American Philosophical Society
Member History

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406. Linguistics[X]
1Name:  Dr. Nancy D. Cartwright
 Institution:  University of California, San Diego; Durham University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished philosophers of science currently active in the English-speaking world. There is a unifying theme that runs through the five books and many of the articles she has published. This theme concerns the inevitable nature of the approximations and of the limitations of what we can hope, even in principle, to accomplish in science. These ideas are developed not in terms of grand generalities but by detailed consideration of many examples from a great variety of disciplines, especially economics and physics. Her focus is also often on the significance of the positive results we can expect. She is best known for her extensive publications on the nature of causality and scientific laws. Dr. Cartwright has served as Professor of Philosophy at the London School of Economics and Political Science since 1991 and as Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, San Diego since 1998. She left LSE and joined the Philosophy Department at Durham University in autumn 2012, to set up a new Centre broadly concerned with "Knowledge, Culture and the Public Good". In addition to working at Durham University, she is Distinguished Professor at University of California, San Diego. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1971.
2Name:  Mr. Saul A. Kripke
 Institution:  The Graduate Center of the City University of New York; Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1940
 Death Date:  September 15, 2022
Saul Kripke is professor of philosophy at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and McCosh Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Princeton University. He earned a B.A. from Harvard University in 1962 and was a Harvard Junior Fellow from 1963-67 before becoming professor of philosophy at Rockefeller University. He joined the Princeton faculty in 1976. Saul Kripke's work has significantly changed the way we look at fundamental philosophical problems today. His 1972 lectures at Princeton University, published as Naming and Necessity (1980), shattered a centuries-old consensus on the nature of the fundamental semantical concepts of connotation and reference, as well as challenging received ideas about necessity and contingency. On the technical side, Kripke transformed the subjects of modal and intuitionistic logic. He has also made fundamental contributions to set theory and generalized recursion theory, and to Boolean Algebra. Subsequently he proposed the first new formal theory of truth since Alfred Tarski's epochal work in the 1930s. He also proposed a radically new interpretation of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, one which continues to be at the center of virtually every discussion of that famous work. Kripke delivered Oxford University's John Locke Lectures in 1973-74 and was awarded the Swedish Academy of Sciences' Schock Prize in Logic and Philosophy in 2001. Saul Kripke was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2004. He has received honorary degrees from the University of Nebraska, Omaha (1977), Johns Hopkins University (1997) the University of Haifa (1998) and the University of Pennsylvania (2005).
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