American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  The Honorable Nancy Kassebaum Baker
 Institution:  U. S. Senate
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Nancy Landon Kassebaum was born in Topeka, Kansas in 1932. In 1954 she received a B.A. in political science from the University of Kansas and in 1956 a Masters in Diplomatic History from the University of Michigan. In 1978 she was elected to the United States Senate from Kansas and served three terms, retiring in 1997. During her Senate tenure, she served as Chairman of the Labor and Human Resources Committee, Chairman of the Subcommittee on African Affairs, and Chairman of the Subcommittee on Aviation. In 1996 she married Howard Baker, formerly U.S. Senate Majority Leader, White House Chief of Staff under President Reagan, and U.S. Ambassador to Japan. Prior to living in Japan from 2001-2005, Senator Nancy Kassebaum Baker served on the Board of Trustees for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Kaiser Family Foundation. She is past Chairman of the National Advisory Committee on Rural Health, the George C. Marshall Foundation, and the American-Turkish Council. She served as the U.S. Commissioner on Prime Minister Blair's Commission for Africa. She has four children and seven grandchildren.
 
2Name:  Dr. Robert Bellah
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  July 30, 2013
   
 
Robert N. Bellah was Elliott Professor of Sociology Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. He was educated at Harvard University, receiving his B.A. in 1950 and his Ph.D. in 1955. He began teaching at Harvard in 1957 before moving to the University of California, Berkeley ten years later. From 1967-97 he served as UC Berkeley Ford Professor of Sociology and also chaired the Center for Japanese and Korean Studies from 1968-74. Dr. Bellah was the author and editor of several essays and books, including the influential articles "Civil Religion in America" (1967) and "Religious Evolution" (1964), the latter of which he transformed into a book. His books include Tokugawa Religion, Beyond Belief, The Broken Covenant, The New Religious Consciousness, Varieties of Civil Religion and Uncivil Religion: Interreligious Hostility in America, and Religion in Human Evolution (2011). In 1985, the University of California Press published Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life , a cultural analysis of American society that Professor Bellah wrote in collaboration with Richard Madsen, William Sullivan, Ann Swidler and Steven Tipton. In 1991 he published a follow-up, The Good Society, written by the same five authors as Habits of the Heart. Dr. Bellah was known for his studies of the relations between religion and related value systems and social functioning and individual development in the United States; his sociological studies were suffused with concern for public morality and the search for deep-rooted community. Among his many honors, Dr. Bellah received the United States National Humanities Medal in 2000. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1996. Robert Bellah died July 30, 2013, at the age of 86, in Oakland, California.
 
3Name:  Dr. May R. Berenbaum
 Institution:  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1953
   
 
May Berenbaum is one of the most original biologists in the country. An ingenious experimentalist, she has long studied the interactions of two of the primary organisms on the planet: insects and plants. In doing so, she has uncovered the mechanisms by which plants fend off insects and insects circumvent these barriers. A prolific author and exquisite speaker, she has written five books, including the classic Bugs in the System: Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs (1994). Dr. Berenbaum received her Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1980 and currently serves as a professor and head of the department of entomology at the University of Illinois. She was one of the youngest biologists in the National Academy of Sciences at the time of her election. She has been honored with many awards, including the George Mercer and the Robert H. MacArthur Awards of the Ecological Society of America, the E.O. Wilson Naturalist Award from the American Society of Naturalists, and Silverstei-Simeone Award from the International Society for Chemical Ecology. She won the Public Understanding of Science and Technology Award from the American Association of the Advancement of Science in 2009, the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 2011, and the National Medal of Science in 2014. Dr. Berenbaum's weekly radio program on insects commands a wide audience, as does her annual "Insect Horror Film Festival", which draws aficionados from all over the world. In 2018 it was announced that she would become Editor-in-Chief of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, beginning January 1, 2019.
 
