American Philosophical Society
Member History

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21Name:  Dr. Harold A. Mooney
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Harold Mooney has played a leading role in the development of the international global change program, helping to forge links between physical, biological and social scientists. After receiving his Ph.D. from Duke University in 1960, he worked at the University of California, Los Angeles until 1968, when he joined the faculty at Stanford University, where he is currently Paul F. Achilles Professor of Environmental Biology. Throughout his career Dr. Mooney has led international research and synthesis programs on the ecology of biological invasions; the release of genetically engineered organisms; the use of ecosystem experiments; the ecosystem function of biodiversity; and the comparative structure and evolution of North and South American ecosystems and the consequences of human activities on the earth system responses of these systems. His research on the carbon balance of plants has provided a major theoretical framework for eco-physiological studies, and he has been instrumental in the incorporation of physiological understanding into ecosystem studies. Dr. Mooney has served on many editorial boards and ecological journals and on advisory committees, funding agencies and national laboratories. A prolific researcher, he has produced well over 350 scientific papers, books and articles, all of which have provided bridges between physiological ecology and other areas of ecology. He has been honored with membership in the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and is the recipient of awards such as the Ecological Society of America's Mercer Award (1961) and the Max Planck Research Award (1992).
 
22Name:  Mr. Bill D. Moyers
 Institution:  Public Affairs TV, Inc
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
One of the chief inheritors of the Edward R. Murrow tradition of "deep-think" journalism, Bill Moyers has been involved in broadcast journalism for more than 40 years, principally in the areas of investigative documentary and long-form conversations with some of the world's leading thinkers. Formerly a print journalist, ordained Baptist minister, press secretary to President Lyndon Johnson, and newspaper publisher, Mr. Moyers came to television in 1970, delivering elegantly written and deceptively soft-spoken narrations that came out of the story-telling traditions of his East Texas upbringing. Examining the failings of constitutional democracy in his 1974 Essay on Watergate and exposing governmental illegalities and cover-ups during the Iran Contra scandal, he repeatedly explored countless important issues of of our time, from race, class and gender to the power media images held for a nation of "consumers," not citizens. Mr. Moyers could be said to have explored virtually every aspect of American political, economic and social life in his documentaries. Equally influential was Mr. Moyers' World of Ideas series, in which he used his soft, probing style to talk to a remarkable range of articulate intellectuals on his two foundation-supported interview series on PBS. In discussions that ranged from an hour to, in the case of mythology scholar Joseph Campbell, six hours on the air, Moyers brought to television what he called the "conversation of democracy." He spoke with social critics such as Noam Chomsky and Cornel West, writers such as Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe, Mexican poet and novelist Carlos Fuentes and American novelist Toni Morrison, and social analysts like philosopher Mortimer Adler and University of Chicago sociologist William Julius Wilson. Mr. Moyers engaged voices and ideas that had been seldom, if ever, heard on television, and transcribed versions of many of his series often became best selling books as well (Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth, 1988; The Secret Government, 1988; A World of Ideas, 1989; A World of Ideas II, 1990, Healing the Mind, 1992). Mr. Moyers' television work is as prolific as his publishing record. In all he produced over 600 hours of programming (filmed and videotaped conversations and documentaries) between 1971 and 1989, and he broadcast another 125 programs between 1989 and 1992. In 1986 he formed his own company, Public Affairs Television, to distribute many of his own shows, and by the early 1990s he had established himself as a significant figure of television talk. Upon receiving the prestigious Gold Baton Award in 1991, Mr. Moyers was referred to as "a unique voice, still seeking new frontiers in television, daring to assume that viewing audiences are willing to think and learn." He was honored with the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences' Lifetime Achievement Award in 2006. After a brief hiatus, Moyers returned to public television in 2012 with "Moyers & Company," continuing in the tradition of his earlier work.
 
