American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Mr. Norman R. Augustine
 Institution:  Lockheed Martin Corporation
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Norman R. Augustine was raised in Colorado and attended Princeton University where he graduated with a BSE in Aeronautical Engineering, magna cum laude, and MSE and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Xi. In 1958, he joined the Douglas Aircraft Company in California where he held titles of Program Manager and Chief Engineer. Beginning in 1965, he served in the Pentagon in the Office of Secretary of Defense as an Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering. Joining the LTV Missiles and Space Company in 1970, he served as Vice President, Advanced Programs and Marketing. In 1973, he returned to government as Assistant Secretary of the Army and in 1975 as Under Secretary of the Army and later as Acting Secretary of the Army. Joining Martin Marietta Corporation in 1977, he served as Chairman and CEO from 1988 and 1987, respectively, until 1995, having previously been President and Chief Operating Officer. He served as President of Lockheed Martin Corporation upon the formation of that company in 1995, and became its Chief Executive Officer on January 1, 1996, and later Chairman. Retiring as an employee of Lockheed Martin in August 1997, he joined the faculty of the Princeton University School of Engineering and Applied Science where he served as Lecturer with the Rank of Professor until July 1999. In 2019 he and his wife endowed three Professorships in Princeton's School of Engineering with the goal of addressing global challenges and creating the next generation of scientific leaders. Mr. Augustine served as Chairman and Principal Officer of the American Red Cross for nine years and as Chairman of the National Academy of Engineering, the Association for the United States Army, the Aerospace Industry Association, and the Defense Science Board. He is a former President of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Boy Scouts of America. He has been a member of the Board of Directors of ConocoPhillips, Black & Decker, Procter & Gamble and Lockheed Martin and a member of the Board of Trustees of Colonial Williamsburg, Johns Hopkins, Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is currently a Regent of the University System of Maryland. He is a 16-year member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and serves on the Department of Homeland Security Advisory Board and was a member of the Hart/Rudman Commission on National Security. Mr. Augustine has been presented the National Medal of Technology by the President of the United States, has five times been awarded the Department of Defense's highest civilian decoration, the Distinguished Service Medal, and has received the Joint Chiefs of Staff Distinguished Public Service Award. He recently received the 2013 CRDF Global George Brown Award for International Scientific Cooperation. He is co-author of The Defense Revolution and Shakespeare in Charge and author of Augustine's Laws and Augustine's Travels. He holds twenty-three honorary degrees and was selected by Who's Who in America and the Library of Congress as one of the Fifty Great Americans on the occasion of Who's Who's fiftieth anniversary. He has traveled in over 100 countries and stood on both the North and South Poles.
 
2Name:  Dr. Keith Michael Baker
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Keith Baker is the J. E. Wallace Sterling Professor in Humanities; a professor of history; and director of the France-Stanford Center for Interdisciplinary Studies at Stanford University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of London in 1964 and taught at Reed College and the University of Chicago before joining the Stanford faculty in 1988. At Stanford, he has served as Chair of the Department of History (1994-95), Director of the Stanford Humanites (1995-2000) and Cognizant Dean for the Humanities in the School of Humanities and Sciences. One of the world's foremost historians of 18th-century France, Dr. Baker also served for almost a decade as co-editor of the Journal of Modern History, the leading English-language quarterly for research in modern European history. Dr. Baker's own research has focused on problems of intellectual history and the history of political culture. He is the author of what is widely considered to be the definitive study of the Marquis de Condorcet, the philosopher of progress and social science who was one of the great figures of the French Enlightenment and Revolution. More recently, Dr. Baker has studied the cultural and political origins of the French Revolution and has made important contributions to the development of a new understanding of that event and of its significance for the creation of modern politics. Among his many honors and awards, he has held a Guggenheim Fellowship, has been named Chevalier dans l'Ordre des Palmes Academiques and is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
 
