner of war in Italy. After the war Katzenbach attended Princeton University and Yale Law School. While at Yale he was editor-in-chief of the Yale Law Journal. Katzenbach also received a Rhodes scholarship and studied at Oxford University for two years. In 1950 he became a lawyer in New Jersey. In 1952 he became Associate Professor of Law at Yale University. He was also Professor of Law at the University of Chicago (1956-1960). He was also the co-author of The Political Foundations of International Law (1961). Katzenbach joined the justice department's Office of Legal Counsel and in April 1962, was promoted to deputy attorney general, the second highest position in the department. Katzenbach worked closely with President John F. Kennedy and was given the task of securing the release of prisoners captured during the Bay of Pigs raid on Cuba. A supporter of civil rights Katzenbach oversaw departmental operations in desegregating the University of Mississippi in September 1962 and the University of Alabama in June 1963. He also worked with Congress to ensure the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. On the advice of Robert Kennedy, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Katzenbach as Attorney General of the United States. In this post he helped draft the Voting Rights Act. Katzenbach clashed with J. Edgar Hoover over his policy of ordering unauthorized wiretaps of people such as Martin Luther King. Katzenbach resigned in 1966, stating "he could no longer effectively serve as attorney general because of Mr. Hoover's obvious resentment of me." President Johnson then appointed him Under Secretary of State on September 21, 1966. Johnson also appointed Katzenbach to a three-member commission charged with reviewing Central Intelligence Agency activities. After Johnson resigned Katzenbach returned to private law practice in Princeton, New Jersey. He is formerly of Counsel with the firm of Riker, Danzig, Scherer, Hyland & Perretti. His memoir, Some of It Was Fun: Working with RFK and LBJ, was published by Norton in December 2008. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1992. Nicholas Katzenbach died on May 8, 2012, at age 90, at his home in Skillman, New Jersey.
 
24Name:  The Honorable Judith S. Kaye
 Institution:  Skadden, Arps; Court of Appeals, State of New York
 Year Elected:  2003
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1938
 Death Date:  January 7, 2016
   
 
Judith S. Kaye joined Skadden Arps's Litigation Group in 2009. Before joining the firm she served as Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals for 15 years. She was appointed New York's Chief Judge in 1993 by Governor Mario M. Cuomo and was the first woman to occupy that post. The state's longest-serving chief judge, she was reappointed by Governor Eliot Spitzer in 2007 and served until reaching mandatory retirement age in December 2008. She was also the first woman appointed to the State's highest court, the Court of Appeals, which she joined in 1983. As New York's top judicial officer, Judge Kaye presided over the seven-member Court of Appeals and headed the State's Unified Court System, with more than 1,200 State-paid judges in 363 courthouses statewide. Her posts have included: Chair of the Permanent Judicial Commission on Justice for Children; Founding Member and Honorary Chair, Judges and Lawyers Breast Cancer Alert (JALBCA); member of the Board of Editors, New York State Bar Journal; and Trustee, The William Nelson Cromwell Foundation. She had been President of the Conference of Chief Justices and Chair of the Board of Directors of the National Center for State Courts (2002-03). She authored numerous publications and received several honorary degrees and many awards. Born in Monticello, New York, Judge Kaye is a 1958 graduate of Barnard College and a 1962 cum laude graduate of New York University School of Law. She died January 7, 2016, at age 77, at her home in Manhattan.
 
