American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. Julius Axelrod
 Institution:  National Institute of Mental Health
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1912
 Death Date:  December 29, 2004
   
2Name:  Dr. Jagdish N. Bhagwati
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
A native of India, Jagdish Bhagwati attended Cambridge University where he graduated in 1956 with a first in Economics Tripos. He then continued to study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Oxford, returning to India in 1961 as Professor of Economics at the Indian Statistical Institute, and then as Professor of International Trade at the Delhi School of Economics. He returned to MIT in 1968, leaving it twelve years later as the Ford International Professor of Economics. He currently holds the position of University Professor of Economics and Law at Columbia University and is a Senior Fellow in International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr. Bhagwati was Economic Policy Advisor to the Director General of GATT from 1991-93 and also served as Special Advisor to the United Nations on Globalization and External Advisor to the Director General of the World Trade Organization. Additionally, he served as a member of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan's Advisory Group on the NEPAD process in Africa . Five volumes of his scientific writings and two of his public policy essays have been published by MIT Press. The recipient of six festschrifts in his honor, he has also received several prizes and honorary degrees. Professor Bhagwati has published more than three hundred articles and fifty volumes and also writes frequently for The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Financial Times and has reviewed for The New Republic and The Times Literary Supplement. Professor Bhagwati is described as the most creative international trade theorist of his generation and is a longtime defender of free trade. His most recent books include: The Wind of the Hundred Days: How Washington Mismanaged Globalization (2002), In Defense of Globalization (2004), and Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade (2008).
 
3Name:  Dr. Richard John Bing
 Institution:  Huntington Medical Research Institutes & University of Southern California
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1909
 Death Date:  November 8, 2010
   
 
Richard J. Bing was born in Germany in 1909 and went on to become one of the great cardiologists of our time. In a career spanning more than sixty years, he pioneered the application of basic sciences to the study of the human heart. His early investigations were devoted to the mechanism of hypertension. He made seminal discoveries on the mechanism of congenital heart disease and of congestive heart failure by using physical and biochemical techniques and pioneered coincidence counting in the determination of coronary flow and in heart imaging. This work laid the foundation for modern PET scanning techniques. His investigation on cardiac metabolism showed that heart failure is related to possible defects in contractile proteins. Dr. Bing taught and conducted research at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Alabama and was chairman of medicine at Washington University's Veterans Administration Hospital. In 1959 he became chairman of the Department of Medicine at Wayne State University and in 1969 he was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Southern California. He joined Huntington Medical Research Institutes in 1969 to do biomedical research and also started the internal medicine residency program at Huntington Hospital. His major achievements there have included high-speed cinematography of coronary vessels and studies of the chemistry of the heart after a heart attack. Dr. Bing also followed a highly successful second career as a distinguished musician and composer. His chamber music has been performed by professional ensembles including the Chamber Players of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. His Mass had its premier performance by the Vienna Philharmonic at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna in 1993. Richard John Bing died on November 8, 2010, at the age of 101, at his home in the Los Angeles-area community of La Canada Flintridge.
 
4Name:  Dr. J. Michael Bishop
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
J. Michael Bishop is one of the pioneers of research on molecular biology of tumor viruses, and with H.E. Varmus he made the key discovery that cancer-causing genes (oncogenes) of a major class of tumor-causing viruses are present as normal components of the chromosomes of vertebrates, including humans. By focusing attention on the possible role of aberrantly expressed normal genes and the proteins that they encode, this work stimulated the search and discovery of changes in cellular oncogenes in human cancer. For his work in microbiology, Dr. Bishop received the Lasker Prize in 1982 and the Nobel Prize in 1989. In 2003 he was awarded the National Medal of Science and his book, How to win the Nobel Prize: An Unexpected Life in Science, was published. After many years as a professor of microbiology, immunology and biochemistry at the University of California, San Francisco, he served as Chancellor of that institution until 2009. A scientist of broad culture, Dr. Bishop has reflected and lectured widely on the malaise that exists between science and society and has been active in efforts to improve science teaching in schools.
 