3Name:  Dr. David Baltimore
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
David Baltimore has had a long and distinguished career as a creative scientist, gifted administrator and effective spokesperson on social and civic aspects of science. His research on virology and cancer has over the years been of extraordinary importance and includes the co-discovery of reverse tanscriptase with Howard Temin. In 1975, at the age of 37, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and he has also received the Eli Lilly Award in Microbiology and Immunology (1971), the Gairdner Foundation Annual Award (1974) and the National Medal of Science (1999). Dr. Baltimore founded and served as the first Director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, a premier research facility, while also serving for over 25 years on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty. In 1990 Dr. Baltimore was appointed president of Rockefeller University, and in 1997 he accepted the same position at the California Institute of Technology, where he served as president until 2006. He continues to serve Caltech as President Emeritus and Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology and maintains a research laboratory dedicated to the use of gene therapy to treat cancer and HIV infection, transcriptional regulation and cell cycle controls. He was recently awarded Research!America's Builders of Science Award recognizing leaders in medical and health research.
 
4Name:  Dr. Clyde Frederick Barker
 Institution:  American Philosophical Society; University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Clyde F. Barker is a native of Salt Lake City and a graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy, Cornell University, and Cornell University Medical College. His internship and residency in surgery were at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, where he has served his entire academic and professional career. Following residency training he was a fellow in vascular surgery and then a postdoctoral fellow in medical genetics under Rupert Billingham, studying transplantation biology. He was appointed to the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in 1966 and became Professor of Surgery in 1973. From 1966 to 2001 he was Chief of Transplantation Surgery and, from 1982 to 2001, Chief of the Division of Vascular Surgery. From 1983 to 2001 he was the John Rhea Barton Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery, and Director of the Harrison Department of Surgical Research. He is now Donald Guthrie Professor of Surgery. The Clyde F. Barker Transplant House at University of Pennsylvania Hospital is named in his honor. Clyde Barker’s research interests have been primarily in transplantation, especially transplantation of the kidney and pancreas and of isolated pancreatic islets. His research was continuously funded for more than 25 years by grants from the National Institutes of Health, including an NIH Merit Award from 1987-95. He has published more than 400 scientific papers and has served on 12 editorial boards, including the Journal of Surgical Research, Diabetes, Transplantation, Archives of Surgery, Surgery, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, and The Annals of Surgery. Clyde Barker is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and the Association of American Physicians. He has been President of the American Society of Transplantation Surgeons, the International Society of Surgery, and the American Surgical Association. He has served as visiting professor at 80 different universities and is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. He is the recipient of lifetime achievement awards from the American College of Surgeons and the Society of University Surgeons, the 2007 Jonathan E. Rhoads Medal for Distinguished Achievement in Medicine, the Thomas E. Starzl Prize in 2009, and the 2010 Medawar Prize from the Transplantation Society. The Medawar Prize is recognized as the world’s highest award dedicated to the outstanding contributions in the field of transplantation. In 2010 he was awarded the American Philosophical Society’s Henry Allen Moe Prize in the Humanities in recognition of his Jayne Lecture delivered to the members of the Society at its 2007 November Meeting and published in the Society’s Proceedings, March 2009, entitled "Thomas Eakins and His Medical Clinics." Clyde Barker was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1997 and has served on Council and as a Vice President. He served as the Society’s President from April 2011 through April 2017.
 
5Name:  The Honorable Bill Bradley
 Institution:  U. S. Senate; McKinsey & Company, Inc.; Allen & Company LLC
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
As a political leader, author and athlete, Bill Bradley has, throughout his life, succeeded in a diversity of endeavors. In 1964, he captained the United States basketball team that won the gold medal at the Tokyo Olympics. After earning a graduate degree at Oxford University, he joined the New York Knicks, playing professional basketball for ten years and helping the team to the NBA championship in 1970 and 1973. Following his retirement from basketball, Mr. Bradley was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1978. His 18 years in the Senate were marked by issues such as the fight for fair tax policies and honest budgeting, and he became one of the country's most eloquent and prophetic speakers on the issue of race relations. Overall his thoughtful, analytical approach led to an impressive record of effective reform legislation on many fronts ranging from urban deterioration and violence, to enhanced educational opportunities for those with severely limited means, to cleanup and protection of the environment. After leaving the Senate in 1997, Mr. Bradley worked as a corporate consultant and executive banker and ran for the United States presidency in 2000. He is currently a managing director at the New York investment bank Allen & Company. His book The New American Story was published in 2007 by Random House.
 