4Name:  Dr. Peter M. Blau
 Institution:  University of North Carolina
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  March 12, 2002
   
5Name:  Dr. Alan S. Blinder
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Alan S. Blinder is the Gordon S. Rentschler Memorial Professor of Economics at Princeton University and Director of Princeton's Center for Economic Policy Studies, which he founded in 1990. He is also Vice Chairman of the Promontory Interfinancial Network. Dr. Blinder served as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from June 1994 until January 1996. In this position, he represented the Fed at various international meetings and was a member of the Board's committees on Bank Supervision and Regulation, Consumer and Community Affairs, and Derivative Instruments. He also chaired the Board in the Chairman's absence. He speaks frequently to financial audiences. Before becoming a member of the Board, Dr. Blinder served as a Member of President Clinton's original Council of Economic Advisors from January 1993 until June 1994. There he was in charge of the Administration's macroeconomic forecasting and also worked intensively on budget, international trade, and health care issues. During the 2000 and 2004 presidential campaigns, he served as an economic adviser to Al Gore and John Kerry. Dr. Blinder was born on October 14, 1945 in Brooklyn, New York. He earned his A.B. at Princeton University in 1967, his M.Sc. at the London School of Economics in 1968, and his Ph.D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1971--all in economics. Dr. Blinder has taught at Princeton since 1971, and chaired the Department of Economics from 1988-90. He is the author or co-author of more than a dozen books, including the textbook Economics: Principles and Policy (with William J. Baumol), now in its 11th edition, from which over two million college students have learned introductory economics. In 2013 he wrote After the Music Stopped: The Financial Crisis, the Response, and the Work Ahead. He has also written scores of scholarly articles on such topics as fiscal policy, monetary policy, and the distribution of income. From 1985 until joining the Clinton Administration, Dr. Blinder wrote a lively monthly column in Business Week magazine. Currently, he appears frequently on CNBC, CNN, Bloomberg TV, and elsewhere. Dr. Blinder served briefly as Deputy Assistant Director of the Congressional Budget Office when that agency started in 1975 and has testified many times before Congress on a wide variety of public policy issues. He is a of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the Bretton Woods Committee and the Bellagio Group, a former governor of the American Stock Exchange, and has been elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He was inducted into the American Academy of Political and Social Science and named the John Kenneth Galbraith Fellow in 2009. He and his wife, Madeline, live in Princeton, NJ; they have two sons, Scott and William, and two grandsons, Malcolm and Levi.
 
6Name:  Mr. Robert Brentano
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  November 21, 2002
   
7Name:  Dr. Gerhard Casper
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Gerhard Casper is President Emeritus of Stanford University and the Peter and Helen Bing Professor Emeritus at Stanford. He is also Professor of Law Emeritus, a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford (FSI), and a Professor of Political Science (by courtesy). In 2015 he served as President of the American Academy in Berlin, where he had been a Trustee Emeritus. Born in 1937, Gerhard Casper grew up in Hamburg, the port city on the Elbe River. Mr. Casper studied law at the universities of Freiburg and Hamburg, where, in 1961, he earned his first law degree. He attended Yale Law School, obtaining his Master of Laws degree in 1962. He then returned to Freiburg, where he received his doctorate in 1964. In the fall of 1964, Mr. Casper emigrated to the United States, spending two years as Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1966, he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School, and between 1979 and 1987 served as Dean of the Law School. In 1989, Mr. Casper was appointed Provost of the University of Chicago. He served as President of Stanford University from 1992-2000. Mr. Casper has written and taught primarily in the fields of constitutional law, constitutional history, comparative law, and jurisprudence. From 1977 to 1991, he was an editor of The Supreme Court Review. His books include a monograph on legal realism (Berlin, 1967), an empirical study of the Supreme Court's workload (Chicago, 1976, with Richard A. Posner), an empirical study of lay judges in criminal trials (Heidelberg, 1979, with Hans Zeisel), as well as Separating Power (Cambridge, MA, 1997) concerning the separation of powers practices at the end of the 18th century in the United States. About the Stanford presidency, he wrote Cares of the University (Stanford, CA, 1997). He is also the author of numerous scholarly articles and occasional pieces. He has been elected to membership in the American Law Institute (1977), the International Academy of Comparative Law, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1980), the Orden Pour le mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste (Order Pour le mérite for the Sciences and Arts) (1993), and the American Philosophical Society (1996). During the fall of 2006, he held the Kluge Chair in American Law and Governance at the Library of Congress. He has been awarded various honorary doctorates. At present, Mr. Casper serves as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Central European University in Budapest. He is also a member of various additional boards, including the Council of the American Law Institute and the Committee for Economic Development. From 2000-2008, he served as a successor trustee of Yale University. Mr. Casper is married to Regina Casper, M.D. Dr. Casper was a Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Chicago before taking an appointment as Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science in the School of Medicine at Stanford, from which she recently retired. She is an authority in the area of depression and eating disorders. The Caspers' daughter, Hanna, is a lawyer.
 
