American Philosophical Society
Member History

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407. Philosophy[X]
1Name:  Dr. Stanley Cavell
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  June 19, 2018
   
 
Stanley Cavell was one of the most distinguished and most independent American philosophers of the last half-century. His major interests center on the relation of the analytical tradition (especially the work of Austin and Wittgenstein) with key figures of the Continental tradition (for example, Heidegger and Nietzsche); with American philosophy (especially Emerson and Thoreau); and with the arts (for example, Shakespeare, film, and opera). At a time when one hears the fear that American philosophy is limiting itself to philosophy of cognitive science and philosophy of language and logic and European philosophy is dominated by Postmodernism, Dr. Cavell was perhaps the outstanding example of a philosopher who is simultaneously humanistic and rigorous. The extent of his influence was testified to by the fact that he had been the subject of books and collections of papers in the United States, England, Germany, France, Spain and Japan. In 1997 Dr. Cavell became Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value Emeritus at Harvard University, where he had taught since 1963. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1961 and was a Junior Fellow in Harvard's Society of Fellows from 1953 to 1956. He earned his A.B. in music at the University of California, Berkeley in 1947 and returned to Berkeley as an assistant professor of philosophy from 1956 to 1962. Stanley Cavell died June 19, 2018, at the age of 91 in Boston, Massachusetts.
 
2Name:  Dr. Regna Darnell
 Institution:  University of Western Ontario
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Regna Darnell is today the leading historian of North American linguistics and anthropology, from its founding by pioneers like Daniel Brinton and Franz Boas, to Edward Sapir and the modern field of ethnographic linguistics. She is one of Canada's most widely published authorities on First Nations languages and cultures, having conducted fieldwork across the continent with speakers of Algonkian, Athabascan, and Iroquoian languages. Her work represents a unique synthesis of hardminded ethnographic and linguistic description with the sensitivity of the humanistic tradition, bridging the gap between a postmodernist appreciation of cultural uniqueness and a scientific insistence on verifiable observation. Dr. Darnell holds a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania (1969) and has taught anthropology at the University of Alberta (1969-90) and the University of Western Ontario (1990-), where she is currently Distinguished University Professor of Anthropology. Her publications include Edward Sapir: Linguist, Anthropologist, Humanist (1990); Along Came Boas: Continuity and Revolution in Americanist Anthropology (1998); and Invisible Genealogies: A History of Americanist Anthropology (2001). She won the 2020 Lifetime Service Award from the Women’s Caucus, Canadian Anthropology Society and the 2020 Lifetime Service Award from the American Society for Ethnohistory. She published History of Anthropology: A Critical Window on the Discipline in North America (2021), she will publish Method and Theory in the History of Anthropology (2022), and she edited the forthcoming Franz Boas Papers: Documentary Edition.
 
3Name:  Dr. Donald Davidson
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1985
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  August 31, 2003
   
4Name:  Dr. Ronald Dworkin
 Institution:  New York University; University College, Oxford
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  February 14, 2013
   
 
Ronald Dworkin was Professor of Philosophy and Frank Henry Sommer Professor of Law at New York University and Professor of Jurisprudence at University College, Oxford. He received his L.L.B. from Harvard Law School in 1957 and went on to clerk for Judge Learned Hand. He taught at Yale University Law School from 1962-69, serving as Holhfeld Professor of Law, and from 1969-98 was Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford University and Fellow of University College. In 1994 he was awarded the American Philosophical Society's Henry M. Phillips Prize in Jurisprudence in recognition of "his book Law's Empire and his other jurisprudential writings over the past quarter century." His 2007 award of the Holberg Prize confirmed more widely what Dworkin's professional colleagues have come to take for granted: that there is no more influential thinker now at work in the fields radiating from the intersections of moral philosophy, political philosophy, and the philosophy of law. With the publication of Rawls' Theory of Justice, moral philosophy was brought back to the center of philosophical study, and Dworkin has expanded its reach both by essentially linking the interpretation of law with the perspective of morality, and by his unique position as a public intellectual. The position is unique in demonstrating in practice one of Dworkin's guiding ideas, namely that freedom of speech is fundamental to that responsibility for civic conversation apart from which society cannot know itself, that is, know what it values politically. Ronald Dworkin's publications include Taking Rights Seriously (1977); A Matter of Principle (1985); Law's Empire (1986); Philosophical Issues in Senile Dementia (1987); A Bill of Rights for Britain (1990); Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia and Individual Freedom (1993); Freedom's Law: The Moral Reading of the American Constitution (1996); Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality (2000); and Is Democracy Possible Here? Principles for a New Political Debate (2006). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1979). Ronald Dworkin was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. He died on February 14, 2013, at the age of 81 in London.
 