5Name:  Dr. Harold Bloom
 Institution:  Yale University & New York University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  October 14, 2019
   
 
Born in New York City in 1930, Harold Bloom, studied at Cornell University under Meyer Abrams before undertaking graduate work at Yale University. He received his Ph.D. from Yale in 1957 and has been a member of the faculty there since that time, becoming Sterling Professor of the Humanities in 1977. Also Berg Professor of English at New York University, Dr. Bloom is known for his notably original books on Shelley, Blake, Stevens, and Yeats as well as for his theory of poetic influence, which he voiced in a series of books including The Anxiety of Influence, A Map of Misreading, and Ruin the Sacred Truths. Advocating an aesthetic approach to literature that stands in opposition to more ideologically-driven studies, he has characterized literature as largely a creative process of borrowing and misreading. He was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 1985. In 1994 Dr. Bloom published The Western Canon, a survey of the major literary works of post-Roman Europe. In 2011, at the age of 80, he wrote The Anatomy of Influence: Literature as a Way of Life, as a sort of "summing-up" of his decades of celebrated work. In 2015 he wrote The Daemon Knows. With his wit, brio and critical style, he is credited with revitalizing the Romantic poets and redefining modern ones. Harold Bloom died October 14, 2019 in New Haven, Connecticut at the age of 89.
 
6Name:  Professor Peter R. L. Brown
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404a
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Peter Robert Lamont Brown has transformed our understanding of Mediterranean and Near Eastern culture between Constantine and Muhammad. With imagination and wide-ranging erudition, he has represented as a time of spiritual renewal and cultural interaction what was once considered an age of decline. A speaker of an estimated 26 languages, Dr. Brown has published a wide variety of books and articles, including the early biography Augustine of Hippo (1967), Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity: Towards a Christian Empire (1992), and Through the Eye of a Needle (2012). Born in Dublin in 1935, Dr. Brown is a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford and has taught at Oxford, the University of London and the University of California, Berkeley. He is currently the Philip and Beulah Rollins Professor of History at Princeton University, a position he has held since 1986.
 
7Name:  Dr. Caroline Bynum
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study, Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404a
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
An esteemed scholar, teacher and administrator, Caroline Walker Bynum was born in Atlanta in 1941 and received her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1969. She taught at Harvard from 1969-76, at the University of Washington from 1976-88 and at Columbia University from 1988-2003. From 1990-98, she held the Morris A. and Alma Schapiro Chair in History, and in 1999 she became University Professor, the first woman to hold this title at Columbia. From 1993-94 she was also Dean of the School of General Studies and Associate Vice President for Undergraduate Education at Columbia. In 2003 she joined the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, where she is now Professor Emeritus of Western European Middle Ages. Dr. Bynum's areas of expertise include the history of religion, especially late medieval theology, and the relationship between women and the religious vocation in the late Middle Ages. Her articles have won prizes from the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians and the Renaissance Society of America, and her book Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (1987) received the Governor's Award of the State of Washington and the Philip Schaff Prize of the American Society of Church History. Her book Fragmentation and Redemption (1991) received the Trilling Prize for the best book by a Columbia faculty member and the Award for Excellence in the Study of Religion: Analytical-Descriptive Category from the American Academy of Religion. Another book, The Resurrection of the Body (1995) received the Ralph Waldo Emerson Prize of Phi Beta Kappa given for the best book of the year on "the intellectual and cultural condition of man," and the Jacques Barzun Prize of the American Philosophical Society for the best work in cultural history. Her book Metamorphosis and Identity (2001) explores medieval conceptions of self, survival, and mutability. Her book, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond (2007), studies the cult of Christ's blood in its social, political and religious context and was awarded the American Academy of Religion's Award for Excellence in historical studies, the 2009 Otto Gründler Prize from the Medieval Institute, and the 2011 Haskins Medal. Her 2011 book, Christian Materiality, focuses on the Christian devotion to the wound in Christ's side. Her latest book is Dissimilar Similitudes: Devotional Objects in Late Medieval Europe (2020). Dr. Bynum has served as president of the American Historical Association and the Medieval Academy of America and has won numerous teaching awards. A MacArthur Fellow from 1986-91, she is also a Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America and a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She was elected to the German Orden Pour le Merite fur Wissenschaften und Kunste in 2012 and was awarded the Grand Merit Cross with Star of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013.
 
