American Philosophical Society
Member History

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21Name:  Dr. Jakob Lothe
 Institution:  University of Oslo
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Jakob Lothe is professor of English literature at the University of Oslo. Combined with this position, he has also been an adjunct professor at the University of Bergen. He has been an invited visiting scholar at St. John’s College, University of Oxford (1996-1997), Harvard University (2005), University of Cape Town (2010), and Regent’s Park College, University of Oxford (2017-2018). Lothe’s main research interest is narrative theory and analysis. He has developed an original method that combines constituent elements of classical narratology, rhetorical narrative theory, narrative hermeneutics, memory studies, and studies of the narrative ethics of fiction and film. In his current work, Lothe aims to improve our understanding of the ethics of storytelling, while at the same time highlighting the key role of the ethics which readers and viewers take with them to the act, and experience, of reading and viewing. His books include Conrad’s Narrative Method (Oxford UP, 1989), Narrative in Fiction and Film (Oxford UP, 2000), and, as editor or co-editor, Joseph Conrad (Ohio State UP, 2008), Franz Kafka (Ohio State UP, 2011), After Testimony: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Holocaust Narrative for the Future (Ohio State UP, 2012), Narrative Ethics (Rodopi, 2013), Time’s Witnesses: Women’s Voices from the Holocaust (Fledgling Press, 2017), and The Future of Literary Studies (Novus Press, 2017). Lothe is a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and the leader of the Academy’s committee on human rights. The committee works for the release of researchers who have been imprisoned in violation of their human rights and to prevent torture and use of the death penalty.
 
22Name:  Dr. Avishai Margalit
 Institution:  Hebrew University of Jerusalem
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Avishai Margalit is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has done important philosophical work on language, rationality, politics, and morality. Though he uses analytical methods, he is notable within analytic philosophy for drawing on the complexity of historical examples and cultural context. One of his most significant contributions is his argument that politics focuses on avoiding evil rather than pursuing the good, and thus that the goal of a decent society that is free of humiliation is prior to the goal of the just society. In addition to his academic work, Avishai Margalit is a public representative of philosophy. He has been a regular contributor to the New York Review of Books since 1984. He has at various times been involved in work towards and promotion of peace in Israel and Palestine. Avishai Margalit was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
23Name:  Ms. Sara Miller McCune
 Institution:  SAGE Publishing
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Sara Miller McCune is the founder and executive chairman of SAGE Publishing, with subsidiary companies and sales offices in Los Angeles, Washington D.C., London, India, East Asia, Cairo, Melbourne and Latin America. McCune remains actively involved in the company’s ongoing expansion and development. SAGE Publishing is unique in that McCune has put in place an estate plan that guarantees continued independence indefinitely via a charitable trust that will secure the unique mission, vision, and values of the company. McCune is also co-founder and president of the McCune Foundation, based in Ventura, California. In 2007, she founded the Santa Barbara-based Miller-McCune Center for Research, Media and Public Policy which launched the award-winning print and online magazine Pacific Standard. In 2017, the magazine and the center’s mission were transferred to The Social Justice Foundation, a non-profit organization supported by SAGE Publishing. She is currently a member of the board of directors of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and a member of the board of directors and the chairman of the visiting committee of the Social Science Research Council. McCune is a graduate of Queens College and the recipient of honorary doctorates from Queens College, University of Sussex, University of Bath, and California State University Channel Islands. She has also been recognized as an honorary alumna of UCSB and an honorary Fellow of Cardiff University and of Pembroke College, Oxford.
 
24Name:  Ms. Janet Napolitano
 Institution:  University of California
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1957
   