25Name:  Dr. C. Everett Koop
 Institution:  Dartmouth College
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  February 25, 2013
   
 
Dr. C. Everett Koop was born in Brooklyn, on October 14, 1916. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1937 and received his M.D. degree from Cornell Medical College in 1941. After serving an internship at the Pennsylvania Hospital, he pursued postgraduate training at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and the Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, from which he received the degree of Doctor of Science (Medicine) in 1947. After promotions up the academic ladder, he was named professor of pediatrics in 1971. He served as the Elizabeth DeCamp McInerny Professor of Surgery at Dartmouth Medical School. A pediatric surgeon with an international reputation, Dr. Koop became Surgeon-in-Chief of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in 1948 and served in that capacity until he left academia in 1981. He was the founding Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Pediatric Surgery and served in that capacity for 11 years. Dr. Koop was appointed Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) in March 1981 and was sworn in as Surgeon General in November 1981. Additionally, he was appointed Director of the Office of International Health in May 1982. As Surgeon General, Dr. Koop oversaw the activities of the 6,000 member PHS Commissioned Corps and advised the public on health matters such as smoking and health, diet and nutrition, environmental health hazards and the importance of immunization and disease prevention. He also became the government's chief spokesman on AIDS. After two four year terms as Surgeon General, he continued to educate the public about health issues through his writings, the electronic media, and as Senior Scholar of the C. Everett Koop Institute at Dartmouth. Dr. Koop was a member of the American Surgical Association, the Society of University Surgeons, the American Pediatric Surgical Association, the Institute of Medicine, the American Philosophical Society, and other professional societies in the US and abroad. He was a Welfare Medalist of the National Academy of Sciences. He was a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Society of Behavioral Medicine and a member of the American College of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Koop was Chairman Emeritus of the National Health Museum, was chairman of the National SAFE KIDS Campaign for 13 years, Honorary Chairman of the Health Project, and Director of Biopure Corporation. The recipient of numerous honors and awards including 41 honorary doctorates, he was awarded the Denis Brown Gold Medal by the British Association of Pediatric Surgeons; the William E. Ladd Gold Medal of the American Academy of Pediatrics in recognition of outstanding contributions to the field of pediatric surgery; the Order of the Duarte, Sanchez, and Mella, the highest award of the Dominican Republic, for his achievement in separating the conjoined Dominican twins; and a number of other awards from civic, religious, medical and philanthropic organizations. He was awarded the Medal of the Legion of Honor by France in 1980 and was inducted into the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1982, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in Glasgow in 1987, and the Royal Society of Medicine in 1997. In May 1983, Dr. Koop was awarded the Public Health Service Distinguished Service Medal in recognition of his extraordinary leadership of the U.S. Public Health Service. After his retirement, he was presented with the Surgeon General's Exemplary Service Medal and the Surgeon General's Medallion. In September 1995, Dr. Koop was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He was also awarded the 2010 Ryan White Distinguished Leadership Award for his work on AIDS prevention. Dr. Koop was the author of more than 230 articles and books on the practice of medicine and surgery, biomedical ethics and health policy. He was awarded an Emmy in 1991 in the News and Documentary category for "C. Everett Koop, MD", a five-part series on health care reform. Two of the shows in this series were awarded Freddies in 1992: Best Film in the category of Aging for "Forever Young" and Best Film in the Category of Family Dynamics for "Listening to Teenagers." He was married to the former Elizabeth Flanagan and has three living children, Allen, Norman and Elizabeth Thompson, seven grandchildren and three great grandchildren. Elizabeth died in 2007. He married his second wife, Cora Hogue Koop in 2010. C. Everett Koop died February 25, 2013, at age 96, at his home in Hanover, New Hampshire.
 
26Name:  Mr. Nicholas D. Kristof
 Institution:  The New York Times
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1959
   