8Name:  Dr. John Cocke
 Institution:  IBM
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  July 16, 2002
   
9Name:  Dr. I. Bernard Cohen
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  June 20, 2003
   
10Name:  Mr. Theodore L. Cross
 Institution:  CHII Publishers, Inc.
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1924
 Death Date:  February 28, 2010
   
 
Theodore Lamont Cross was editor-in-chief of Bankers Magazine for over 30 years, and he edited Business and Society Review for over 20 years. He earned a law degree in 1950 from Harvard University, where he was editor of the Harvard Law Review. Following that, he served as a consultant to HEW (Federal Office of Economic Opportunity); as director of the Legal Defense Fund and the NAACP; and as public governor of the American Stock Exchange. In 1959 he founded the Atomic Energy Law Journal and in 1993 founded the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, of which he remains editor and publisher. Mr. Cross has also served as chairman of Faulkner & Gray Publications and is the author of numerous books, including Black Capitalism: Strategy for Business in the Ghetto (1969), which won the McKinsey Foundation Book Award, and Waterbirds (2009). He has lectured on inner city economics and minority economic development at Harvard and Cornell Universities and at the University of Virginia. Throughout his life Mr. Cross has combined effective public service with an impressive blend of legal, publishing and business skills.
 
11Name:  Dr. Philip Curtin
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  June 4, 2009
   
 
Philip Curtin was born in 1922 in West Virginia. He earned a history degree from Swarthmore College in 1948 and a doctorate from Harvard University in 1953. Following a brief tenure as an assistant professor at Swarthmore, Dr. Curtin joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin in 1956, and over his 20 years there helped to establish African history as a field of academic inquiry. He has conducted extensive research on the Atlantic slave trade between 1600 and 1800, and his book The Atlantic Slave Trade (1969) became the starting point for all future research on the slave trade and comparative slavery. His innovative research significantly revised past understanding of the subject and delved for the first time into such areas as the health problems associated with the slave trade. Dr. Curtin's work eschews traditional ethnocentric perspectives in favor of the tools and techniques of economics, anthropology and history. The recipient of MacArthur and Fulbright Fellowships, Dr. Curtin was most recently professor of history at Johns Hopkins University from 1975 through his retirement in 1998.
 
12Name:  Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  February 20, 2017
   
 
Mildred Dresselhaus was born in Brooklyn, New York and grew up in a poor section of the Bronx. She attended the New York City public schools through junior high school. She then went to Hunter College High School in New York City and continued her education at Hunter College. She was a Fulbright Fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University from 1951-52. Next, she earned her master's degree at Radcliffe in 1953 and continued on to get a Ph.D. at the University of Chicago in 1958. Her thesis was on "The Microwave Surface Impedance of a Superconductor in a Magnetic Field." At the University of Chicago she came into contact with Enrico Fermi, one of the great physicists of the 20th century. The "survival" tactics that helped propel her to success were honed in her earliest years; raised in poverty, she learned as a child to protect herself against daily intimidation in a tough New York neighborhood. Dr. Dresselhaus started college planning to go into elementary school teaching. When she was a sophomore at Hunter College, she met Rosalyn Yalow, who taught her physics and later became a Nobel Laureate in medicine (1977). It was in part due to her interactions with Rosalyn Yalow that Dr. Dresselhaus recognized her potential as a physicist and developed higher goals for herself. Also coming from a disadvantaged background, Yalow encouraged the young undergraduate to press ahead despite detractors, taught her to recognize and seize opportunity, and followed her career as it unfolded with "advice and love". Mildred Dresselhaus moved to Cornell University to complete her NSF sponsored Post-Doctoral fellowship where she continued her studies on superconductivity. After her post-doctorate days were over, she and her husband moved to the Boston area where they both got jobs at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts. Both worked at Lincoln Labs for the next 7 years. At the Lincoln Laboratory, she switched from research on superconductivity to magneto-optics and carried out a series of experiments that led to a fundamental understanding of the electronic structure of semimetals, especially graphite. With four young children, she was invited in 1967 by Louis Smullin, head of the Electrical Engineering Department, to come to MIT and be a visiting professor for a year. She was so enthusiastic about teaching undergraduates and graduate students, and about working with graduate students on research projects, that she was in 1968 appointed as a tenured full professor. She remained on the MIT faculty throughout her career, pursuing an intense research and teaching career in the area of electronic materials. A leader in promoting opportunities for women in science and engineering, Dr. Dresselhaus received a Carnegie Foundation grant in 1973 to encourage women's study of traditionally male dominated fields, such as physics. In 1973, she was appointed to The Abby Rockefeller Mauze chair, an Institute-wide chair, endowed in support of the scholarship of women in science and engineering. She greatly enjoyed her career in science. As Dr. Dresselhaus says about working with MIT students, "I like to be challenged. I welcome the hard questions and having to come up with good explanations on the spot. That's an experience I really enjoy." She has over her career graduated over 60 Ph.D. students and has given many invited lectures worldwide on her research work. Her later research interests were on little tiny things, which go under the name of nanostructures, carbon nanotubes, bismuth nanowires and low dimensional thermoelectricity. Awards received include the Karl T. Compton Medal for Leadership in Physics from the American Institute of Physics (2001); the Medal of Achievement in Carbon Science and Technology from the American Carbon Society (2001); honorary membership in the Ioffe Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2000); the National Materials Advancement Award of the Federation of Materials Societies (2000); 19 honorary doctorate degrees; the Nicholson Medal of the American Physical Society (2000); the Weizmann Institute's Millennial Lifetime Achievement Award (2000); UNESCO's Award for Women in Science (2007); the University of Chicago's Alumni Medal (2008); the Presidential Enrico Fermi Award (2012); the Kavli Prize from the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (2012), the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the IEEE Medal of Honor (2015). She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995. Mildred Dresselhaus died February 20, 2017, in Cambridge, Massachusetts at the age of 86.
 
