American Philosophical Society
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1Name:  Justice Rosalie Silberman Abella
 Institution:  Supreme Court of Canada
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Justice Rosalie Abella, born in a displaced persons’ camp to survivors of Theresienstadt and Buchenwald and brought to Canada as a young child, has been honored around the world as a leading voice for human rights among judges of the world’s high courts. Abella is an expert on human rights law and has taught at McGill Law School. She has authored several books and over 75 articles. She was called to the Ontario bar in 1972 and appointed to the Canadian Supreme Court in 2004. Her 14 years on the Canadian Supreme Court have been distinguished for the clarity and wisdom of her opinions. At an earlier phase of her career, her work on equal employment opportunity established an analytical framework that the Canadian Supreme Court and courts around the world have adopted. In the past she has been a member of the Human Rights Commission of Ontario, of the Ontario Public Service Labour Relations Tribunal, and was the first woman chair of the Ontario Labour Relations Board. Rosalie Silberman Abella was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
2Name:  Dr. Frances H. Arnold
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at Caltech, Frances Arnold pioneered protein engineering by directed evolution, with applications in alternative energy, chemicals, and medicine. She uses evolution augmented with machine learning to circumvent our profound ignorance of how DNA encodes function and create new biological molecules. She has been recognized by induction into the US National Academies of Science, Medicine, and Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Inventors Hall of Fame, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Her awards include the Charles Stark Draper Prize of the National Academy of Engineering (2011), the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2011), the Millennium Technology Prize (2016), the National Academy of Sciences’ Sackler Prize in Convergence Research (2017), and the Franklin Institute's Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science (2019). Frances Arnold won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work on directed evolution of enzymes. Arnold pioneered the 'directed evolution' technique, which is now used by hundreds of laboratories and companies to produce more useful enzymes. Dr. Arnold chairs the Advisory Panel of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowships in Science and Engineering and is a Trustee of the Gordon Research Conferences. She co-founded Gevo, Inc. in 2005 to make fuels and chemicals from renewable resources and Provivi, Inc. in 2014 to develop non-toxic modes of agricultural pest control.
 
3Name:  Dr. Helen M. Blau
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
Helen Blau is world-renowned for her seminal discovery that the differentiated state is reversible rather than fixed and terminal. Her demonstration of cellular plasticity constituted a paradigm shift in our understanding of mammalian cell differentiation. Using muscle as a model, Blau’s work provided the first definitive evidence that diverse cell types could be reprogrammed using non-dividing cell fusions. Her studies demonstrated that cell differentiation requires continuous regulation and that a shift in the stoichiometry of trans-acting regulators induces nuclear reprogramming, providing the scientific underpinnings for the induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Blau applied this discovery to stem cell biology. She led the field with novel approaches to treating muscle damaged due to disease, injury, or aging. She showed that biophysical and biochemical cues synergize to maintain the stem cell state in culture and rejuvenate the function of aged muscle stem cell populations, profoundly impacting the field of regenerative medicine. Among Helen Blau's many honors are the 1999 FASEB Excellence in Science Award and a Fulbright Senior Specialists award. She was President of the American Society for Developmental Biology 1994-95, on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Aging 1996-2000, President of the International Society of Differentiation 2004-05, and member of the Harvard Board of Overseers 2004-10. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
4Name:  Dr. Karen S. Cook
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
KAREN S. COOK is the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology and Vice Provost for Faculty Development and Diversity at Stanford University. She is also the founding Director of the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences (IRiSS) at Stanford and a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation. Professor Cook has a long-standing interest in social exchange, social networks, social justice and trust in social relations. She has edited a number of books in the Russell Sage Foundation Trust Series including Trust in Society (2001), Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives (with R. Kramer, 2004), eTrust: Forming Relations in the Online World (with C. Snijders, V. Buskens, and Coye Cheshire, 2009), and Whom Can Your Trust? (with M. Levi and R. Hardin, 2009). She is co-author of Cooperation without Trust? (with R. Hardin and M. Levi, 2005). She has served on numerous National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine committees, including the council, and currently is a member of the DBASSE advisory committee. She also serves as chair of the NSF advisory committee for the social, behavioral and economic sciences (SBE). In 1996, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2007 to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2004 she received the ASA Social Psychology Section Cooley Mead Award for Career Contributions to Social Psychology. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018. Karen Cook conducts research on social interaction, social networks, social exchange, and trust. She is among the foremost scholars who have researched the role of trust dynamics in shaping organizational and institutional outcomes. Her early work focused on how power differentials shaped processes of social exchange within organizations and between individuals within networks, criticizing microeconomic theory for overlooking the social structures within which actors are embedded. Her latest work focuses on the origins and generation of trust in human society and its role in promoting effective use of social capital. In particular, she has done much influential research on the role of interpersonal and social relations in physician-patient relations. She argues that a general trust of others liberates people from safe but closed relationships and facilitates the creation of social capital in a variety of human domains.
 