6Name:  The Honorable Guido Calabresi
 Institution:  U.S. Court of Appeals & Yale Law School
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Guido Calabresi came to the United States in 1939 with his parents, who left Italy to escape Fascism. After a productive career as a scholar, he became Dean of the Yale Law School in 1985 and a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals in 1994. A scholar with pronounced administrative abilities, he began teaching at Yale in 1959; he remains Sterling Professor of Law Emeritus and Professorial Lecturer in Law. Known as a true humanist, Judge Calabresi is recognized as one of the founding fathers of law and economics. His two most seminal contributions to the field are the application of economics to tort law and a legal interpretation of the Coase theorem. His major publications include The Costs of Accidents: A Legal and Economic Analysis (1970) and (with D. Melamed) Property Rules, Liability Rules and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral (1972). Judge Calabresi holds B.A. and M.A. degrees from Oxford University and B.S. and LL.B. degrees from Yale. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences.
 
7Name:  Dr. George Cardona
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
A linguist and Indologist, George Cardona is supremely well versed both in the modern Indo-Aryan languages and what is known as "Hindu grammar": the activities which express the ancient Indian concern for the formal properties of the Sanskrit language and their ritual and philosophical significance. During his many stays in India, he has immersed himself both in the (exceedingly difficult) written texts and in the extant oral tradition. His publications include A Gujarati Reference Grammar (1965); Studies in Indian Grammarians, I (1969); Panini, A Survey of Research (1976); Linguistic Analysis and some Indian Traditions (1983); and Panini, His Work and its Traditions (1988). A member of the University of Pennyslvania faculty since 1960, Dr. Cardona currently holds the title of Professor of Linguistics Emeritus. He is a member of the American Oriental Society (president, 1989-90) and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1984).
 
8Name:  The Honorable Warren Christopher
 Institution:  O'Melveny & Myers
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  March 18, 2011
   
 
A veteran of three Democratic administrations, Warren Christopher was an accomplished policy maker and lawyer with years of distinguished public and private service. As Deputy Secretary of State for President Carter (1977-81) he skillfully negotiated the release of 52 American hostages in Iran, and he was instrumental in the normalization of relations with China and the ratification of the Panama Canal treaties. As Secretary of State for President Clinton (1993-97), his foreign policy successes included a historic peace accord in the Balkans, a cease-fire between Great Britain and the Irish Republican Army, resumption of formal relations with Vietnam, resolution of potential nuclear arms problems with North Korea, and a peace accord between Israel and the Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza. For his achievements in public service Mr. Christopher was awarded the Medal of Freedom (1981), and, as a native North Dakotan, that state's Roughrider Award. Prior to his appointment under President Clinton, Mr. Christopher served as chairman of the law firm O'Melveny & Myers, with which he remained associated as a senior partner until his death. He was a graduate of Stanford University Law School (LL.B., 1949), where he was the founder and president of the Stanford Law Review. Warren Christopher died March 18, 2011, at the age of 85, in Los Angeles, California.
 