8Name:  Dr. Alfred Y. Cho
 Institution:  Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Alfred Y. Cho was born July 10, 1937 in Beijing, China. He retired as the Semiconductor Research Vice President, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies in 2001. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1960, 1961, and 1968, respectively. In 1961, prior to obtaining his Ph.D. degree, he worked at Ion Physics Corporation, Burlington, Massachusetts, a subsidiary of High Voltage Engineering Corporation, where he studied charged micron-sized solid particles in high electric fields. In 1962, he joined TRW-Space Technology Laboratories, Redondo Beach, California, and engaged in research in high current density ion beams. He returned to the University of Illinois in 1965 and received a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1968. Upon his graduation in 1968, he joined Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey as a Member of Technical Staff and was promoted to Department Head in 1984. He was named Director of the Materials Processing Research Laboratory in 1987 and Semiconductor Research Vice President in 1990. He is now an Adjunct Semiconductor Research Vice President, Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Illinois. He has made seminal contributions to materials science and physical electronics through his pioneering development of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) crystal growth process. He demonstrated that MBE could be used to prepare epitaxial films one atomic layer at a time, with exceptional control at atomic dimensions and further showed that these films could be the basis of devices with never before realized electrical and optical properties. His work has bridged many disciplines ranging from fundamental quantum physics, through epitaxial crystal growth, to device fabrication and testing. The capabilities of MBE have allowed new fields of materials research to develop. The ability to precisely make quantum wells has had a far-reaching impact, ranging from classroom physics to revolutions in electronic and optical devices for the consumer electronics, computer and communications industries MBE is broadly used today for advanced multilayer crystal growth and has led to radically new devices including high-speed transistors, microwave devices, laser diodes and detectors. Most of the semiconductor lasers used in today's compact disc players and CD-ROM'S are manufactured using MBE-grown material. Presently, MBE is used to produce the Hall sensors used as disk drive speed controllers for computers and VCRs. High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) which are utilized as high speed circuit components and in high frequency, low noise, direct broadcast satellite and wireless communications are manufactured by MBE. This impact of MBE on fundamental science has been as dramatic as its impact on semiconductor technology. A significant ongoing contribution of MBE is the experimental generation of low dimensional systems. The discovery of an entirely new state of electrons, the fractional quantized Hall effect, was made possible as a result of MBE crystal quality. More recently (1994) he and coworkers demonstrated a fundamentally new type of laser which is a unipolar intersubband semiconductor laser called the quantum cascade (QC) laser. Dr. Cho has authored over 590 papers in surface physics, crystal growth, and device physics and performance. He holds 75 patents on crystal growth and semiconductor devices related to MBE. He is a recipient of the Electronics Division Award of the Electrochemical Society (1977), the American Physical Society International Prize for New Materials (1982), the IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Award (1982), the GaAs Symposium Award - Ford (1986), the Heinrich Welker Medal - Siemens (1986), the Solid State Science and Technology Medal of the Electrochemical Society (1987), the World Materials Congress Award of ASM International (1988), the Gaede-Langmuir Award of the American Vacuum Society (1988), the Industrial Research Institute Achievement Award of the Industrial Research Institute, Inc. (1988), the New Jersey Governor's Thomas Alva Edison Science Award (1990), the International Crystal Growth Award of the American Association for Crystal Growth (1990), the Asian American Corporate Achievement Award (1992), the AT&T Bell Labs Fellow Award (1992), the National Medal of Science, presented by President Clinton (1993), the Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993-94), the IEEE Medal of Honor (1994), the Materials Research Society Von Hippel Award (1994), The Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute (1995), the Computer and Communications Prize of the C & C Foundation, Japan (1995), the New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame (1997), Honorary Doctor of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1999), the Willis E. Lamb Medal for Laser Physics (2000), the University of Illinois Alumni Achievement Award (2000), the IEEE Third Millennium Medal (2000), the NASA Group Achievement Award (2000), Honorary Doctor of Science Degree, City University of Hong Kong (2000) and the Honorary Doctor of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University (2001), and the 2005 National Medal of Technology, announced and presented by President Bush in 2007. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, the American Physical Society, and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He is a member of the U. S. National Academy of Engineering (1985), the National Academy of Sciences (1985), the Third World Academia of Sciences (1987), the Academia Sinica (1990), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (1996), and the American Philosophical Society (1996). He is married to Mona Willoughby; they have four children, Derek, Deidre, Brynna, and Wendy. His outside interests include painting, calligraphy, photography, table tennis, and most recently, learning how to play golf.
 