5Name:  Dr. Jean Dalibard
 Institution:  Collège de France
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Jean Dalibard was educated at Ecole normale supérieure in Paris, where he completed a Ph.D. in 1986 with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji. He worked at the French Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) for the first part of his carrier, before joining Collège de France in 2012 where he holds the chair Matter and Radiation. He has also been a Professor at Ecole polytechnique for more than 20 years. Dalibard’s scientific work is concerned with atomic physics and optics, more specifically with the control of the motion of atoms with light. The starting point of this research field is quite paradoxical: by shining laser beams on a gas, it is possible to cool it to extremely low temperatures, less than a millionth of a degree above absolute zero. Such a low temperature can give rise to novel states of matter whose behavior, governed by Quantum Mechanics, is radically different from a normal fluid. Together with Cohen-Tannoudji, Dalibard contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms at the origin of this phenomenon, working notably on Sisyphus cooling and on the magneto-optical trap. Later, Dalibard and his team studied experimentally the properties of these gases when they are set in rotation, and they could observe the nucleation of a lattice of quantized vortices resulting from this circular motion. During the last decade, his research has been focused on the "physics of Flatland", i.e. the specific properties of a fluid when it is constrained to move only in a plane instead of the usual three-dimensional space. The long-term goal of his research is to develop cold atom setups that can emulate other physical systems that are yet poorly understood - in condensed matter physics for example - in order to bring experimental answers to important pending questions. Jean Dalibard has received several awards, notably the Davisson-Germer Prize from the American Physical Society, the Max Born award from the Americal Physical Society and the Prix Jean Ricard form the French Physical Society. He is a member of the French Academy of Sciences, of the European Academy of Science, the Academia Europaea, and an international member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He has been a visiting scientist in a number of places outside France, notably NIST Gaithersburg and Cambridge University in the UK.
 
6Name:  Mr. Ronald J. Daniels
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1959
   
 
Ronald Daniels is an outstanding scholar and administrator. His innovative and important research focuses on combining the resources and aligning the interests of public and private sectors to address major societal challenges like poverty. Recently, he has written about the intersection of scientific research and economic development. As an administrator he has actively worked to improve support for first-generation and low-income students. During his time at Johns Hopkins the University, he has increased the financial aid budget and created structures to support students and increase access. Daniels has worked to create awards and other means to support researchers early in their careers who are struggling to receive funds. Ronald Daniels was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
7Name:  Dr. Christopher Martin Dobson
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1949
 Death Date:  September 8, 2019
   
 
Christopher Dobson's research greatly clarified the process of protein misfolding and its link to degenerative diseases. As a result, he contributed to the scientific understanding of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. He published over 800 papers and review articles. Additionally, his publications are unusually impactful, being cited frequently in the research of others. In addition to leading his productive research group, Dobson effectively performed the role of Master of St. John's College, notably by leading the expansion of full bursaries for disadvantaged students. Among his numerous honors is the Royal Medal, awarded to him in 2009 by the Royal Society, of which he was a member. Christopher Dobson was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018. He died September 8, 2019 in London, England at the age of 69.
 