5Name:  Dr. Didier Fassin
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study; École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
 Year Elected:  2022
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Didier Fassin is a French anthropologist and sociologist. He is James D. Wolfensohn Professor of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and Director of Studies at the École des Hautes Études in Paris. He has recently been elected at the Collège de France to a permanent Chair named “Moral Questions and Political Issues in Contemporary Societies”. Initially trained as a physician in Paris, he practiced internal medicine as an infectious disease specialist at the Hospital Pitié-Salpétrière and taught public health at the University Pierre et Marie Curie. He also worked as a medical doctor in India and Tunisia. Later shifting to social science, he received his M.A. in anthropology from La Sorbonne, and his PhD from the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, writing his thesis on power relations and health inequalities in Senegal. After having been granted a fellowship by the French Institute for Andean Studies to investigate maternal mortality and living conditions among Indian women in Ecuador, he became assistant professor of sociology in 1991 at the University of Paris North. There, he created CRESP, the Center for Research on Social and Health Issues, working on several public health problems such as the history of child lead poisoning in France and the politics of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Appointed as Professor of sociology at the University of Paris North in 1997, he was elected two years later as Director of studies in anthropology at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. In 2007, he founded IRIS, the Interdisciplinary Research Institute for Social Sciences, in an effort to bring together anthropologists, sociologists, historians, political scientists and legal scholars around contemporary political and social issues. He himself developed a long-term program exploring the multiple facets of humanitarianism in local and international policies, especially towards the poor, immigrant and refugees, as well as victims of violence and epidemics. In parallel, he launched a research project on borders and boundaries in an attempt to articulate the issues around immigration and racialization. In 2008, he received an Advanced Grant by the European Research Council for his program Towards a Critical Moral Anthropology, which he developed with a team of twelve anthropologists and sociologists. To reappraise theoretical issues in the analysis of morals and ethics, he himself conducted ethnographic research on police, justice and prison in France. In 2009, he succeeded Clifford Geertz at the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, and became the first James D. Wolfensohn Professor of Social Science. His inaugural public lecture was entitled “Critique of Humanitarian Reason”. In 2010, he became Visiting Professor at the Universities of Princeton and Hong Kong. A year later, he created a Summer Program in Social Science for earlier-career scholars from Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, on the basis of two-year sessions, the first one in Princeton, the second one in the Global South. In France, he has been involved in the politics of science, as a member of the Scientific Council of INSERM, the National Institute for Health and Medical Research, of the Ethics Committee of INRA, the National Institute for Agronomic Research, and of the Scientific Council of the City of Paris. In 2006, he became the chair of the Committee for Humanities and Social Science in the French National Agency for Research. In the United States, as a member of the Committee of World Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association appointed in 2010, he was committed to the global circulation of knowledge and the reduction of the gap between the North and the South in the development of social science. And as a guest advisor of the New Jersey Criminal Sentencing and Disposition Commission, he has contributed since 2018 to the reform of the state penal and penitentiary system. His research on punishment was the matter of his Tanner Lectures on Human Values at the University of California, Berkeley, and his reflection on life was the topic of his Adorno Lectures, at the Goethe University of Frankfurt. He also gave the inaugural Lemkin Lecture at Rutgers University on resentment and ressentiment, the Tumin Lecture at Princeton University on the life of things, the Eric Wolf Lecture at the University of Vienna on conspiracy theories, and the Page-Barbour Lectures at the University of Virginia on crisis. He developed a theoretical analysis of the public presence of the social sciences, which he presented in his recipient lecture for the Gold Medal in anthropology at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The Nomis Distinguished Scientist Award he has been granted has allowed him to conduct a multi-sited research exploring the ubiquitous notion of crisis and its multiple meanings from a global perspective. Appointed in 2019 at the Annual Chair in Public Health at the Collège de France he gave his inaugural lecture on the inequality of lives. In 2021, he was elected at the Academia Europaea and received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Liège. Apart from his academic career, he has participated in various solidarity non-governmental organizations in France, in particular as Administrator and later Vice-president of MSF, Doctors Without Borders, from 1999 to 2003, and as President of COMEDE, the Medical Committee for the Exiles since 2006. Following the publication of his book on urban policing, he was requested to testify as amicus curiae in the first French lawsuit against racial discrimination in law enforcement. He is a frequent contributor to various media, in France to national radio programs, newspapers and magazines, such as France Culture, Le Monde, Libération and Alternatives économiques, and occasionally writes for the New York Times, the London Review of Books, the Frankfurter Algemeine Zeitung, among others. His publications include: as editor, Contemporary States of Emergency. The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Interventions (with Mariella Pandolfi, Zone Books, 2010), Moral Anthropology. A Companion (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), Moral Anthropology; A Critical Reader (Routledge, 2014), Writing the World of Policing. The Difference Ethnography Makes (The University of Chicago Press, 2017), If Truth Be Told. The Politics of Public Ethnography (Duke University Press, 2017), A Time for Critique (with Bernard Harcourt, Columbia University Press, 2018), Deepening Divides. How Physical Borders and Social Boundaries Delineates our World (Pluto Press, 2020), Words and Worlds. A Lexicon for Dark Times (with Veena Das, Duke University Press, 2021), Pandemic Exposures. Economy and Society in the Time of Coronavirus (with Marion Fourcade, Hau Books, 2021), Crisis Under Critique. How People Assess, Transform and Respond to Critical Situations (with Axel Honneth, Columbia University Press, 2022), and La Société qui vient (Seuil, 2022); as author, When Bodies Remember. Politics and Experience of AIDS in South Africa (University of California Press, 2007), The Empire of Trauma. An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood (with Richard Rechtman, Princeton University Press, 2009), Humanitarian Reason. A Moral History of the Present (University of California Press, 2011), Enforcing Order. An Ethnography of Urban Policing (Polity, 2013), At the Heart of the State. The Moral World of Institutions (with Yasmine Bouagga et al., Pluto, 2015), Four Lectures on Ethics. Anthropological Perspectives (with Michael Lambek, Veena Das & Webb Keane, Hau Books, 2015), Prison Worlds. An Ethnography of the Carceral Condition (Polity, 2016), Life. A Critical User’s Manual (Polity, 2018), The Will to Punish (Oxford University Press, 2018), Policing the City. An Ethno-Graphic (with Frédéric Debomy and Jake Raynal, Other Press, 2021), Death of a Traveller. A Counter Investigation (Polity, 2021), Les Mondes de la santé publique. Excursions anthropologiques. Cours au Collège de France (Seuil, 2021). His books have been translated into eight languages.
 