 
Nicholas D. Kristof, a columnist for The New York Times since November 2001, is a two-time Pulitzer Prize winner who writes op-ed columns that appear twice a week. He was awarded the inaugural Aurora Humanitarian Journalism Award for his reporting on human rights abuses and social injustices in 2020. He attempted a run for Governor of Oregon in 2022. Mr. Kristof grew up on a sheep and cherry farm near Yamhill, Oregon. He graduated from Harvard College, Phi Beta Kappa, and then won a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford, where he studied law and graduated with first class honors. He later studied Arabic in Cairo and Chinese in Taipei. After working in France, he caught the travel bug and began backpacking around Africa and Asia, writing articles to cover his expenses. Mr. Kristof has lived on four continents, reported on six, and traveled to more than 150 countries, plus all 50 states, every Chinese province and every main Japanese island. He’s also one of the very few Americans to be at least a two-time visitor to every member of the "Axis of Evil." During his travels, he has had unpleasant experiences with malaria, mobs and an African airplane crash. After joining The New York Times in 1984, initially covering economics, he served as a correspondent in Los Angeles and as bureau chief in Hong Kong, Beijing, and Tokyo. In 2000, he covered the presidential campaign, and he is the author of the chapter on George W. Bush in the reference book The Presidents. He later was Associate Managing Editor of the Times, responsible for Sunday editions. In 1990 Mr. Kristof and his wife, Sheryl WuDunn, until recently also a Times journalist, won a Pulitzer Prize for their coverage of China’s Tiananmen Square movement. They were the first married couple to win a Pulitzer for journalism. Mr. Kristof won a second Pulitzer in 2006, for what the judges called "his graphic, deeply reported columns that, at personal risk, focused attention on genocide in Darfur." Mr. Kristof has also won other prizes including the George Polk award, the Overseas Press Club award, the Michael Kelly award, the Online News Association award, and the American Society of Newspaper Editors award. Mr. Kristof has taken a special interest in Web journalism and was the first blogger on The New York Times Web site; he has a Facebook fan page and a channel on Youtube, as well as nearly 1 million followers on Twitter. In his column, Mr. Kristof was an early opponent of the Iraq war, was among the first to warn that we were losing ground in Afghanistan, and has regularly focused attention on global poverty, health and gender issues, as well as climate change. Since 2004, he has written dozens of columns about Darfur and has visited the region around Darfur eleven times. Mr. Kristof and Ms. WuDunn are authors of three best-selling books: China Wakes: The Struggle for the Soul of a Rising Power in 1994; Thunder from the East: Portrait of a Rising Asia in 2000; and Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide in 2009. Their most recent book, A Path Appears, was published in 2014. Mr. Kristof is also the subject of an HBO documentary executive-produced by Ben Affleck, "Reporter," and serves on the boards of Harvard University and the American Association of Rhodes Scholars. He has received a number of honorary doctorates and other honors. Mr. Kristof and Ms. WuDunn are the parents of three children. Mr. Kristof enjoys running, backpacking, and having his Chinese and Japanese corrected by his children.
 
27Name:  Dr. Martin L. Levitt
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
Martin Levitt was Associate Director of the American Philosophical Society Library when he succeeded Edward C. Carter II as Librarian in 2003. Under Levitt's direction, the Library is now a leader in the use of technology and has undertaken several digitizing initiatives designed to produce better access to the Society's collections. Levitt earned his doctorate under the supervision of APS member Russell F. Weigley in 1990, and in pursuing his career as an information professional, was subsequently named a Fulbright Fellow in archives (1991-92), a Fellow of the Mary and David Eccles Center of the British Library, and was elected President of the Academy of Certified Archivists. He helped found the Philadelphia Area Center for the History of Science, a consortium of regional research institutions, for which he raised establishing funds and appointed its first director; PACHS is now an independent 501(c)(3) organization housed at the APS that sponsored 13 fellows this year. Of special note, when appointed Librarian of the Society in 2003, Levitt undertook a vigorous program of renovation and re-organization. The renovations included improved spaces for public services, expanded spaces for staff, a modernized conservation facility and cataloging suite, renovation of the stack areas and redistribution of the collections to make the best use of available spaces, and the creation of state-of-the-art fire detection, fire suppression, security, and technology infrastructures. Additionally, he has held a faculty position in the history department at Temple University since 1992, and has been a full professor since 2000. Levitt, who had worked in the APS Library since 1986, also sat on the Board of the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries, revitalized the Friends of the APS Library lecture program, and began an investigation into the possible re-patriation of data owned by the Society into the hands of Native American communities. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2010. He retired at the end of 2014.
 