9Name:  Dr. Robert H. Dennard
 Institution:  IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Robert H. Dennard is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and a member of the American Philosophical Society. He received the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award in 1982. In 1988 he was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Reagan for his invention of the one-transistor dynamic RAM cell. He received the IRI Achievement Award from the Industrial Research Institute in 1989 and the Harvey Prize from Technion, Haifa, Israel, in 1990. Dr. Dennard was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio in 1997. In 2001 he received the Aachener and Munchener Prize for Technology and also was awarded the IEEE Edison Medal. He received the Vladimir Karapetoff Award from Eta Kappa Nu in 2002 and the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005. Dr. Dennard received NEC’s C&C Prize in 2006 and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering in 2007. In 2013, he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Electronics. In January 2017 he was awarded the National Academy of Sciences' Award for the Industrial Application of Science. Dr. Dennard and his wife Jane Bridges live in Croton-on-Hudson, NY. They are active participants in Scottish Country Dancing and choral singing.
 
10Name:  Dr. Andrew J. Wiles
 Institution:  University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
Andrew Wiles is currently Royal Society Research Professor at Oxford University. He was a professor at Princeton from 1994 to 2011. Dr. Wiles has made major breakthroughs in the study of rational elliptic curves associated with modular forms and is most famous for proving Fermat's Last Theorem, which for 350 years stood as a "Mount Everest" of mathematics. He was introduced to the theorem at age ten and tried to prove it during his youth before stopping to study elliptic curves during his graduate studies. He eventually dedicated eight years to the proof, announcing a solution on June 23, 1993 at the conclusion of a lecture at the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge, England. When mathematicians raised questions about his proof, Dr. Wiles himself noticed a flaw, which sent him back to work for nearly a year. In October 1994, he unveiled his revised proof, which has been confirmed by experts in the field. For his efforts, Dr. Wiles has received, among other awards, the Schock Prize (1995), the Cole Prize (1996), the Royal Medal (1996), the Wolf Prize (1996), the Clay Research Award (1999) and a silver plaque from the International Mathematics Union recognizing his achievements. He earned his BA degree from Merton College, Oxford University in 1974 and his Ph.D. from Clare College, Cambridge University in 1980. In 2000 he was named a Knight of the British Empire.
 
11Name:  Dr. Andrew H. Knoll
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Andrew Knoll is Fisher Professor of Natural History and Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University and Curator of the Paleobotanical Collections in the Harvard University Herbaria. A world leader in paleobiology, he has served on the Harvard faculty since 1982. Distinguished by his pioneering investigations of global conditions in the early evolution of life, Dr. Knoll has used biological, geological and chemical information to interpret the evolution of unicellular and multicellular organisms, from the most primitive life forms to the origin of metazoa and higher plants. He has used the same approach to explain mass extinctions in the Permian. Dr. Knoll's many honors include the Walcott Medal (1987) and the Mary Clark Thompson Medal (2012) of the National Academy of Sciences, the Phil Beta Kappa Book Award in Science (2003), the Moore Medal of the Society for Sedimentary Geology (2005), the Paleontological Society Medal (2005), the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society of London (2007), and membership in the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1977.
 
12Name:  Dr. Robert Fagles
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  March 26, 2008
   
13Name:  Dr. David Freedberg
 Institution:  Columbia University & Italian Academy for Advanced Study in America
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
David Freedberg is best known for his work on psychological responses to art, and particularly for his studies on iconoclasm and censorship. His more traditional art historical writing originally centered on the fields of Dutch and Flemish art. Within these fields he specialized in the history of Dutch printmaking and in the paintings and drawings of Bruegel and Rubens. He then turned his attention to seventeenth century Roman art and to the paintings of Nicolas Poussin, before moving on to his recent work in the history of science and on the importance of the new cognitive neurosciences for the study of art and its history. Dr. Freedberg has also been involved in several exhibitions of contemporary art. Following a series of important discoveries in Windsor Castle, the Institut de France and the archives of the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome, he has for some time been concerned with the intersection of art and science in the age of Galileo. While much of his work in this area has been published in articles and catalogues, his chief publication in this area is The Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, his Friends, and the Beginnings of Modern Natural History (2002). He is now devoting a substantial portion of his attention to collaborations with neuroscientists working in fields of vision, movement and emotion. Although Dr. Freedberg continues to teach in the fields of Dutch, Flemish, French and Italian seventeenth century art, as well as in historiographical and theoretical areas, his research now concentrates on the relations between art, history and the neurosciences. He continues to hope that he will be able to return to his longstanding project on the cultural history of the architecture and dance of the Pueblo peoples, but for the moment his energies are largely taken up by his work with neuroscientists. A Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Dr. Freedberg was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1997.
 