6Name:  Dr. Carol Greenhouse
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Carol J. Greenhouse is a cultural anthropologist specializing in the anthropology of law and politics, with primary interests in the United States. A graduate of Harvard University (A.B. Anthropology, Ph.D. Social Anthropology), she taught at Cornell and Indiana-Bloomington prior to joining the anthropology faculty at Princeton, where she has remained, entering emeritus status in 2019. She has held the chair (visiting) in American Civilization at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris) and is past president of the Law & Society Association and the Association for Political and Legal Anthropology; she is also former editor of American Ethnologist. Her books include Praying for Justice: Faith, Hope and Community in an America Town, A Moment's Notice: Time Politics Across Cultures, Law and Community in Three American Towns (with David Engel and Barbara Yngvesson; winner of the Law & Society Association book prize), The Relevance of Paradox: Ethnography and Citizenship in the United States and edited volumes Ethnography and Democracy: Constructing Identity in Multicultural Liberal States, Ethnography in Unstable Places: Everyday Life in Contexts of Dramatic Social Change (co-edited with Elizabeth Mertz and Kay Warren) and Ethnographies of Neoliberalism. In 2011, she was co-winner of the Law & Society Association's Kalven Prize. She is married to Alfred C. Aman, Jr., Roscoe C. O'Byrne Professor of Law and former dean at Indiana University's Maurer School of Law, Bloomington.
 
7Name:  Dr. Carl G. Hempel
 Institution:  Princeton University & University of Pittsburgh
 Year Elected:  1966
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1905
 Death Date:  11/9/97
   
8Name:  Dr. Thomas S. Kuhn
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1974
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  6/17/96
   
9Name:  Dr. Tanya Marie Luhrmann
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2022
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1959
   
 
Tanya Marie Luhrmann is the Albert Ray Lang Professor of Anthropology at Stanford University, with a courtesy appointment in Psychology. Her work focuses on the edge of experience: on voices, visions, the world of the supernatural and the world of psychosis. She has done ethnography on the streets of Chicago with homeless and psychotic women, and worked with people who hear voices in Chennai, Accra and the South Bay. She has also done fieldwork with evangelical Christians who seek to hear God speak back, with Zoroastrians who set out to create a more mystical faith, and with people who practice magic. She uses a combination of ethnographic and experimental methods to understand the phenomenology of unusual sensory experiences, the way they are shaped by ideas about minds and persons, and what we can learn from this social shaping that can help us to help those whose voices are distressing. At the heart of the work is the sense of being called, and its possibilities and burden. She was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003 and received a John Guggenheim Fellowship award in 2007. When God Talks Back was named a NYT Notable Book of the Year and a Kirkus Reviews Best Book of the Year. It was awarded the $100,000 Grawemeyer Prize for Religion by the University of Louisville. She has published over thirty OpEds in The New York Times, and her work has been featured in The New Yorker, The New York Review of Books, The Times Literary Supplement, Science News, and many other publications. She is the author of Persuasions of the Witch’s Craft, The Good Parsi, Of Two Minds, When God Talks Back, Our Most Troubling Madness, and How God Becomes Real and other books, and is currently at work on a book entitled Voices.
 