9Name:  Dr. W. Robert Connor
 Institution:  The Teagle Foundation & National Humanities Center
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
W. Robert Connor is a classicist and former president and director of the National Humanities Center. From 2003 to 2009 he served as president of the Teagle Foundation, an organization dedicated to strengthening higher education, where he is now a Senior Advisor. Dr. Connor holds a Ph.D. from Princeton University, where he also taught Greek and Roman history from 1964-89, retiring as Andrew Fleming West Professor of Classics, Emeritus. He has also taught at the University of Michigan. Dr. Connor has long provided energetic and imaginative leadership in sustaining the best humanistic scholarship and has played an important role in affirming the importance of the humanities to American society. During his tenure at the helm of the National Humanities Center, Dr. Connor oversaw the Center's internationally recognized fellowship program; strengthened its initiatives to improve college and secondary school education; and encouraged its outreach to wide national audiences through effective public programs. During his administration, the center's permanent strength was significantly augmented. During his presidency of the Teagle Foundation, he focused on the systematic improvement of undergraduate learning in the liberal arts and sciences. His leadership gave impetus to national efforts as well as to projects on individual campuses. In particular the New Leadership for Student Learing and Accountability initiative derived in large part from his insistence on a concerted, proactive national strategy for improving student learning. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1992), Dr. Connor is also the author of numerous works on Athenian political and cultural history, including Thucydides (1984), a study of the ancient historical writer.
 
10Name:  Dr. Wendy Doniger
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Wendy Doniger is accomplished in the study of myth, especially Hindu mythology. One of the most influential scholars in the field, she has helped introduce a generation to a concept of myth with special reference to themes of creation, the erotic and the deceptive. A respected teacher and speaker, Dr. Doniger has been Mircea Eliade Professor of History of Religions at the University of Chicago since 1986 while also serving as director of the university's Martin Marty Center. She earned her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1968 as well as a D. Phil. from Oxford University in 1973. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Dr. Doniger is also the author of numerous articles, such as in The New York Times Book Review, and has served as editor of History of Religions and the Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Her many books include Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology of Siva (1973) and Dreams, Illusion and Other Realities (1984), and she has also edited Mythologies, an English-language edition of the 1,300 page Dictionnaires des Mythologies. Among her latest works are The Hindus: An Alternative History (2009) and The Ring of Truth: Myths of Sex and Jewellery (2017).
 