23Name:  Dr. Martha Craven Nussbaum
 Institution:  University of Chicago Law School & Divinity School
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Martha Nussbaum is Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago. She received her B.A. from New York University and her M.A. and Ph.D. from Harvard University. She has taught at Harvard, Brown and Oxford Universities. Dr. Nussbaum found in Aristotle and in the thinkers of the Hellenistic period arguments concerning the formation of ethical judgments and the healing of unruly desires that bear importantly on modern dilemmas. She is a public intellectual, offering relevant comments on moral issues, the role of literature and the nature of law. From 1986-93, Dr. Nussbaum was a research advisor at the World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki, a part of the United Nations University. She has chaired the Committee on International Cooperation and the Committee on the Status of Women of the American Philosophical Association, and has been a member of the Association's National Board. Dr. Nussbaum received the Brandeis Creative Arts Award in Non-Fiction in 1990 and the PEN Spielvogel-Diamondstein Award for the best collection of essays in 1991; Cultivating Humanity won the Ness Book Award of the Association of American Colleges and Universities in 1998, and the Grawemeyer Award in Education in 2002. Sex and Social Justice won the book award of the North American Society for Social Philosophy in 2000. Some of Martha Nussbaum's most recent works are Liberty of Conscience: In Defense of America's Tradition of Religious Equality (2008), Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities (2010), The New Religious Intolerance: Overcoming the Politics of Fear in an Anxious Age (2012), and Monarchy of Fear (2018). In 2009 she was awarded the A.SK prize by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, an award that pays tribute to social system reformers, Phi Beta Kappa selected Nussbaum for the Sidney Hook Memorial Award in 2012, in 2018 she won the Berggruen Prize for Philosophy and Culture, and in 2021 she won the Holberg Prize. Martha Nussbaum was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995. She won the Society's Henry M. Phillips Prize in 2009 in recognition of her intellectual leadership in philosophy, law and religion, including in particular her development and application of a "capabilities approach" to justice in a variety of contexts including women's rights in developing countries and worldwide, of the disabled and the impaired, and animal species.
 
24Name:  Mr. Hugh B. Price
 Institution:  National Urban League
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Hugh Price, a leading spokesman for African Americans, was the President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Urban League from 1994-2002. He was born and raised in Washington, D.C., and during his childhood he witnessed and became a part of many changes in that city as schools and neighborhoods became integrated. After graduating from Amherst College and Yale Law School, Mr. Price moved on to public broadcasting as Senior Vice President of WNET in New York, and in 1988 he entered the world of philanthropy as Vice President of the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1994 he assumed the leadership of the National Urban League, the nation's premier social service and civil rights organization serving African Americans and others who are striving to enter the economic mainstream. Mr. Price has been described by The New York Times as one of the "true leaders... who will make things better for future generations." He is the author of the books Getting Your Child the Best Education Possible and Destination: the American Dream. He is currently senior advisor and co-chair of the Nonprofit and Philanthropy Practice Group for the law firm of Piper Rudnick.
 
25Name:  Dr. Arnold Rampersad
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402a
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Arnold Rampersad is the leading scholar of his generation in the field of African-American literature. His work on such major figures as Richard Wright, Langston Hughes and W.E.B. DuBois is widely recognized as scholarship of the highest order, marked as it is by impeccable research and an elegant prose style. Dr. Rampersad's two-volume biography The Life of Langston Hughes (1986-88) is widely praised as a masterpiece of literary/historical narrative, and his mastery of this form was also evident in Days of Grace (1993), a memoir written with the assistance of the late Arthur Ashe. His latest work is Visible Man, a biography of Ralph Ellison. Currently Professor of English, Senior Associate Dean and the Sara Hart Kimball Professor in the Humanities at Stanford University, Dr. Rampersad has also served on the faculties of the University of Virginia and Rutgers, Columbia and Princeton Universities. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, he has also edited several other works, including Slavery and the Literary Imagination and Race and American Culture. Perhaps more than any other scholar, Dr. Rampersad has made the study of African-American culture an integral part of intellectual life. He was awarded the 2010 National Humanities Medal by President Obama. He won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award in 2012 and was awarded the Centennial Medal of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Harvard University in 2013.
 
26Name:  Dr. Judith Rodin
 Institution:  The Rockefeller Foundation; University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
In 1994, Dr. Judith Rodin became the first woman to be named to the presidency of an Ivy League institution, the University of Pennsylvania, after 22 years on the faculty of Yale University, where she served as Provost from 1992-94. During a decade of service Dr. Rodin guided the University of Pennsylvania through a period of unprecedented growth and development that transformed Penn's academic core and dramatically enhanced the quality of life on campus and in the surrounding community. She held faculty appointments as a professor of psychology in the School of Arts and Sciences and as a professor of medicine and psychiatry in the School of Medicine. Judith Rodin serves on the boards of the Brookings Institution and Catalyst, and on the boards of Aetna, Inc., AMR Corporation, Citigroup and Comcast Corporation. She became president of the Rockefeller Foundation, one of the world's oldest and largest private philanthropies, in March 2005 and served as president until 2017. In 2015 she won the Edmund Bacon Prize of the Philadelphia Center for Architecture. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995.
 