 
Janet Napolitano was named the 20th president of the University of California on July 18, 2013, and took office on Sept. 30, 2013. She leads a university system with 10 campuses, five medical centers, three affiliated national laboratories, and a statewide agriculture and natural resources program. As UC president, she has launched initiatives to stabilize in-state tuition and achieve financial stability for the University; improve the community college transfer process; achieve carbon neutrality across the UC system by 2025; accelerate the translation of UC research into products and services; focus UC resources on local and global food issues; and strengthen the University’s engagement with its Mexican peer institutions of higher education. She has also implemented the Fair Wage/Fair Work plan, which established a $15 minimum wage at UC for employees and contract workers - the first for a public university - and implemented a series of reforms to ensure that all UC contractors are complying with wage and workplace condition laws and policies. In 2014, she was appointed a tenured faculty member of UC Berkeley’s Goldman School of Public Policy. Napolitano is a distinguished public servant with a record of leading large, complex organizations. She served as Secretary of Homeland Security from 2009-13, as Governor of Arizona from 2003-09, as Attorney General of Arizona from 1998-2003, and as U.S. Attorney for the District of Arizona from 1993-97. Napolitano earned a B.S. degree (summa cum laude in Political Science) in 1979 from Santa Clara University, where she was Phi Beta Kappa, a Truman Scholar, and the university’s first female valedictorian. She received her law degree in 1983 from the University of Virginia School of Law. In 2010, she was awarded the prestigious Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal (Law), the University of Virginia’s highest external honor. In 2015, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
 
25Name:  Dr. Susan Neiman
 Institution:  Einstein Forum
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Susan Neiman has been Director of the Einstein Forum since 2000. She works primarily in moral and political philosophy as well as in the history of philosophy, particularly the 18th century. Much of her work has been devoted to defending the Enlightenment against its caricatures. Her books have been translated into ten languages. They include Slow Fire: Jewish Notes from Berlin, The Unity of Reason: Rereading Kant, Evil in Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy, Fremde Sehen Anders, Moral Clarity: A Guide for Grownup Idealists, Why Grow Up?, and Widerstand der Vernunft. She is also the author of many essays, and regularly writes political and cultural commentary for German and American media. Recent awards include the International Spinoza Prize and the Tanner Lectureship at the University of Michigan. In 2019 she received the Volkmar and Margret Sander Prize from Deutsches Haus NYU. She is a member of the Berlin-Brandenburg Akademie der Wissenschaften. Previously, she taught philosophy at Yale University and Tel Aviv University. She received her A.B., M.A., and Ph.D. from Harvard University, where she studied under John Rawls and Stanley Cavell, before studying at the Freie Universität-Berlin under Margherita von Brentano and Jakob Taubes. Neiman is the mother of three grown children, and lives in Berlin.
 
26Name:  Mr. Orhan Pamuk
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Orhan Pamuk is one of the greatest of living writers. At the age of 23 he decided to devote himself to writing fiction, though in fact he has done very much more. A series of novels has won him worldwide recognition and countless awards, notably the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2006. He has also written for the stage and screen and his novel Snow was adapted for a staged reading. His international profile and advocacy for human rights and freedom of expression have created challenges for him in his home country. About the time of his Nobel Prize he was tried and acquitted for making "un-Turkish" pronouncements about the Armenian genocide. In addition to his writing, Pamuk has curated a book of photographs of Istanbul, and founded a museum there, the Museum of Innocence. This museum, which displays objects related to his novel of the same name, won the European Museum of the Year Award for 2014. Orhan Pamuk was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
27Name:  Dr. Thomas M. Scanlon
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Thomas M. Scanlon, Jr., generally known as Tim Scanlon, is Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and Civil Polity, emeritus, at Harvard University. He received his B.A. from Princeton in 1962, and after a year at Oxford did his graduate work at Harvard, receiving his PhD in philosophy in 1968. He taught at Princeton from 1966 until moving to Harvard in 1984. Scanlon has written widely on topics in moral and political philosophy, including practical reason, the nature of moral right and wrong, value, well being, responsibility and blame, the obligation to keep a promise, freedom of expression, tolerance, and the basis of equality. He is best know for his defense of a contractualist theory of right and wrong, for an approach to morality and practical reasoning that takes the idea of a reason as the basic notion; and for his defense of the view that claims about reasons for action are capable of truth and falsity. In addition to many articles, he has written five books: What We Owe to Each Other; The Difficulty of Tolerance; Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame; Being Realistic about Reasons; and, most recently, Why Does Inequality Matter?
 