8Name:  Dr. Paul Edward Farmer
 Institution:  Partners in Health; Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1959
 Death Date:  February 21, 2022
   
 
Paul Farmer is a leading scholar in the anthropology of medicine and a pioneering practitioner in developing innovative pathways to health care in some of the world’s most impoverished and underserved regions. With a small group of colleagues, he founded Partners in Health, a non-profit organization dedicated to community-based treatments of chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. His early work was in rural Haiti. Drawing on his anthropological knowledge of social networks and his medical knowledge of challenges to compliance in pharmacological treatments of chronic disease in unsupervised settings, Farmer enlisted neighborhood volunteers to deliver and witness the administration of treatments to patients unable to leave their homes for regular care. The results were profoundly successful, and Partners in Health expanded to other parts of the world, and to other community-based approaches to delivery of care. His name is now synonymous with Partners in Health and community-based care. Paul Farmer was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
9Name:  Dr. Eric Foner
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Eric Foner, DeWitt Clinton Professor Emeritus of History at Columbia University, is one of this country's most prominent historians. He received his doctoral degree at Columbia under the supervision of Richard Hofstadter. He is one of only two persons to serve as president of the three major professional organizations: the Organization of American Historians, American Historical Association, and Society of American Historians, and one of a handful to have won the Bancroft and Pulitzer Prizes in the same year. Foner's publications have concentrated on the intersections of intellectual, political and social history, and the history of American race relations. His best-known books are: Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970); Tom Paine and Revolutionary America (1976); Nothing But Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy (1983); Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (1988) (winner, among other awards, of the Bancroft Prize, Parkman Prize, and Los Angeles Times Book Award); The Story of American Freedom (1998); and Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World (2002). His survey textbook of American history, Give Me Liberty! An American History and a companion volume of documents, Voices of Freedom, appeared in 2004. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (winner, among other awards, of the Bancroft Prize, Pulitzer Prize for History, and The Lincoln Prize) was published in the fall of 2010. Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad, was published early in 2015 and the following year was awarded the American History Book Prize by the New-York Historical Society. His latest book, Battles for Freedom: The Use and Abuse of American History, a collection of essays from The Nation magazine, appeared in 2017. His books have been translated into Chinese, Korean, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, and Spanish. Eric Foner has also been the co-curator, with Olivia Mahoney, of two prize-winning exhibitions on American history: A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln, which opened at the Chicago Historical Society in 1990, and America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War, which opened at the Virginia Historical Society in 1995 and traveled to several other locations. He revised the presentation of American history at the Hall of Presidents at Disney World, and Meet Mr. Lincoln at Disneyland, and has served as consultant to several National Parks Service historical sites and historical museums. Eric Foner is a winner of the Great Teacher Award from the Society of Columbia Graduates (1991), and the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching from Columbia University (2006). He is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the British Academy, and has been awarded honorary degrees by Iona College, Queen Mary University of London, the State University of New York, Dartmouth College, Lehigh University, and Princeton University. He has taught at Cambridge University as Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions, Oxford University as Harmsworth Professor of American History, Moscow State University as Fulbright Professor, and at Queen Mary, University of London as Leverhulme Visiting Scholar. He has written for the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, London Review of Books, and many other publications, and has appeared on numerous television and radio shows, including Charlie Rose, Book Notes, The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, The Colbert Report, Bill Moyers Journal, Fresh Air, and All Things Considered, and in historical documentaries on PBS and the History Channel. He has lectured extensively to both academic and non-academic audiences. In 2007, a group of Professor Foner's former graduate students published Contested Democracy: Freedom, Race, and Power in American History, edited by Manisha Sinha and Penny Von Eschen, a collection of essays, or "festschrift," in his honor. Foner's works have been highly praised in scholarly journals and by reviews in periodicals across the political spectrum. In The Nation, Theodore Rosengarten wrote that Reconstruction is "monumental in scope ... a feat of research and synthesis that is not likely to be repeated for a generation." The introduction to a recent collection of essays on the Civil War era refers to Reconstruction as "one of the masterworks of the historical profession." Robert H. Ferrell, in the National Review declared that The Story of American Freedom "approaches brilliance." In the Los Angeles Times, Wendy Smith wrote of Gateway to Freedom, "intellectually probing and emotionally resonant, [it] reminds us that history can be as stirring as the most gripping fiction." In a recent book review, Professor Steven Hahn of the University of Pennsylvania wrote of Eric Foner: "Like his mentor Richard Hofstadter, he has had an enormous influence on how other historians, as well as a good cut of the general reading public, have come to think about American history. This is the result of his voluminous scholarship and of his decades as a teacher. Indeed, when one considers the chronological and topical range of Foner's many books and essays--not to mention those of his doctoral students--only Hofstadter, C. Vann Woodward, David Brion Davis, and, in an earlier era, Charles Beard (who was also at Columbia) would seem to be his genuine rivals in impact and accomplishment." On a somewhat different note, the Oklahoma Gazette recently wrote of a lecture at Oklahoma University, "suffice it to say that his giving a free lecture on OU's campus is just really, incredibly, super cool."
 