13Name:  Dr. Val L. Fitch
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  February 5, 2015
   
 
Val L. Fitch was born the youngest of three children on a cattle ranch in Cherry County, Nebraska, not far from the South Dakota border: a very sparsely populated part of the United States and remote from any center of population. His family later moved to Gordon, Nebraska, a town about 25 miles away, where all of his formal schooling took place. The most significant occurrence in his education, however, came when, as a soldier in the U.S. Army in WWII, he was sent to Los Alamos, New Mexico, to work on the Manhattan Project. Under the direction of Ernest Titterton, a member of the British Mission, he was engaged in highly stimulating work while, even as a technician garbed in a military fatigue uniform, he had the opportunity to meet and see at work many of the great figures in physics: Fermi, Bohr, Chadwick, Rabi, Tolman, etc. Dr. Fitch recorded some of the experiences from those days in a chapter in All in Our Time, a book edited by Jane Wilson and published by the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. All told, he spent three years at Los Alamos and in that period learned well the techniques of experimental physics. He observed that the most accomplished experimentalists were also the ones who knew the most about electronics, so electronic techniques were the first he learned. But mainly he learned, in approaching the measurement of new phenomena, not just to consider using existing apparatus but to allow the mind to wander freely and invent new ways of doing the job. Robert Bacher, the leader of the physics division in which he worked, offered Dr. Fitch a graduate assistantship at Cornell after the war, but he still had to finish the work for an undergraduate degree, which he did at McGill University. Another opportunity for graduate work soon came from Columbia, and he ended up there working with for his Ph.D. thesis. One day in his office, which he shared at the time with Aage Bohr, Rainwater handed him a preprint of a paper by John Wheeler devoted to µ-mesic atoms. This paper emphasized, in the case of the heavier nuclei, the extreme sensitivity of the Is level to the size of the nucleus. Even though the radiation from these atoms had never been observed, these atomic systems might be a good thesis topic. At this same time a convergence of technical developments took place. The Columbia Nevis cyclotron was just coming into operation. The beams of (pi)-measons from the cyclotron contained an admixture of µ-measons which came from the decay of the (pi)'s and which could be separated by range. Sodium iodide with thallium activation had just been shown by Hofstadter to be an excellent scintillation counter and energy spectrometer for gamma rays. And there were new phototubes just being produced by RCA which were suitable matches to sodium iodide crystals to convert the scintillations to electrical signals. The other essential ingredient to make a gamma-ray spectrometer was a multichannel pulse height analyzer which, utilizing his Los Alamos experience, Dr. Fitch designed and built with the aid of a technician. The net result of all the effort for his thesis was the pioneering work on µ-mesic atoms. It is of interest to note that the group came very close to missing the observation of the gamma-rays completely. Wheeler had calculated the 2p-1s transition energy in Pb, using the then accepted nuclear radius 1.4 A1/3 fermi, to be around 4.5 MeV. Correspondingly, they had set the spectrometer to look in that energy region. After several frustrating days, Rainwater suggested broadening the range and then the peak appeared - not at 4.5 MeV but at 6 MeV! The nucleus was substantially smaller than had been deduced from other effects. Shortly afterwards Hofstadter got the same results from his electron scattering experiments. While the µ-mesic atom measurements give the rms radius of the nucleus with extreme accuracy the electron scattering results have the advantage of yielding many moments to the charge distribution. Now the best information is obtained by combining the results from both µ-mesic atoms and electron scattering. Subsequently, in making precise gamma-ray measurements to obtain a better mass value for the µ-meson, it was found that substantial corrections for the vacuum polarization were required to get agreement with independent mass determinations. While the vacuum polarization is about 2% of the Lamb shift in hydrogen it is the very dominant electrodynamic correction in µ-mesic atoms. Dr. Fitch's interest then shifted to the strange particles and K mesons, but he had learned from his work at Columbia the delights of unexpected results and the challenge they present in understanding nature. Dr. Fitch took a position at Princeton where, most often working with a few graduate students, he spent the next 20 years studying K-mesons. The ultimate in unexpected results was that which was recognized by the Nobel Foundation in 1980, the discovery of CP-violation. At any one time there is a natural tendency among physicists to believe that we already know the essential ingredients of a comprehensive theory. But each time a new frontier of observation is broached we inevitably discover new phenomena which force us to modify substantially our previous conceptions. Dr. Fitch believed this process to be unending, that the delights and challenges of unexpected discovery will continue always. In 1967 he and Jim Cronin received the Research Corporation award for work on CP violation and in 1976 the John Price Witherill medal of the Franklin Institute. He received the E. O. Lawrence award in 1968. Dr. Fitch was a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995. He served as chairman of the Physics Department at Princeton University and was James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Physics Emeritus at the time of his death February 5, 2015, at age 91.
 