14Name:  Dr. Donald A. Glaser
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  February 28, 2013
   
 
Donald Glaser had been an institution at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was Professor of Physics and Professor of Neurobiology in the Graduate School. He was awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the bubble chamber detector of subatomic particles. This device played a critical role in the flowering of experimental particle physics in the sixties and seventies. In later years Dr. Glaser turned his research interests to the psychophysics of visual perception, to which he has made several significant contributions. His research goal was to construct computational models of the human visual system that explain its performance in terms of its physiology and anatomy. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society, Dr. Glaser was a man with broad scientific and cultural interests, not least among them being, as a former member of the Cleveland Orchestra's string section, his professional-level musicianship. Donald Glaser died February 28, 2013, at the age of 86 at his home in Berkeley, California.
 
15Name:  Dr. Richard M. Goody
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  105. Physical Earth Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1921
   
 
Richard Goody is Mallinckrodt and Gordon McKay Professor Emeritus at Harvard University, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1958. Dr. Goody's fundamental contributions to geophysics began in 1949 with his work at Cambridge University, England, on the understanding of the structure of stratosphere in which radiative processes play the dominant role in its thermal equilibrium state. This study led him to pursue infrared radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres and the manner in which simplified methodologies can be developed for effective calculations of radiative heating in the atmosphere. Dr. Goody was the first scientist to recognize the potential of using emission spectra for the quantatative measurement of ozone and nitrous oxide, long before the role of these gases in global warming was a fundamental concern. Following his appointment as Abbott Lawrence Rotch Professor of Dynamic Meteorology and Director of the Blue Hill Observatory at Harvard University in 1958, Dr. Goody became the prime academic force in building the Earth and planetary physics program there. He continued research on a number of fundamental programs involving infrared radiation transfer and produced a classic book, Atmospheric radiation: I, Theoretical basis, which he published in 1964. In 1970 he was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences, playing an important role in the geophysics section of the Academy. He also played a key role in the U.S. exploration program on the atmospheres of other planets, principally Mars and Venus. His many important contributions included interpretation of spectroscopy data for the understanding and determination of the planetary compositions and dynamic processes, as well as the instrument design for space probes. In 1982 Dr. Goody, along with two of his colleagues, spearheaded a program referred to as 'Global Habitability' to examine the factors affecting the Earth's ability to sustain life, principally through biogeochemical cycles and climate. He could accurately be described as "the grandfather of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program." Dr. Goody formally retired from Harvard in 1991. Among his many awards are the Buchan Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society (1958); the 50th Anniversary Medal (1970) and the Cleveland Abbe Award (1977) of the American Meteorological Society, 1970; NASA's Public Service Medal (1980); the William Bowie Medal (1998) of the American Geophysical Union; and the Gold Medal (2004) of the International Radiation Commission.
 