28Name:  Dr. Sara Seager
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1971
   
 
Sara Seager is an astrophysicist, planetary scientist and Class of 1941 Professor at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology. Her research aims to find exoplanets similar to Earth that meet the conditions for life. Her invetigations include work on transmission spectroscopy that led to the first ever detection of an exoplanet atmosphere. She did ground-breaking work on atmospheric retrieval and the brightness variability of terrestrial exoplanetsShe was co-investigator on TESS, a NASA Explorer Mission launched in April 2018, was chair of the NASA Science and Technology Definition Team for a Probe-class Starshade, and co-chairs the concept team for the NASA Habitable Planet Imaging Mission. Sara Seager was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
29Name:  Professor Reva Siegel
 Institution:  Yale Law School
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Reva Siegel is the Nicholas deB. Katzenbach Professor of Law at Yale Law School, where she has taught courses in constitutional law, antidiscrimination law, legal history, and transnational equality law. Her writing draws on legal history to explore questions of law and inequality and to analyze how courts interact with representative government and popular movements in interpreting the Constitution. In her writing on antidiscrimination law, she has shown how challenges to a status order may lead to "preservation through transformation,: in which laws enforcing race or gender status evolve in rule structure and rhetoric as they are contested; antidiscrimination law that fails to adapt legitimates inequality. See, for example, Why Equal Protection No Longer Protects: The Evolving Forms of Status-Enforcing State Action, 49 Stan. L.Rev.1111 (1997); "The Rule of Love": Wife Beating as Prerogative and Privacy, 105 Yale L.J. 2117 (1996); and more recently, Conscience Wars: Complicity-Based Conscience Claims in Religion and Politics, 124 Yale L.J. 2516 (2015) (with Doug NeJaime). Her theoretical and practical writing in constitutional law is attentive to the interaction of social movements and other popular interpreters of the Constitution with judges and other state officials; her work shows how constitutional conflict helps steer constitutional development and helps promote the attachment of those who may be deeply estranged from official pronouncements of the law. See, for example, Community in Conflict: Same-Sex Marriage and Backlash, 64 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 1728 (2017); The Supreme Court, 2012 Term - Foreword: Equality Divided, 127 Harv. L. Rev. 1 (2013); Dead or Alive: Originalism as Popular Constitutionalism in Heller, 122 Harv. L. Rev. 191 (2008); The Right's Reasons: Constitutional Conflict and the Spread of Woman Protective Antiabortion Argument, 57 Duke L.J. 1641 (2008); Roe Rage: Backlash and Democratic Constitutionalism, 42 Harv.C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 373 (2007) (with Robert Post); Constitutional Culture, Social Movement Conflict and Constitutional Change: The Case of the de facto ERA, 94 Cal. L. Rev 1323 (2006); Equality Talk: Antisubordination and Anticlassification Values in Constitutional Struggles Over Brown, 117 Harv. L. Rev. 1470 (2004); and She the People: The Nineteenth Amendment, Sex Equality, Federalism, and the Family, 115 Harv. L. Rev. 947 (2002). Her books include Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking (with Paul Brest, Sanford Levinson, Jack M. Balkin, and Akhil Reed Amar, 2018); Before Roe v. Wade: Voices That Shaped the Abortion Debate Before the Supreme Court’s Ruling (with Linda Greenhouse, 2012); The Constitution in 2020 (edited with Jack M. Balkin, 2009); and Directions in Sexual Harassment Law (edited with Catharine A. MacKinnon, 2004). Professor Siegel was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2018; she is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and an honorary fellow of the American Society for Legal History. She serves on the board of Advisors and the Board of Academic Advisors of the American Constitution Society and on the General Council of the International Society of Public Law. She earned a B.A. and M.Phil in American Studies, as well as a J.D. at Yale University. She began teaching law at University of California, Berkeley.
 
30Name:  Dr. Richard L. Taylor
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1962
   
 
Richard Taylor is an algebraic number theorist, working primarily on the relationship between automorphic forms and Galois representations, sometimes called the `Langlands program'. He helped Andrew Wiles complete his proof of Fermat's Last Theorem; with Michael Harris he proved the local Langlands conjecture for GL(n); with various collaborators he proved the Sato-Tate conjecture and the potential automorphy of all regular, self-dual motives; and he helped construct Galois representations for all regular algebraic cuspidal automorphic representations on GL(n) over a CM field. Born in England he graduated from Cambridge University before earning a PhD from Princeton University under the guidance of Andrew Wiles. He has held posts at Cambridge, Oxford and Harvard Universities. He is a member of the Royal Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences. He has won various prizes including the Breakthrough Prize, the Shaw Prize, a Clay Research Award, the Dannie Heinemann Prize, the Cole Prize, the Fermat Prize and the Ostrowski Prize.
 