11Name:  Professor Rita Dove
 Institution:  University of Virginia
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Rita Dove served as the Poet Laureate of the United States and Consultant to the Library of Congress from 1993-95. She has received numerous literary and academic honors, among them the 1987 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry, the 2008 Library of Virginia Lifetime Achievement Award, the 2006 Common Wealth Prize, the 2003 Emily Couric Leadership Award, the 2001 Duke Ellington Lifetime Achievement Award, the 1996 National Humanities Medal, and Oregon State University's 2016 Stone Award for Lifetime Literary Achievement. She was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2012 and Harvard's W.E.B. Du Bois medal in 2019. Born in Akron, Ohio in 1952, Ms. Dove received her B.A. summa cum laude from Miami University of Ohio and her M.F.A. from the University of Iowa. She also held a Fulbright scholarship at the Universität Tübingen in Germany. She has published the poetry collections The Yellow House on the Corner (1980), Museum (1983), Thomas and Beulah (1986), Grace Notes (1989), Selected Poems (1993), Mother Love (1995), On the Bus with Rosa Parks (1999), American Smooth (2006), Sonata Mulattica (2009), a book of short stories, Fifth Sunday (1985), the novel Through the Ivory Gate (1992) essays under the title The Poet's World (1995), and Collected Poems: 1974-2004 (2016). Ms. Dove is also the author of the play The Darker Face of the Earth, which had its world premiere in 1996 at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival and was subsequently produced at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., the Royal National Theatre in London and other theatres. Seven for Luck, a song cycle for soprano and orchestra with music by John Williams, was premiered by the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood in 1998. For "America's Millennium", the White House's 1999/2000 New Year's celebration, Ms. Dove contributed, in a live reading at the Lincoln Memorial accompanied by John Williams's music, a poem to Steven Spielberg's documentary The Unfinished Journey. As a player of the viola de gamba, Ms. Dove is fond of incorporating music into her poetry. She is currently Commonwealth Professor of English at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. In 2018 she became Poetry Editor at the New York Times Magazine, introducing the readership to a new poem each week.
 
12Name:  Dr. Marye Anne Fox
 Institution:  University of California, San Diego
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1947
 Death Date:  May 9, 2021
   
 
Dr. Marye Anne Fox, a nationally known chemist and academic leader, was named the seventh chancellor of the University of California, San Diego in April 2004 by the University of California Board of Regents. She stepped down from that position in July 2012 and continued at the university as Professor of Chemistry. Previously, Dr. Fox was chancellor and distinguished university professor of chemistry at North Carolina State University, a post she held since 1998. Before going to North Carolina State, Fox spent 22 years at the University of Texas, where she advanced from assistant professor of organic chemistry to vice president for research and held the Waggoner Regents Chair in chemistry. Dr. Fox has held over 50 endowed lectureships at universities around the world. She has also served as visiting professor at Harvard University, the University of Iowa, the University of Chicago, the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris and the Chemistry Research Promotion Center in Taipei. Dr. Fox earned a bachelor's degree in science from Notre Dame College, a master's degree in science from Cleveland State University and a Ph.D. from Dartmouth College. She is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and has served on its executive committee, and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Dr. Fox has received numerous awards, including the Charles Lathrop Parsons Award (2005) from the American Chemical Society in recognition of outstanding public service and the 2010 National Medal of Science. She has received a long list of research awards from professional societies in the U.S. and abroad. She also has been honored with numerous teaching awards, as well as the Monie Ferst Award, a national award recognizing outstanding mentoring of graduate students. More than 50 students have received advanced degrees under her supervision, and over 100 postdoctoral fellows and sabbatical visitors have worked with her. Dr. Fox also served on numerous boards, including the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), where she chaired the Subcommittee on Infrastructure for the 21st Century in 2003; the National Academy's Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable; the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC); and a number of corporate boards. Dr. Fox, who was born in Canton, Ohio, is married to UCSD professor of chemistry James K. Whitesell. She has three sons and two stepsons. She died on May 9, 2021.
 