27Name:  Dr. Charles Welles Rosen
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  December 9, 2012
   
 
Born in New York City, Charles Rosen enrolled at the Juilliard School at the age of six, leaving five years later to study with Moriz Rosenthal, a pupil of Liszt, and his wife, Hedwig Kanner, a pupil of Leschetizky. In 1951, the same year that Mr. Rosen received widespread critical acclaim for his New York debut, he received his Ph.D. in French literature from Princeton University and made his first recording, the world premiere on disc of Debussy's Etudes. The breadth of Dr. Rosen's endeavors reflected a remarkable synthesis of performing musician, scholar, writer and lecturer. First and foremost, however, he was one of the most widely respected pianists of his time. He earned international acclaim for his performances and recordings of a diverse repertoire ranging from Bach to works by this century's most important composers. He was particularly renowned for his interpretations of Beethoven and the Romantic repertoire, especially the works of Chopin, Schumann and Liszt. Dr. Rosen wrote extensively in the fields of music, art, literature and intellectual history. Among his most celebrated books is The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, which won the National Book Award for Arts and Letters and has been translated into seven languages. His books include Beethoven's Pianos Sonatas: A Short Companion (2002) and Piano Notes: The Hidden Life of the Pianist. Dr. Rosen held distinguished chairs and visiting professorships at leading universities in the United States and abroad, including the Charles Eliot Norton Chair of Poetics at Harvard University, and the University of Chicago, Oxford University, and the University of California. Among the awards he has received are an honorary Doctor of Music degree from Cambridge University, the George Peabody Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Music in America from the Peabody Institute of The Johns Hopkins University, and the 2011 National Humanities Medal. Dr. Rosen was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1995.
 
28Name:  Dr. Frank Sherwood Rowland
 Institution:  University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  March 10, 2012
   
 
Frank Sherwood Rowland was a Nobel laureate and Donald Bren Research Professor of Chemistry and Earth System Science at the University of California, Irvine. His research in atmospheric chemistry and chemical kinetics has had an enormous impact on scientific, industrial and general activity on a global scale. Born in Ohio, Dr. Rowland received his B.A. from Ohio Wesleyan University (1948), then earned his M.S. in 1951 and his Ph.D. in 1952, both from the University of Chicago. He held academic posts at Princeton University (1952-56) and at the University of Kansas (1956-64) before becoming a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine, in 1964. At Irvine in the early 1970s he began working with Mario Molina, with whom he would discover the effects of chlorofluorocarbon gases on the ozone layer of the stratosphere. The pair were awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this discovery. Dr. Rowland has won numerous other awards for his work, including the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement (1983), the Japan Prize (1989), the Peter Debye Award (1993) and the Roger Revelle Medal (1994). He was elected to the membership of the National Academy of Sciences in 1978, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1977, and the Royal Society (as a foreign member) in 2004. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995. Dr. Rowland died on March 10, 2012, at home in Corona del Mar, California, at the age of 84.
 
29Name:  Dr. Vera C. Rubin
 Institution:  Carnegie Institution of Washington
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  December 25, 2016
   
 
Vera C. Rubin was an observational astronomer who studied the motions of gas and stars in galaxies and motions of galaxies in the universe. Her work was influential in discovering that most of the matter in the universe is dark. She was a graduate of Vassar College, Cornell University, and Georgetown University; George Gamow was her thesis professor. She was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. President Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Science (1993). She received the Weizmann Women and Science Award, the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the Gruber International Cosmology Prize, the Watson Medal of the National Academy of Sciences and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (London); the previous award to a woman was to Caroline Herschel in 1828. She was active in encouraging and supporting women in science. Her husband and their four children were all Ph.D. scientists. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995. Vera Rubin died December 25, 2016, at age 88.
 
30Name:  Dr. Charles A. Ryskamp
 Institution:  The Frick Collection & Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  March 26, 2010
   
 
Charles Ryskamp is a professor at Princeton University and the Director Emeritus and Honorary Fellow of the Pierpont Morgan Library and the Frick Collection. A stellar example of a scholar and distinguished museum administrator, Dr. Ryskamp has published works on 18th century English art and is also the co-editor of the multi-volume editions of the writings of William Cowper as well as editions of other English authors. His tenure at the Pierpont Library (1969-87) was marked by significant acquisitions and an ambitious series of scholarly exhibitions, and as director of the Frick Collection (1987-97), he succeeded in energizing a traditional institution without altering its character or mission. A graduate of Yale University (Ph.D., 1956), Dr. Ryskamp has since been affiliated with Princeton University for over 50 years. He is a member of the board of the Metropolitan Opera, the Library of America and a number of similar organizations and a past president of the Association of Art Museum Directors and the Master Drawings Association.
 
31Name:  Dr. Carl Sagan
 Institution:  Cornell University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  12/20/96
   
32Name:  Dr. Allan Rex Sandage
 Institution:  Observatories of Carnegie Institution of Washington
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  November 13, 2010
   
 
Astronomer Allan Sandage combined his impressive astronomical knowledge with outstanding scientific judgment and an extraordinary ability to discern new concepts that were ripe for development. Based at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington from 1956 until his death, he was best known for his extended work establishing the rate of expansion of the universe (the red-shift distance or Hubble relationship). He was also noted for his discovery in the M-82 galaxy of jets erupting from the core, and for having conducted important spectral studies of globular clusters. Dr. Sandage received his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1953, and he had also served as Homewood Professor of Physics at Johns Hopkins University and as a senior research scientist at NASA's Space Telescope Scientific Institute. His many honors include the Warner Prize (1960), the Eddington Medal (1963), the National Medal of Science (1970), the Bruce Medal (1975) and the Crafoord Prize (1991). Allan Sandage died November 13, 2010, at age 84, in San Gabriel, California.
 