31Name:  Dr. Shelley Taylor
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Shelley Taylor's research on positive illusions has clarified the socioemotional resources that the human mind uses to foster psychological adjustment in spite of adversity. Her research has also investigated social support and relationships coping mechanisms. An important finding of Taylor's work is that people generally have unrealistically positive but adaptive views of themselves, exaggerated perceptions of personal control, and unrealistic optimism about the future. Shelley Taylor is one of the founders of the fields of health psychology and social cognition. She has written many influential theoretical papers, as well as rigorous empirical ones, published in the top journals. In 2010 she received the Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Psychological Association. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
32Name:  Dr. Rudolf K. Thauer
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology; Philipps University Marburg
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Born 1939 in Frankfurt, Germany, I went to school in Wetter, Landshut, Philadelphia, USA (1947-1951) and Bad Nauheim and then studied Medicine and Biochemistry at the Universities of Frankfurt, Tubingen and Freiburg, where I ended my studies 1968 with a PhD in Biochemistry and a Thesis on the "Energy Metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri." Ever since then my scientific interest remained focused on how strictly anaerobic microorganisms conserve energy. Discoveries made were amongst others that carbon monoxide is an intermediate in autotrophic CO2 fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and that the trace element nickel is required by many anaerobes as cofactor of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, hydrogenases and methyl-coenzyme M reductase. The latter enzyme has a nickel tetrapyrrole as prosthetic group and catalyzes both methane formation and methane oxidation in Archaea. After a short postdoc in 1971 with Harland Wood at Case Western University Chicago, I was appointed in 1972 Associate Professor for Biochemistry at the Ruhr University in Bochum, in 1976 Full Professor for Microbiology at the Philipps University Marburg and in 1991 Founding Director of the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology in Marburg. After my retirement as Director at the end of 2007 I continued research at the Max Planck Institute that led together with Wolfgang Buckel to the discovery of flavin-based electron bifurcation that changed our understanding how most anaerobes conserve energy.
 
33Name:  Ms. Kara Walker
 Institution:  Rutgers University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1969
   
 
New York-based artist Kara Walker is best known for her candid investigation of race, gender, sexuality, and violence through silhouetted figures that have appeared in numerous exhibitions worldwide. Born in Stockton, California in 1969, Walker was raised in Atlanta, Georgia from the age of 13. She studied at the Atlanta College of Art (BFA, 1991) and the Rhode Island School of Design (MFA, 1994). She is the recipient of many awards, notably the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Achievement Award in 1997 and the United States Artists, Eileen Harris Norton Fellowship in 2008. In 2012, Walker became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Her work can be found in museums and public collections throughout the United States and Europe including The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; The Tate Gallery, London; and the Museo Nazionale delle Arti del XXI Secolo (MAXXI), Rome. Walker’s major survey exhibition, Kara Walker: My Complement, My Enemy, My Oppressor, My Love, was organized by The Walker Art Center in Minneapolis where it premiered in February 2007 before traveling to ARC/ Musée d’Art moderne de la Ville de Paris; The Whitney Museum of American Art in New York; The Hammer Museum in Los Angeles; and the Museum of Modern Art in Fort Worth. Recent solo exhibitions have been presented the Art Institute of Chicago (2013); Camden Arts Centre in London (2013); Metropolitan Arts Center (MAC) in Belfast (2014), The Cleveland Museum of Art (2016), and DESTE Foundation Project Space in Hydra, Greece (2017). In February 2018, on the closing weekend of Prospect New Orleans art triennial, Walker premiered The Katastwóf Karavan, a wagon-mounted thirty-eight note steam calliope that plays songs associated with the history of African-American protest and celebration in styles ranging from traditional spirituals to jazz to funk. Sited on Algiers Point where slaves entering New Orleans were held before transport across the river to be sold, the work gave shape and voice to those who suffered through the great Catastrophe that was the result of the institution of Slavery. During the spring of 2014, Walker’s first large scale public project, a monumental installation entitled A Subtlety: Or the Marvelous Sugar Baby an Homage to the unpaid and overworked Artisans who have refined our Sweet tastes from the cane fields to the Kitchens of the New World on the Occasion of the demolition of the Domino Sugar Refining Plant, was on view at the abandoned Domino Sugar refinery in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. Commissioned and presented by Creative Time, the project - a massive sugar covered sphinx-like sculpture - responded to and reflected on troubled history of sugar. The installation was seen by over 130,000 visitors over the course of 9 weekends that the exhibition was open to the public and received an overwhelming critical response. For this project, Walker was also awarded the 2015 Brendan Gill Prize, presented by the The Municipal Art Society of New York "for a work of art that embodies the spirit of New York City." Kara Walker currently lives and works in New York City and is the Tepper Chair in the Visual Arts at Rutgers University Mason Gross School of the Arts.
 