10Name:  Mr. Kenneth C. Frazier
 Institution:  Merck & Co., Inc.
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Kenneth C. Frazier is Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Merck & Co., Inc. Under Mr. Frazier's leadership, Merck is delivering innovative lifesaving medicines and vaccines as well as long-term and sustainable value to its multiple stakeholders. Mr. Frazier has substantially increased Merck's investment in research, including early research, while refocusing the organization on the launch and growth of key products that provide benefit to society. He has also led the formation of philanthropic and other initiatives that build on Merck's 125-year plus legacy. Mr. Frazier joined the company in 1992 as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of the company's joint venture with Astra AB. He became Vice President of Public Affairs in 1994, and in 1997 was also named Assistant General Counsel. In 1999 Mr. Frazier was promoted to General Counsel of Merck. From 2007 to 2010 he served as President of Global Human Health, Merck's sales and marketing division. In 2010 he became President of Merck. He was appointed CEO and a member of Merck's Board of Directors in January 2011 and became Chairman of the Board in December 2011. Prior to joining Merck, Mr. Frazier was a partnet with the Philadelphia law firm of Drinker Biddle & Reath. He sits on the boards of PhRMA, Weill Cornell Medicine, Exxon Mobile Corporation, and Cornerstone Christian Academy in Philadelphia, PA. He also is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Business Council, the Council of the American Law Institute, and the American Bar Association. He received his bachelor's degree from the Pennsylvania State University and holds a J.D. from Harvard Law School. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
11Name:  Dr. William A. Graham
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
William A. Graham is Murray A. Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies and University Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard University. His scholarship focuses on early Islamic religious history and texts and comparative studies in the history of religion; his most recent work involves Qur'anic studies. Raised in Chapel Hill NC and a 1966 summa graduate of the University of North Carolina in European history and comparative literature (German, French, Classics), he also studied German literature in Göttingen (1964-5). Supported by Woodrow Wilson and Danforth fellowships (1966-73), he earned his PhD at Harvard in the history of religion, specializing in Islamic studies with secondary work in Sanskrit and Indian studies. In 1967-8 he studied Arabic at Britain's Middle East Centre for Arabic Studies in Lebanon and in 1971-2 pursued thesis research in London and Tübingen. A member of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations and the Study of Religion) since 1973, he has chaired several academic units, directed the Center for Middle Eastern Studies (1990-6), and served as master of Currier House (1991-2003). In 2002 he also joined the Harvard Divinity School to serve as its dean (2002-12). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and past chair of the Council on Graduate Studies in Religion. Honors include Phi Beta Kappa; John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt fellowships (India and Germany, 1982-3); the 2000 Excellence in Research in Islamic History and Culture quinquennial award from the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (Istanbul); honorary doctorates from UNC-CH (2004) and Lehigh (2006); the 2012 Lifetime Achievement award of The Journal of Law and Religion. His Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977) shared the ACLS History of Religions Prize in 1978. He is also author of Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987) and Islamic and Comparative Religious Studies (2010); a co-author of Three Faiths, One God (2002) and The Heritage of World Civilizations (1986ff.; 10th ed., 2016); an associate editor of The Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an (1995- ); and co-editor of Islamfiche: Readings from Islamic Primary Sources (1983-7). A longtime mountaineer, elected to the American Alpine Club in 1981, he was faculty adviser to the Harvard Mountaineering Club for forty years. He is married to Dr. Barbara S. Graham; they have one son, Dr. Powell L. Graham, M.D.
 