16Name:  Dr. Stephen Coplan Harrison
 Institution:  Harvard University & Howard Hughes Medical Institute
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  206. Physiology, Biophysics, and Pharmacology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Stephen Harrison is a world leader in understanding virus structure and in probing the relationship between structure and function of complex protein assemblies. He has devised innovative methodological enhancements of X-ray crystallography to determine the detailed molecular structures of viruses, cell-surface receptors, and DNA-protein complexes. His pioneering studies of small plant viruses at atomic dimensions revealed the basic molecular design of a large class of RNA viruses of plants, insects, and vertebrates. This work, and his subsequent studies of many other viruses, allowed Dr. Harrison to formulate principles that govern viral structure, assembly, stability, cellular attachment, and fusion. This information is fundamental to understanding viral disease and to the design of antiviral drugs and vaccines. Similarly, Dr. Harrison's X-ray crystallographic studies of the structures of DNA-protein complexes revealed important molecular mechanisms in the control of gene activity. Dr. Harrison earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1967. He joined the Harvard faculty in 1971 and is currently director of the Center for Molecular and Cellular Dynamics at Harvard Medical School and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Medicine at Children's Hospital, Boston. He won the Welch Award in Chemistry in 2015 and the Rosenstiel Award for Basic Medical Research in 2018.
 
17Name:  Dr. Maurice R. Hilleman
 Institution:  Merck Institute for Vaccinology & University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  April 11, 2005
   
 
Dr. Maurice R. Hilleman is Director, Merck Institute for Vaccinology and Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania. His past career of six decades of medical research included the Squibb Research Labs, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, and the Merck Institute for Medical Research. His bibliography includes more than 500 original publications in virology, immunology, epidemiology, and infectious diseases. Dr. Hilleman is a senior statesman and authority in the medical sciences for basic discoveries and vaccine developments. He has received numerous awards and accolades from academia, government, and industry. Among the most significant, he is an elected member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences; the Institute of Medicine of the Academy; the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Distinctive honors include the Lasker Medical Research Award; Award of the National Medal of Science by President Reagan; the Robert Koch Gold Medal (Berlin); the Prince Mahidol Award presented by the King of Thailand; the Maxwell Finland Award; the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal; Decoration for Distinguished Science Achievement by the U.S. Secretary of Defense, and numerous lifetime achievement awards. Dr. Hilleman received his B.S. degree from Montana State University (1941), and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago (1944). He holds honorary doctorate degrees from U.S. and foreign universities. Dr. Hilleman’s career has been devoted to both basic and applied research with breakthrough discoveries and developments in virology, cancer, immunology, epidemiology, and vaccinology. Basic research examples include the discoveries of SV40 virus and its oncogenicity, the codiscoveries of the Adenoviruses and the Rhinoviruses, purification and characterization of interferon and it’s induction by double-stranded RNA, pioneering propagation of hepatitis A virus and its growth in cell culture. He pioneered the development of numerous live, killed and recombinant vaccines including measles, mumps, rubella, MMR, varicella, Marek’s Disease, hepatitis A; both plasma-derived and recombinant hepatitis B, and the commercial evolution of vaccines against meningococci and pneumococci. He has been credited with developing more vaccines than any person and is recognized for having changed the face of the world in providing means to prevent and control a number of its most important diseases. Many consider him a living legend!
 
18Name:  Dr. Kathleen Hall Jamieson
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Kathleen Hall Jamieson is the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Director of the Annenberg Public Policy Center and Elizabeth Ware Packard Professor of Communication at the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg School for Communication. She earned a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1972 and taught at the University of Maryland and the University of Texas prior to joining the University of Pennsylvania faculty in 1989. A leading analyst of the use of rhetoric and other media of communication in presidential politics in the United States, Hall Jamieson has been an advisor to Congress and the White House in addition to her roles as researcher, teacher and academic administrator. She is the author of Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and Democracy; Packaging the Presidency (for which she received the Speech Communication Association's Golden Anniversary Book Award); Eloquence in an Electronic Age (which received the Winans-Wichelns Book Award); Spiral of Cynicism: Press and Public Good (with J. Cappella); Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment; and, most recently, Cyberwar: How Russian Hackers and Trolls Helped Elect a President, which won the 2019 R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers. In 2016 she was awarded the Henry Allen Moe Prize of the American Philosophical Society for her paper "Implications of the Demise of 'Fact' in Political Discourse" presented to the Society at its April 2013 Meeting and published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, volume 159, no. 1, March 2015. In 2020 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and received the Academy's most prestigious award, the Public Welfare Medal.
 