14Name:  Mr. William H. Frederick
 Institution:  Private Gardens Incorporated
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  August 15, 2018
   
 
William H. Frederick, Jr. gardened in Delaware from the age of eight. He was a registered landscape architect (Private Gardens, Incorporated), specializing in residential garden design, and a member of the Board of Longwood Gardens (Kennett Square, Pennsylvania). He was the author of 100 Great Garden Plants (1975, reprinted 1986) and The Exuberant Garden and the Controlling Hand (1992) and a contributor to Denise Magnani's The Winterthur Garden, Henry Francis du Pont's Romance with the Land. Frederick shared his knowledge of plants and design by serving as member of the Gibraltar Garden Restoration Committee, member of the Planning Review Committee of the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania, and curator of the American Philosophical Society's Jefferson Garden. His achievements earned him awards including the Distinguished Achievement Medal, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1980; The Henry Francis duPont Award for Garden Design, from Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library, 2001; and the Veitch Memorial Gold Medal, The Royal Horticultural Society, 2005.
 
15Name:  Dr. Henry Louis Gates
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Among the best-known scholars of African-American studies, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. is the W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of the Humanities, Chair of African and African American Studies, and Director of the W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research at Harvard University. He is the author of several works of literary criticism, including Figures in Black: Words, Signs and the 'Racial' Self (1987); The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism (1988); and Loose Canons: Notes on the Culture Wars (1992). He has also authored Colored People: A Memoir (1994), which traces his childhood experiences in a small West Virginia town in the 1950s and 1960s; The Future of the Race (1996), co-authored with Cornel West; Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man (1997); and Life Upon These Shores: Looking at African American History, 1513-2008 (2011). His most recent book is The Black Church: This Is Our Story, This Is Our Song (2021). Professor Gates's work as an editor has also reshaped the study of blacks in American culture. He has edited several anthologies, including The Norton Anthology of African American Literature (1996) and The Oxford-Schomburg Library of Nineteenth Century Black Women Writers (1991). In addition, he is a co-editor of Transition magazine. His critical studies have explored the racial self, proposed a theory of Afro-American criticism, and dealt with culture wars. Most recently, he co-edited a new edition of Cane (2011), originally published in 1923 by Jean Toomer, with Rudolph P. Byrd. An influential cultural critic, Professor Gates has written a cover story for Time magazine on the black Renaissance in art, as well as numerous articles for The New Yorker. Professor Gates earned his M.A. and Ph.D. in English literature from Clare College at the University of Cambridge. He received a B.A. summa cum laude from Yale University in 1973 in English Language and Literature. Before joining the faculty of Harvard in 1991, he taught at Yale, Cornell, and Duke Universities. His honors and grants include a MacArthur Foundation "genius grant" (1981), the George Polk Award for Social Commentary (1993), the Chicago Tribune Heartland Award (1994), the Golden Plate Achievement Award (1995), Time magazine's "25 Most Influential Americans" list (1997), a National Humanities Medal (1998), election to the American Academy of Arts and Letters (1999), a 2018 Common Wealth Award, the 2018 Benjamin Franklin Creativity Laureate Prize of the Smithsonian Associates and the Creativity Foundation, and the 2021 Don M. Randel Award for Humanistic Studies. Professor Gates has also hosted the PBS series "African-American Lives" and "The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross". His interests include black critical thought; cultural criticism; social theory; modern and post-modern philosophy and literature; and the future of American youth.
 