33Name:  Mr. Henry B. Schacht
 Institution:  E.M. Warburg, Pincus & Company, LLC
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Among American businessmen, Henry B. Schacht stands out as a thoughtful and serious leader who considers his responsibilities to his country and its institutions as seriously as those of his companies. As chairman and chief executive officer (1973-94), Mr. Schacht led the Cummins Engine Company to the forefront of U.S. industry. Later he would serve as CEO of Lucent Technologies (1995-97, 2001) and at present is Managing Director and Senior Advisor of the venture-capital firm Warburg Pincus LLC. Mr. Schacht has also devoted significant time and attention to matters of scholarship and education through his involvement with the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations and as a trustee of Yale University. He received his M.B.A. from Harvard University in 1962.
 
34Name:  Mr. Isaac Stern
 Institution:  Carnegie Hall
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  September 22, 2001
   
35Name:  Dr. Gilbert Stork
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  October 21, 2017
   
 
Gilbert Stork received a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Wisconsin in 1945. He was an assistant professor at Harvard University until 1953, when he moved to Columbia University for a career spanning four decades. He became Eugene Higgins Professor of Chemistry Emeritus in 1992, but continued to work up to his death on October 21, 2017, at age 95. Gilbert Stork was a world leader in the art and science of synthetic organic chemistry. Not only had he achieved trail-blazing syntheses of complex natural products of biochemical interest, such as cantharidin, lupeol, prostaglandins, steroids, reserpine and calictriol, but at the same time, he had developed many synthetic methodologies of wide applicability. Of special note is the inspiration and training he provided in his laboratory for students and postdoctoral fellows who went on to important academic and industrial positions worldwide. Dr. Stork received many honors for his work, including the American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry (1957), Baekeland Medal (1961), Edward Curtis Franklin Memorial Award from Stanford (1966), American Chemical Society Award in Synthetic Organic Chemistry (1967), Roussel Prize in Steroid Chemistry (1978), Nichols Medal (1980), Arthur C. Cope Award (1980), National Medal of Science (1982), Edgar Fahs Smith Award (1982), Willard Gibbs Medal (1982), Linus Pauling Award (1983), Roger Adams Award in Organic Chemistry from the American Chemical Society (1991), the Welch Prize in Chemistry (1993), the Wolf Prize (1996), the Philadelphia Organic Chemists' Club Award (1998), the First Barton gold medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry (2002), the Ryoji Noyori Prize (2004) and the Herbert Brown Award for Creative Research in Synthetic Methods (2005). He wss an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the Académie des Sciences (France), the Royal Society of Chemistry, (U.K.), and the Royal Society (U.K.). He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995.
 
36Name:  Dr. Bert Vogelstein
 Institution:  Howard Hughes Medical Institute & Johns Hopkins Oncology Center
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Bert Vogelstein stands out among the leading contemporary workers in the field of the molecular genetic basis of cancer, with his work in the area of colorectal cancer of particular note. He has effectively proven the multi-step process of carcinogenesis from benign adenoma to metastasizing cancer, and he identified mutations in the APC gene as an early and very frequent change in sporadic colon cancer as well as a constitutional change in persons with familial polyps of the colon. He was also responsible for defining a new type of cancer-producing gene mutation, mapping to chromosome 2, in familial colon cancer, and for identifying a specific oncogene in gliomas (brain tumors). Dr. Vogelstein's contributions are of the greatest importance for understanding the progression of malignancy, for early diagnosis of cancer, and for prevention of cancer. Currently Clayton Professor of Oncology at the Johns Hopkins Oncology Center as well as an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, he has been affiliated with Johns Hopkins University since receiving his Ph.D. from that institution in 1974. Dr. Vogelstein's many awards include the Alison Eberlein Award for Outstanding Contributions to Leukemia Research (1968), the Gairdner Foundation International Award in Science (1992), the American Cancer Society's Medal of Honor (1992), the Richard Lounsbery Award of the National Academy of Sciences, to whose membership he was elected in 1992, the Charles Rodophe Brupbacher Prize for Cancer Research (2012), the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences (2013), the Dr. Paul Janssen Award for Biomedical Research (2015),and the Gruber Genetics Prize (2019). He is also a member of the National Cancer Institute and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
 
Election Year
1995[X]
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