19Name:  Rev. John W. O'Malley
 Institution:  Georgetown University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1927
   
 
John W. O’Malley is University Professor at Georgetown University and is a specialist in the religious culture of early modern Europe, especially Italy. He earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University. Among his publications are Praise and Blame in Renaissance Rome (1979), which received the Marraro Prize from the American Historical Association, and Trent and All That (2000), which received the Roland Bainton Prize from the Sixteenth Century Studies Conference. The First Jesuits (1993) received the American Philosophical Society’s Jacques Barzun Prize in Cultural History and the Philip Schaff Prize from the American Society for Church History. It has been translated into twelve languages. A recent monograph, What Happened at Vatican II (2008), has been translated into Italian, French, and Polish. He has edited or co-edited a number of volumes, including three in the Collected Works of Erasmus series. His latest works on the Jesuits are The Jesuits and the Arts (2005), co-edited with Gauvin Alexander Bailey, and Constructing a Saint through Images (2008), an annotated facsimile of the 1609 illustrated life of Ignatius of Loyola attributed in part to Rubens. His recent monograph Trent: What Happened at the Council (2013) has been translated into four languages and received the John Gilmary Shea Prize from the American Catholic Historical Association. In 2015 he also published Catholic History for Today's Church: How Our Past Illuminates Our Present. Father O’Malley has lectured widely in North America and Europe. He is the past President of the American Catholic Historical Association and the Renaissance Society of America. He has been elected to the Accademia di san Carlo, Ambrosian Library, Milan, and was awarded the Johannes Quasten Medal by the Catholic University of America for distinguished scholarship in religious studies. Father O’Malley received the lifetime achievement award from the Society for Italian Historical Studies in 2002 and the corresponding awards from both the Renaissance Society of America in 2005 and the American Catholic Historical Association in 2012. In 2013 Father O’Malley was awarded the American Philosophical Society’s Henry Allen Moe Prize in the Humanities in recognition of his paper “The Council of Trent (1545–63) and Michelangelo’s Last Judgment (1541),” read at the Society’s November Meeting in 2011 and published in the Society's Proceedings in December 2012. He is a Roman Catholic priest and a member of the Society of Jesus. Father O’Malley was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1997 and served as its Vice President 2010 to 2016.
 
20Name:  Dr. Leo P. Kadanoff
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1937
 Death Date:  October 26, 2015
   
 
Leo Kadanoff received a Ph.D. at Harvard University in 1960. He was a resident Fellow at the Bohr Institute of Theoretical Studies in Copenhagen from 1960-62. He was a professor of physics at the University of Illinois for seven years, then moved to Brown University as University Professor of Physics and professor of engineering. In 1978 he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago where he served as director of the University of Chicago Materials Research Laboratory for six years. He was the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Professor of Physics and Mathematics. Leo Kadanoff was the major figure in developing the scaling theory of thermodynamic phase transitions, following from M. E. Fisher's analysis of experimental data and foreshadowing K. G. Wilson's explicit mathematical expression of the scaling idea. Dr. Kadanoff in his early work was also one of the originators of the application of quantum field theory to many-body theory, and he had been the national leader in the study of complex non-linear systems, specializing in turbulence and in simulation studies of complex dynamic systems. He was among the world's most widely respected condensed matter physicists. He is the author of Electricity Magnetism and Heat, 1967, and co-author of Quantum Statistical Mechanics, 1963. Among his many honors, he has received the Buckley Prize and Onsager Prize from the American Physical Society, the Boltzmann Medal from the International Union of Pure & Applied Physics, the Wolf Foundation Award, the Grande Madaille d'Or from the Académie des Sciences de l'Institut de France, and in 2000 he received the National Medal of Science. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1997. Leo Kadanoff died October 26, 2015, at age 78, in Chicago, Illinois.
 
Election Year
1997[X]
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