34Name:  Dr. Robin A. Weiss
 Institution:  University College London
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Robin Weiss is Emeritus Professor of Viral Oncology at University College London. He has spent most of his career conducting research on oncogenic viruses and on HIV. He is noted for his contributions to the discovery of endogenous retroviral genomes and for identifying CD4 as the HIV receptor. His expanded his research on avian endogenous retroviruses inherited through the host genome to consider mammalian retroviruses including the potential infection hazard by these agents in xenotransplantation of pig tissues to humans. He studied viral oncogenes and viruses involved in AIDS-linked malignancies such as Kaposi’s sarcoma. He showed that in dogs, a sexually transmitted tumor cell clone emerged around 10,000 years ago which has colonized dogs worldwide and continues to spread as a ‘parasite’. He applied pseudotype techniques originally devised for retroviruses to the study of receptors and antibody neutralization for other viruses such as influenza, rabies and ebola. He recently exploited single-chain llama nanobodies for HIV vaccines and diagnostics and he currently investigates the history of infectious diseases. Weiss was Director of Research at the Institute of Cancer Research, London, 1980-1999, and was President of the Society for General Microbiology, 2006-2009. He has chaired the Scientific Advisory Board of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and served on the Board of Directors of the Africa Health Research Institute and on the Nuffield Council for Bioethics. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Foreign Associate of the US National Academy of Sciences.
 
35Name:  Dr. Michael W. Young
 Institution:  Rockefeller University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Michael Young is Richard and Jeanne Fisher Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Genetics at The Rockefeller University. He is also the University’s Vice-President for Academic Affairs. Young received a B.A. in biology in 1971 and a Ph.D. in genetics in 1975, both from The University of Texas, Austin. His graduate work, with Burke Judd, examined gene sizes and distributions in the chromosomes of Drosophila. He moved to Rockefeller in 1978, following postdoctoral work on transposable elements with David Hogness in the Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine. In the late 1970s, Young began to use the fruit fly, Drosophila, to explore the molecular bases of circadian (daily) rhythms. Molecular and genetic screens in his laboratory identified six genes that are involved in the formation of a biochemical oscillator with a periodicity close to 24 hours. Interactions among these genes, and their proteins, contribute to a network of molecular oscillations that emerge within most tissues at the level of single cells. Most of the “clock genes” discovered by Young and his colleagues in Drosophila are also central to the circadian pathways of vertebrates. Recently Young’s laboratory showed that a prevalent human sleep disorder is caused by dysfunction of such a well-conserved circadian clock gene. Young’s elected memberships include the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the President’s Council of the New York Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Microbiology, and the Physiological Society, London (Honorary). Along with colleagues Jeffrey Hall and Michael Rosbash, he received the 2009 Gruber Neuroscience Prize, 2011 Horwitz Prize, 2012 Canada Gairdner International Award, 2012 Massry Prize, 2013 Wiley Prize, 2013 Shaw Prize and the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discoveries of molecular mechanisms that control circadian rhythms.
 
Election Year
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