12Name:  Dr. Diane E. Griffin
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Diane E. Griffin MD, PhD is University Distinguished Service Professor and former Chair of the W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Vice President of the US National Academy of Sciences. She earned her BA in Biology at Augustana College in Rock Island, IL and her MD and PhD at Stanford University School of Medicine. Her research interests are in the area of pathogenesis of viral diseases with a particular focus on measles and arboviral encephalitis. These studies address issues related to virulence and the role of immune responses in protection from infection and in clearance of infection. She has more than 400 publications and has served on multiple advisory and editorial boards. She is the US Chair of the US-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program and past president of the American Society for Virology and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and Association of American Physicians, as well as the National Academy of Sciences. Among other honors, she has received the Rudolf Virchow Medal from the University of Wurzburg (2010), Wallace Sterling Lifetime Alumni Achievement Award from Stanford University (2011), FASEB Excellence in Science Award (2015), Maxwell Finland Award from the NFID (2016) and MilliporeSigma Alice C. Evans Award from the ASM (2017).
 
13Name:  Dr. Hopi E. Hoekstra
 Institution:  Harvard University; Howard Hughes Medical Institute
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1972
   
 
Hopi E. Hoekstra is the Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology in the Departments of Organismic & Evolutionary Biology and the Molecular & Cellular Biology at Harvard University. She is the Curator of Mammals in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, an Institute Member at the Broad Institute and an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Her research focuses on understanding the evolution and genetics of morphological and behavioral traits that affect fitness of individuals in the wild. Using deer mice as a model system, she first dissected the molecular, genetic and developmental basis of camouflaging coloration to understand the mechanisms driving adaptation. Later, she focused on unraveling the genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of complex natural behaviors. She received her B.A. from UC Berkeley and her Ph.D. from the University of Washington. She has received Young Investigator awards from the American Society of Naturalists and the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation, and most recently, the Lounsbery Medal from the National Academy of Sciences (2015). She gave the 2013 Commencement speech at UC Berkeley’s Integrative Biology Department and has been profiled in The New York Times. In 2016, she was elected into the National Academy of Sciences and in 2017, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She also teaches in Harvard’s introductory Life Science course Genetics, Genomics and Evolution to approximately 500 freshmen each year, and has been awarded the Fannie Cox Prize and a Harvard College Professorship for teaching excellence.
 