28Name:  Mr. Anthony Lewis
 Institution:  New York Review of Books; The New York Times
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  March 25, 2013
   
 
Anthony Lewis was a columnist for the New York Times from 1969 to 2001. He has twice won the Pulitzer Prize. In 2001 he was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal and in 2009 he was awarded the Burton Benjamin Award of the Committee to Protect Journalists. He was born in New York City on March 27, 1927. He attended Horace Mann School in New York City and Harvard College, receiving a B.A. in 1948. From 1948 to 1952 he was a deskman in the Sunday Department of The Times. In 1952 he became a reporter for the Washington Daily News. In 1955 he won a Pulitzer Prize for national reporting for a series of articles in the Washington Daily News on the dismissal of a Navy employee as a security risk. The articles led to the employee's reinstatement. In 1955 Mr. Lewis joined the Washington Bureau of the New York Times. In 1956-57 he was a Nieman Fellow; he spent the academic year studying at Harvard Law School. Upon his return to Washington, he covered the Supreme Court, the Justice Department and other legal matters including the government's handling of the civil rights movement, for the New York Times. He won a Pulitzer Prize for his coverage of the Supreme Court in 1963. He became Chief of the Times London Bureau in 1964. He began writing his column from London in 1969. Since 1973 he has been located in Boston. He traveled frequently, in this country and abroad. He is the author of four books: Gideon's Trumpet, about a landmark Supreme Court case; Portrait of a Decade, about the great changes in American race relations; Make No Law: The Sullivan Case and the First Amendment; and Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A Biography of the First Amendment. Mr. Lewis was for fifteen years a lecturer on law at Harvard Law School, teaching a course on the Constitution and the press. He has taught at a number of other universities as a visitor, among them the Universities of California, Illinois, Oregon and Arizona. Since 1983 he has held the James Madison Visiting Professorship at Columbia University. Anthony Lewis died on March 25, 2013, at the age of 85 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was married to Margaret H. Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts.
 
29Name:  Chief Justice Margaret H. Marshall
 Institution:  Choate Hall & Stewart LLP; Supreme Judicial Court, Commonwealth of Massachusetts
 Year Elected:  2017
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, Margaret H. Marshall is Senior Counsel at Choate Hall & Stewart LLP. Appointed Chief Justice in 1999, she was the first woman to serve in that position. She was first appointed to the Court as an Associate Justice in 1996. Chief Justice Marshall was born and raised in South Africa, obtaining her baccalaureate from the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. While an undergraduate, she was elected President of the National Union of South African Students, at the time a leading anti-apartheid organization. She came to the United States in 1968 to pursue graduate studies at Harvard. She received a master's degree from Harvard in 1969 and a J.D. from Yale Law School in 1976. Following her graduation she practiced law in Boston and became a partner in Choate, Hall & Stewart. In 1992, she was appointed Vice President and General Counsel of Harvard University. During her tenure on the Supreme Judicial Court, Chief Justice Marshall authored many opinions, including Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, which declared that the Massachusetts Constitution prohibits the state from denying same-sex couples access to civil marriage. The 2003 ruling made Massachusetts the first state to recognize marriage equality. Chief Justice Marshall has been involved in numerous professional and community activities. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the Council and Executive Committee of the American Law Institute. She served until June 30 2016 as Senior Fellow of the Corporation of Yale University, the governing board and policy-making body for the University. Chief Justice Marshall is the recipient of many awards and honorary degrees, including one from her undergraduate alma mater, the University of the Witwatersrand, and one from her law school alma mater, a 2018 Yale Medal. She received the 2021 Bolch Prize for the Rule of Law.
 