13Name:  Dr. Lionel Gossman
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  January 11, 2021
   
 
Lionel Gossman was M. Taylor Pine Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures Emeritus at Princeton University. His interests focus on the relationship between history and literature in 17th through 19th century Europe -- especially on problems of "humanistic education as it is and as it should be." Since 1976 he has taught courses at Princeton on 17th and 18th century French literature and on European literature and politics of the 19th century. Born in Scotland, Dr. Gossman earned his M.A. at the University of Glasgow in 1951 as well as a diplome d'études supérieures at the University of Paris in 1952 and his D. Phil. at Oxford in 1957. After teaching at the University of Lille and at Glasgow, he came to the United States in 1958 and joined the faculty at Johns Hopkins University, where he taught until he came to Princeton as professor of Romance languages and literatures. He was appointed to the Pyne professorship in 1983, received the Behrman Award in 1990 and was named an Officier des Palmes Académiques in 1991. Ranging from Molière to the Enlightenment to Gibbon to Swiss culture, Dr. Gossman's publications include Men and Masks: A Study of Molière (1963), Medievalism and the Ideologies of the Enlightenment (1968), The Empire Unpossess'd (1981), Between History and Literature (1990),Geneva-Zurich-Basel: History, Culture and National Identity (with N. Bouvier et al., 1994) and Basel in the Age of Burckhardt. (2000). He died on January 11, 2021.
 
14Name:  Dr. Gerald Holton
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1922
   
 
Gerald Holton is Mallinckrodt Research Professor of Physics and Research Professor of the History of Science Emeritus at Harvard University. He obtained his Ph.D. in physics at Harvard as a student of P. W. Bridgman. His chief interests are in the history and philosophy of science, in the physics of matter at high pressure, and in the study of career paths of young scientists. Among his recent books are Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought (2nd ed., 1988); Science and Anti-Science (1993); Einstein, History, and Other Passions (2000); The Advancement of Science, and its Burdens (1998); The Scientific Imagination (1998); four books with Gerhard Sonnert: Gender Differences in Science Careers: Project Access Study (1995), Who Succeeds in Science? The Gender Dimension (1995), Ivory Bridges: Connecting Science and Society (2002), and What Happened to the Children? (2006); Physics, the Human Adventure: From Copernicus to Einstein and Beyond (with S.G. Brush, 2001); and Understanding Physics (with D. Cassidy and F. J. Rutherford, 2002). Professor Holton is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Life Honorary Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences, and Fellow of several Learned Societies in Europe. Founding editor of the quarterly journal Daedalus, and founder of Science, Society, & Human Values, he was also on the editorial committee of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (Princeton University Press). Among the honors he has received are the Sarton Medal of the History of Science Society, the Gemant Award of the American Institute of Physics, election to the Presidency of the History of Science Society, and the selection by the National Endowment for the Humanities as the Jefferson Lecturer. He was awarded the American Physical Society's 2008 Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics.
 
15Name:  Dr. Christopher P. Jones
 Institution:  Harvard University; Institute for Advanced Study
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Christopher Jones was born in Chislehurst, Kent, England, in 1940, and was educated at Rugby School and Balliol College, Oxford, where he took his B. A. in Literae Humaniores ("Greats") in 1962. He came to the USA on a Henry Fellowship in 1962 and went on to do his Ph. D. at Harvard under Herbert Bloch and Glen Bowersock. He graduated in 1965 and was appointed to the Department of Classics at the University of Toronto, where he remained until 1992. In that year he returned to Harvard with a joint appointment in the Departments of Classics and History, and was named George Martin Lane Professor in 1997. He became emeritus in 2010. His research interests include the literature and history of the Roman imperial and Late Antique periods, and Greek epigraphy. He is the author of several books, most recently Kinship Diplomacy in the Ancient World (1999) and Philostratus, Life of Apollonius (3 vols., 2005-06). His hobbies include music, the nineteenth-century novel, and travel. In 2011 he was elected to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris as a correspondant etranger, and in 2017 he was elected as associe etranger to the same.
 