16Name:  Dr. Loren R. Graham
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Loren Graham is professor of the history of science emeritus at MIT and a member of the executive committee of the Davis Center for Russian Studies at Harvard University. Before studying history in graduate school, he worked briefly for the Dow Chemical Company. He received his Ph.D. in history from Columbia University in 1964 and has also studied at Moscow University in the former USSR. He has taught at Indiana University, Columbia, MIT and Harvard. Dr. Graham is the author of over a dozen books, most of them on the history of Russian science. His book Science and Philosophy in the Soviet Union was nominated for the National Book Award. In 1997 he was awarded the George Sarton Medal by the History of Science Society, the highest award given by the organization. He is a foreign member of the Academy of Natural Sciences and the Academy of Humanitarian Sciences in Russia. He also serves as a member of the board of trustees of the European University in St. Petersburg. When not traveling in Russia, Dr. Graham spends his summers in a remote lighthouse on Lake Superior where he writes, using solar power for his computer. Loren Graham was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1995.
 
17Name:  Dr. William P. Jencks
 Institution:  Brandeis University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  January 3, 2007
   
18Name:  Dr. Bela Julesz
 Institution:  Rutgers University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  December 31, 2003
   
19Name:  Dr. Samuel Karlin
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1924
 Death Date:  December 18, 2007
   
20Name:  Dr. Donald R. Kelley
 Institution:  Rutgers University
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1931
   
 
Donald R. Kelley was born in Elgin, Illinois in 1931 of working-class parents. He worked himself for a time at the Elgin Watch Co., then went to Harvard University (class of 1953). He served in the army as an MP in Germany (1953-55) before going on to graduate school at Columbia University (Ph.D., 1962). Since his undergraduate days his main interest has been European intellectual history, beginning with early modern France, on which he has written several books. He has since extended his research to a larger chronological and international scope, reinforced by a 20-year editorship of the Journal of the History of Ideas and associated international conferences funded by the journal. He has worked in three interrelated areas of study, all touched on in his first book on "language, law, and history in the French Renaissance"; that is, western historical thought and writing; continental law and political thought since antiquity; and the history and role of language. Most recently he has returned to early interests in the history of history, completing a trilogy in western historiography from antiquity to the present and surveys both of intellectual and cultural history. Dr. Kelley has taught at Southern Illinois University, SUNY Binghamton, the University of Rochester, Harvard, and Rutgers University, where he holds the title of James Westfall Thompson Professor of History Emeritus. He has received a number of awards, including a Fulbright and two Guggenheim fellowships and three Institute for Advanced Study fellowships as well as membership in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He is married to Bonnie Smith, also a historian; they have three children.
 
Election Year
1995[X]
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