30Name:  Ms. Jane Mayer
 Institution:  The New Yorker Magazine
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Jane Mayer joined The New Yorker as a staff writer in March 1995. Based in Washington, DC, she writes about politics, culture and national security for the magazine. Before joining The New Yorker, Mayer was for twelve years a reporter at the Wall Street Journal. In 1984 she became the Journal's first female White House correspondent. She was also a war correspondent and a foreign correspondent for the paper. Among other stories, she covered the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut, the Persian Gulf War, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the final days of Communism in the Soviet Union. Mayer was the 2008 winner of the John Chancellor Award for Journalistic Excellence, as well as a Guggenheim Foundation Grant in 2008, and winner in 2009 of the Goldsmith Book Prize from Harvard, the 2009 Edward Weintal Prize from Georgetown University, the 2009 Ridenhour Prize, the New York Public Library's 2009 Helen Bernstein Book Award for Excellence in Journalism, the 2009 J. Anthony Lukas Prize from Columbia, the 2009 Sidney Hillman Award, the 2009 Ambassador Award from the English-Speaking Union, and the 2009 Robert F. Kennedy Book Prize. She was also a 2009 finalist for the National Book Award and for the National Book Critics Circle Award. She has been a finalist three times for the National Magazine award, and was nominated twice by the Journal for a Pulitzer Prize. In 2011, she was the winner of the George Polk Award for her coverage of the Obama Administration's prosecution of national security whistle blowers, and the James Aronson Award for social justice journalism. In 2012 she was awarded the Toner Prize for political reporting. She was also the 2013 winner of the IF Stone "Izzy" award presented by the Nieman Foundation at Harvard. In 2014, Mayer was winner of the Matrix Award, given by the New York Women in Communications. Before joining the Journal in 1982, Mayer worked as a metropolitan reporter for the Washington Star. She began her career in journalism as a stringer for Time magazine while still a student in college. Mayer is the author of the 2016 book "Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right," and the 2008 book "The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War in Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals," which was chosen as one of the ten best books of the year by the New York Times, the Economist Magazine, Salon, Slate and Bloomberg. In 2010 the NYU Journalism School named it one of the ten most important works of journalism of the decade. She was also the co-author of two additional best-selling books. "Strange Justice," written with Jill Abramson, published in 1994, was a finalist for the 1994 National Book Award for nonfiction. Her first book, "Landslide: The Unmaking of the President 1984-1988," co-authored by Doyle McManus, was an acclaimed account of the Iran-Contra affair in the Reagan Administration. In 2009, Mayer was chosen Princeton University's Ferris Professor of the Humanities, teaching an undergraduate seminar on political reporting. She has been a speaker at Princeton, Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Mount Holyoke, Northwestern, Boston College and Grinnell, among other schools. Mayer, who was born in New York, graduated with honors from Yale in 1977 and continued her studies in history at Oxford. She lives in Washington with her husband, Bill Hamilton, and daughter, Kate.
 
31Name:  Ms. Sara Miller McCune
 Institution:  SAGE Publishing
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Sara Miller McCune is the founder and executive chairman of SAGE Publishing, with subsidiary companies and sales offices in Los Angeles, Washington D.C., London, India, East Asia, Cairo, Melbourne and Latin America. McCune remains actively involved in the company’s ongoing expansion and development. SAGE Publishing is unique in that McCune has put in place an estate plan that guarantees continued independence indefinitely via a charitable trust that will secure the unique mission, vision, and values of the company. McCune is also co-founder and president of the McCune Foundation, based in Ventura, California. In 2007, she founded the Santa Barbara-based Miller-McCune Center for Research, Media and Public Policy which launched the award-winning print and online magazine Pacific Standard. In 2017, the magazine and the center’s mission were transferred to The Social Justice Foundation, a non-profit organization supported by SAGE Publishing. She is currently a member of the board of directors of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and a member of the board of directors and the chairman of the visiting committee of the Social Science Research Council. McCune is a graduate of Queens College and the recipient of honorary doctorates from Queens College, University of Sussex, University of Bath, and California State University Channel Islands. She has also been recognized as an honorary alumna of UCSB and an honorary Fellow of Cardiff University and of Pembroke College, Oxford.
 