16Name:  Dr. Stanley N. Katz
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Stanley N. Katz is a professor at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and president emeritus of the American Council of Learned Societies, the leading organization in humanistic scholarship and education in the United States. Educated at Harvard University, he received his Ph.D. in history in 1961. Dr. Katz is a recognized expert on American legal and constitutional history as well as philanthropy and non-profit institutions. He has served as president of the Organization of American Historians and of the American Society for Legal History and as vice president of the Research Division of the American Historical Association. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Newberry Library, the Copyright Clearance Center and numerous other institutions. In addition to these duties and his teaching responsibilities, he publishes frequently in professional journals such as Common Knowledge and the Chronicle of Higher Education. Stanley Katz was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1996. He was awarded the 2010 National Humanities Medal by President Obama.
 
17Name:  Dr. Daniel J. Kevles
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Daniel J. Kevles is the Stanley Woodward Professor of History at Yale University. His research interests include: the interplay of science and society past and present; the history of science in America; the history of modern physics; the history of modern biology, scientific fraud and misconduct; the history of intellectual property in living organisms; the history of science, arms, and the state; and the United States since 1940. Professor Kevles received his B.A. in physics from Princeton University in 1960, trained in European history at Oxford University from 1960-61, and earned his Ph. D. in history from Princeton in 1964. Prior to joining the faculty at Yale, Dr. Kevles served as assistant, associate, full professor and J.O. and Juliette Koepfli Professor of the Humanities at the California Institute of Technology (1964-2001). His books include The Physicists (1978), a history of the American physics community; In the Name of Eugenics (1985), currently the standard text on the history of eugenics in the United States; and The Baltimore Case (1998), a study of accusations of scientific fraud. He is a coauthor of Inventing America: A History of the United States (2nd ed, 2006). A Guggenheim Fellow and winner of the National Historical Society Book Prize and the Sarton Medal of the History of Science Society, Dr. Kevles is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. His work on contemporary issues appears regularly in leading journals and newspapers.
 
18Name:  Dr. Ralph Landau
 Institution:  Stanford University & Listowel, Inc.
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  April 6, 2004
   
19Name:  Dr. Peter D. Lax
 Institution:  New York University
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1926
   
 
Peter D. Lax is a most distinguished mathematician who has earned renown for his contributions in both pure and applied mathematics. One of many methods named after him is Lax pairs, which came from his analysis of fluid dynamics. His name is connected with many major mathematical results and numerical methods, including the Lax equivalence theorem, Lax-Friedrichs scheme, Lax-Wendroff scheme, Lax entropy condition, and Lax-Levermore theory. His work covers all aspects of partial differential equations. In linear theory it includes his fundamental oscillatory approximation for solving hyperbolic equations, which led to the theory of Fourier Integral Operators. His famous collaboration with R.S. Phillips involves extremely deep work in scattering theory and connects with problems on automorphic functions in hyperbolic geometry. Dr. Lax has also done basic work in numerical analysis for partial differential equations. In nonlinear theory he has done fundamental work on shock waves, and on KdV equations: completely integrable systems possessing solition solutions. A native of Hungary, Dr. Lax earned his Ph.D. from New York University in 1949 and has served at NYU's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences since 1958. He has also directed the Courant Mathematics and Computing Lab and is currently Professor of Mathematics Emeritus. Dr. Lax has won many honors such as the Chauvenet Prize (1974), the National Medal of Science (1986), the Wolf Prize (1987), the Abel Prize (2005) and membership in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Lax is the author of numerous works, including textbooks on functional analysis, linear algebra, calculus and partial differential equations.
 
20Name:  Dr. Nelson J. Leonard
 Institution:  University of Illinois & California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  October 9, 2006
   
Election Year
1996[X]
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