10Name:  Dr. Hilary Putnam
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  March 13, 2016
   
 
Hilary W. Putnam is the Cogan University Professor Emeritus in the Department of Philosophy at Harvard University. Before joining the faculty of Harvard, he was Professor of the Philosophy of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has also taught at Northwestern University and Princeton University (in both the Philosophy Department and Mathematics Departments). He holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles as well as several honorary degrees. Dr. Putnam is past president of the American Philosophical Association (Eastern Division), the Philosophy of Science Association, and the Association for Symbolic Logic. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the British Academy. His books include three volumes of Philosophical Papers published by Cambridge University Press, a book on mind, language and computers titled Representation and Reality, and two volumes of collected papers published by Harvard University Press under the titles Realism with a Human Face and Words and Life. His new book, The Threefold Cord: Mind, Body and World has just been published by Columbia University Press. Dr. Putnam was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
11Name:  Dr. Willard Van O. Quine
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1957
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1908
 Death Date:  December 25, 2000
   
12Name:  Dr. John Rawls
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1974
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  November 24, 2002
   
13Name:  Dr. Richard Rorty
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2005
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1931
 Death Date:  June 8, 2007
   
14Name:  Dr. Frank H. Stewart
 Institution:  The Hebrew University
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
By discipline an anthropologist, Frank Stewart is a creative and rigorous thinker in Middle Eastern studies. He was Professor of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies at the Hebrew University 1994 to 2009. Stewart's two volumes of texts on Sinai Bedouin law are the first installments of an exceptionally deep study of a customary (non-Shari'a) legal system that is unlikely to last much longer, and they are also a significant contribution to Arabic linguistics. No other researcher has been able to study a legal system based on unwritten law in such depth. In addition to his core work on the Middle East, he has also written on the historical anthropology of North American Indians, on age-group systems across the world (also of interest to some economists), and on the concept of honor (also of interest to philosophers - the book was reviewed in Mind). The article on Schuld and Haftung is a contribution to comparative law published in the leading journal of German legal history.
 
15Name:  Dr. Judith Jarvis Thomson
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  November 20, 2020
   
 
Judith Jarvis Thomson was Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She earned her Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1959. Her teaching career includes Barnard College, Boston University, and as Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Philosophy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Judith Jarvis Thomson has been a leading contributor to the flourishing of moral and political philosophy in America since the 1960s. She is best known for her defense of abortion and for her subtle and pioneering use of “trolley problem” thought experiments as a tool for understanding interpersonal morality, which has set the agenda, and provided a model, for much subsequent work. Thomson’s ingenious use of examples, and her rigorous yet extremely readable style, have made her writing widely influential. Her important book, The Realm of Rights, used this same method of argument from carefully crafted examples to develop a general account of morality based on rights, drawing important connections between morality and law, particularly the theory of torts. Thomson was one of a small number of women philosophers to rise to great prominence in the field in the second half of the twentieth century, paving the way for many others. She has been honored with a Guggenheim Fellowship (1987-88) and the Quinn Prize of the American Philosophical Association in 2012. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1989) and the American Philosophical Association (president, Eastern Division, 1992-93). Her works include Acts and Other Events (1977), Rights, Restitution, and Risk (1986), The Realm of Rights (1990), and Normativity (2008). Judith Jarvis Thomson was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2019. She died on November 20, 2020.
 
16Name:  Dr. Morton G. White
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study
 Year Elected:  1972
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  407. Philosophy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  May 27, 2016
   
 
Morton G. White was Philosophy and Intellectual History Professor Emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study's School of Historical Studies. In his philosophy of holistic pragmatism, Dr. White tried to bridge the positivistic gulf between analytic and synthetic truth as well as that between moral and scientific belief. He maintained that philosophy of science is not philosophy enough, thereby encouraging the examination of other aspects of civilized life, especially art, history, law, politics, religion, and their relations with science. His many books include Foundations of Historical Knowledge (1965); Science and Sentiment in America (1972); The Question of Free Will (1993); and A Philosophy of Culture: The Scope of Holistic Pragmatism (2002). His book with the late Lucia Perry White, The Intellectual versus the City: From Thomas Jefferson to Frank Lloyd Wright, was first published in 1962. Dr. White received his Ph.D. from Columbia University (1942) and was honored with Columbia's Woodbridge Prize in Philosophy (1943), a Guggenheim Fellowship (1950-51) and membership in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Prior to joining the Institute for Advanced Study as a professor in 1970, he was a member of the institute from 1953-54, 1962-63 and 1968 and served as a professor at Harvard University from 1953-70. Morton White died May 27, 2016 at the age of 99 in Skillman, New Jersey.
 
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