32Name:  The Honorable Vincent Lee McKusick
 Institution:  Pierce Atwood
 Year Elected:  1986
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  December 3, 2014
   
 
Vincent L. McKusick was Chief Justice (Retired) of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court at the time of his death at 93 on December 3, 2014. On entering the Army in 1943, after graduating from Bates College, he participated in a specialized training program in engineering and completed his military service on the Manhattan Project. He earned a master's degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology prior to entering Harvard Law School in 1947. A President of the Harvard Law Review, Vincent McKusick, upon graduation, served as law clerk to Judge Learned Hand and to Justice Felix Frankfurter. In 1952 Vincent McKusick joined the Portland, Maine firm of Hutchinson, Pierce Atwood & Scribner. For twenty-five years he engaged in a broad general practice with emphasis on appellate, corporate, and public utility matters. He also worked to modernize the rules of procedure for the Maine courts and co-authored two editions of the classic work on Maine Civil Practice. He was appointed Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court in 1977, the only such appointment directly from the bar since the appointment of Maine's first Chief Justice in 1820. Chief Justice McKusick had responsibility for managing Maine's entire court system as well as presiding over its highest appellate court. His fourteen and one-half years as Chief Justice were marked by significant improvement in the structure and operation of all courts. In 1990-91 he served as President of the Conference of Chief Justices and Chairman of the National Center for State Courts. Following his voluntary retirement from the Court in 1992, Judge McKusick returned "of counsel" to his firm, now Pierce Atwood. In the years since he served as Special Master of the Supreme Court of the United States in three original jurisdiction suits between states and was also actively involved in private arbitration and mediation. He has served on the Board of Directors of the American Arbitration Association and in the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association and in May 2008 completed 38 years of service on the Council of the American Law Institute. Judge McKusick was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1986.
 
33Name:  Mr. Carl F. Miller
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
For thirty years Carl Miller has been a dedicated member of the American Philosophical Society's administration. He continually demonstrates a thorough knowledge of the Society's activities and contributes to all aspects of the Society's management. In college and graduate school he studied history with a special focus on colonial America. He received an M.A. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1969. In 1971 he joined the American Philosophical Society's staff as the assistant manuscripts librarian. In 1976, he became Assistant Librarian. A year later, Miller was given additional responsibilities as Assistant to the Executive Officer, a position that grew into his current position as Financial Officer. He is responsible for preparing and supervising all facets of the budget, reviewing and authorizing expenses and deposits, administering employee benefits, and assisting accounting, actuarial, and legal consultants in preparing various federal and state documents. In short, he is a key figure in the day-to-day operations of the Society. Carl Miller has the respect and confidence of the Society staff, and has worked closely with the officers and members of the Society for thirty years. His deep commitment to the Society and the breadth of his experience and knowledge in all facets of its operations are qualities that were honored in his election to its membership in 2002.
 
34Name:  Mr. I. M. Pei
 Institution:  I. M. Pei Architect
 Year Elected:  1981
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  May 16, 2019
   
 
Ieoh Ming Pei was born in China in 1917. He came to the U.S. in 1935 to study architecture at M.I.T. (B. Arch., 1940) and the Harvard Graduate School of Design (M. Arch., 1946). In 1948, he became Director of Architecture at Webb & Knapp, Inc., a real estate development firm. This association resulted in major architectural and planning projects in Philadelphia, Chicago, Washington, and other cities. In 1958, he formed I.M. Pei & Associates, which evolved to I.M. Pei & Partners, and later to Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. After 1996 he was an independent architect. Mr. Pei designed well over 50 projects around the world. The impressive list includes the East Wing, National Gallery of Art; the Pyramide du Louvre, Paris; Bank of China, Hong Kong; National Center for Atmospheric Research, Colorado; Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Cleveland; Javits Convention Center, New York; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse; Christian Science Center, Boston; J.F.K. Library, Boston; Dallas City Hall; Morton Meyerson Symphony Center, Dallas; Fragrant Hill Hotel, Beijing; and Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation Center, Singapore. Mr. Pei was awarded the American Philosophical Society's 2001 Thomas Jefferson Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Arts, Humanities, or Social Sciences, the award citation for which reads, "In recognition of his distinguished accomplishments as a seminal, creative architect; his fulfillment in the contemporary world of Vitruvius' injunction to combine in one's work utilitas, firmitas, venustas; and the elegant, spiritual, uplifting genius embodied in his buildings across the globe." Additionally, he was awarded the Royal Gold Medal in 2010 from the Royal Institute of British Architects in London and the 2016 Asia Game Changer Lifetime Achievement Award. I.M. Pei was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1981. On May 16, 2019 he died in Manhattan at the age of 102.
 
35Name:  The Honorable Ellen Ash Peters
 Institution:  University of Connecticut ;Connecticut Supreme Court
 Year Elected:  1993
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1930
   
 
Ellen Ash Peters has had two professional careers in the law. For 22 years, she taught contracts and commercial law at The Yale Law School. For the following 22 years, she was a member, and, for many years, chief justice, of the Connecticut Supreme Court. Having reached the age of mandatory retirement, she now hears cases on the Connecticut Appellate Court.
 
36Name:  The Honorable Louis H. Pollak
 Institution:  U.S. District Court
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  May 8, 2012
   
 
Louis H. Pollak was a graduate of Harvard University (1944) and Yale Law School (1948). Following his graduation from law school, Judge Pollak clerked for Justice Wiley B. Rutledge. Between 1950 and 1955, he served as 1) an associate at the New York law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison; 2) in the State Department as special assistant to Ambassador-at-Large Philip C. Jessup; and 3) as Assistant Counsel of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. In 1955, Judge Pollak was appointed to the Yale Law School faculty where he remained until 1974, serving as dean from 1965-70. From 1974-78, Judge Pollak was a professor of law at the University of Pennsylvania, serving as dean from 1975-78. At that time, Judge Pollak was appointed as Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Upon becoming a judge, he retired from the full-time University of Pennsylvania faculty, but continued to teach a seminar as an adjunct professor. Constitutional law continued to be the principal focus of Judge Pollak's teaching and scholarly interests. From 1950 until he became a judge, he was associated with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, first as one of the volunteer lawyers assisting Thurgood Marshall in Brown v. Board of Education, and later as a board member and vice president. Judge Pollak also has been a member of the Council of the American Law Institute since 1978. In addition to his duties on the bench, he continued to write, including the most recent, "Marbury v. Madison: What Did John Marshall Decide and Why?," published in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Volume #1, March 2004. Judge Pollak was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2000. He died on May 8, 2012, at age 89, at his home in West Mount Airy.
 
37Name:  Mr. David Remnick
 Institution:  The New Yorker
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
David Remnick is the editor of The New Yorker magazine. He graduated from Princeton University in 1981 and the following year became a staff writer at The Washington Post. In 1988 he was appointed the newspaper's Moscow correspondent and won a Pulitzer Prize for his reporting during the break up of the Soviet Union. Also from that experience came a first rate and very original book, Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. At the age of forty, Remnick became the editor of The New Yorker, a magazine the importance of which in American cultural history cannot be overstated. Remnick not only stabilized the maagazine after a period of turmoil but brought it back to the traditions of the highest level of political and cultural journalism and critical writing on literature and the arts. At the same time, Remnick has continued to write extensively, producing first rate pieces on Russia and Israel as well as a thumping book on Muhammad Ali. Remnick's most recent publication is Reporting: Writings from The New Yorker (2006). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2006). David Remnick was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
38Name:  Mr. William H. Scheide
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  November 14, 2014
   
 
William H. Scheide was among the most distinguished book collectors in the world, and his Scheide Collection is unique in having been built over three family generations. Housed in Princeton University's Firestone Library, the Scheide collection enables scholars as well as the general public to view Bibles (including the Gutenberg Bible), early printing, music manuscripts (Bach, Mozart, Wagner, Schubert and Beethoven) and Americana, all of which Mr. Scheide has managed in both personal and scholarly ways. Also known as a distinguished Bach scholar, he held an A.M. from Columbia University (1940) and worked both in the Cornell University Department of Music and, for thirty years, as organizer and director of the Bach Aria Group. It has been said that "probably no single individual has done so much to further the study of the music of J.S. Bach in the United States" as William Scheide. William Scheide died November 14, 2014, at age 100 in Princeton.
 
39Name:  The Honorable Sonia Sotomayor
 Institution:  United States Supreme Court
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Sonia Sotomayor received a B.A.. summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1976 and a J.D. from Yale Law School in 1979. She was an assistant district attorney for New York County until 1984 when she joined the law firm Pavia & Harcourt, becoming a partner in 1988. She was a member of the board of directors of the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, 1980-92, and she became the U.S. District Judge of the Southern District of New York in 1992. She served as a U.S. Court of Appeals Judge, 2nd Circuit, 1998 to 2009, and she was also a lecturer at Columbia Law School and a former adjunct professor at New York University School of Law. President Barack Obama nominated her for the Supreme Court seat left vacant when Justice Souter announced his retirement. She was confirmed and on August 8, 2009, she was sworn in as an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Sotomayor has been widely recognized as one of the ablest federal judges. Her opinions are exceptionally thoughtful, courageous, and clear headed. She showed these qualities as a trial judge in her powerful and controversial opinion during the baseball strike and continued to do so on the Court of Appeals. Before becoming a judge she was a distinguished international lawyer and is viewed on the court as one of the leading experts on comparative and international legal problems. Justice Sotomayor has been honored with the M. Taylor Pyne Honor Prize from Princeton University, the Charles W. Froessel Award of the New York Law School Law Review, the Distinguished Lawyers Award from Lawyers College of Puerto Rico, the Lance Liebman Nice Guys/Gals Do Not Necessarily Finish Last Award from the Columbia Law School Center for Public Interest Law, the Katharine Hepburn Medal (2015), the John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service (2015), the Hispanic Heritage Foundation's Leadership Award, and the Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal in Law (2020). Justice Sotomayor has received honorary degrees from Brooklyn Law School, Princeton University, Herbert H. Lehman College, Pace University and Northeastern University. Additionally, Bryn Mawr College awarded her the 2015 Katherine Hepburn Medal. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002. She is the author of My Beloved World, 2013; The Beloved World of Sonia Sotomayor, 2018; and Turning Pages: My Life Story, 2018. She was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2018.
 
40Name:  The Honorable David H. Souter
 Institution:  United States Supreme Court
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
David H. Souter served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1990 to 2009. After earning degrees from Harvard University (1961), from Magdalen College at Oxford University (Rhodes Scholar, 1963) and from Harvard Law School (1966), David Souter returned to New Hampshire to practice as an associate with the law firm of Orr and Reno. Two years later, he left private practice to join the New Hampshire Attorney General's Office, progressively becoming the Deputy Attorney General in 1971 and the Attorney General in 1976. In 1978, Justice Souter was named a Justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court, the state trial court for general jurisdiction, which "rides circuit" from county to county. After five years on the trial court, he was elevated to the New Hampshire Supreme Court in 1983 by Governor John Sununu. Seven years later, in April 1990, President George H.W. Bush appointed David Souter to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. He served there only briefly. Following the retirement of Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. in July, President Bush nominated him for a seat on the United States Supreme Court. On October 2, 1990, the Senate confirmed his nomination by a vote of 90 - 9. During his time on the Court, Justice Souter established himself as a highly regarded and influential moderate with respect for precedent and for adherence to the rule of law. He retired from the Court in June 2009. Justice Souter was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1994.
 
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