14Name:  Dr. Eric J. Horvitz
 Institution:  Microsoft
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Eric Horvitz has made extensive influential contributions to artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction research and has had major industry impact through deployed AI systems, ( he holds nearly 300 patents). He pioneered the decision-theoretic paradigm (Bayesian inference methods), leading to the probabilistic inference paradigm widely used in AI. He has pioneered predictive models related to healthcare, ecommerce, aerospace and traffic patterns. While advancing the capabilities of AI, he has also advanced the study of ethical concerns surrounding AI, including by founding Stanford’s 100 Year Study on AI. As co-founder of The Partnership on AI, he has brought together industry leaders and other notable experts to foster dialogue and education on best practices related to transparency, privacy, safety, and fairness of AI systems. In 2020 Eric Horvitz was appointed Microsoft's first ever Chief Scientific Officer, as part of a plan to bring together parts of Microsoft research under one person. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
15Name:  Dr. Philip Stuart Kitcher
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
I was born in the UK, where I had the good fortune to pursue my secondary education at Christ’s Hospital, one of Britain’s great charitable foundations. From there I went to Christ’s College, Cambridge, to study mathematics. In my final year, however, I switched to the history and philosophy of science, intending to specialize in the history of science. Reading T.S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions inspired a further change, and led me to Princeton and to a Ph.D in the philosophy of science. My early research concentrated on the philosophy of mathematics, and on general issues in philosophy of science, particularly those raised by Kuhn’s work. But, at the very beginning of my teaching career, undergraduates in my class on philosophy of science urged me to discuss biology (a subject about which I had been completely ignorant). Responding to their concerns, I quickly became fascinated. Thanks to a grant from the ACLS, I was able to supplement my reading with a year at Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology, where I learned much from Stephen Jay Gould, Richard Lewontin, and Ernst Mayr. During the 1980s, I wrote extensively on topics in the philosophy of biology. My more general work in the philosophy of science culminated in The Advancement of Science, published in 1993. Shortly thereafter, the Library of Congress invited me to spend a year writing a report on the implications of the Human Genome Project. The work I did in this area (much of it published in 1996 in The Lives to Come) changed my views about what philosophers of science ought to be doing. I began to see the sciences as embedded within societies, to whose legitimate aims they are partially responsible. Two books, Science, Truth, and Democracy (2001) and Science in a Democratic Society (2011), have tried to probe the relations between the sciences and the human good. The shift in my thinking was accompanied by a new concentration on ethics, and an attempt to understand how ethical life might fit within an evolutionary picture of our species. Here I was greatly aided by conversations with Sidney Morgenbesser, who helped me to see the kinship between my views and those of John Dewey. Dewey’s pragmatism has left deep imprints in my more recent writings, not only in The Ethical Project (2011) and Preludes to Pragmatism (2012), but also in my discussions of religion (Living with Darwin, 2007, and Life After Faith, 2014). Since coming to Columbia in 1999, the wonderful interdisciplinary intellectual environment has quickened my long-standing interests in music and literature, leading me to write on Wagner, Mahler, Joyce, and Thomas Mann. I’m currently engaged in several attempts to elaborate a Deweyan pragmatism for our century, by supplying a general framework and focusing on education, democracy, and moral progress. I hope to have enough time not only to complete these projects, but also for further philosophical explorations of literary and musical works. I trust my long - and winding - intellectual journey is not yet finished. With luck, there will be a few more bends and surprises. - Philip Kitcher Philip Kitcher was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018. He has also earned many other honors, including the Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Psychological Association and the Prometheus prize of the American Philosophical Association. In 2020 he was awarded the Rescher Medal for contributions to systematic philosophy. In 2021 he was awarded the 2020 2020 Hempel Award, "recognizing outstanding lifetime achievement in the philosophy of science" and published two books, Moral Progress (June) and The Main Enterprise of the World: Rethinking Education (November).
 
16Name:  Dr. Paul W. Kroll
 Institution:  University of Colorado, Boulder
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
One of the world's leading scholars of medieval Chinese (ca. 200-1000 CE) literature, Paul W. Kroll took his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan in 1976. After three years at the University of Virginia, he moved to the University of Colorado where he became the founding Chair of the university's Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures (now Asian Languages and Civilizations), serving in that position from 1982 to 1995. During that time he also designed and instituted the department's graduate program in Chinese. He is the author of over seventy articles, as well as the author or editor of eight books, the most significant of which is A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese (Brill, 2014; revised edition 2017). This is the first Chinese-English dictionary devoted specifically to the premodern Chinese written language, up to roughly 1000 CE. It has become a standard and indispensable resource for students and scholars alike. Among its special features are the inclusion of the Middle Chinese reconstructed pronunciation of every word, definitions of a multitude of technical terms in various fields (bureaucracy, astronomy, sericulture, Buddhism and Daoism, etc.), accurate identifications of hundreds of plants and animals, and explanations of hundreds of Gestalt binomes (Ch. lianmianci) which figure prominently in literary texts, especially in poetry. His scholarly publications have mainly focused on facets of the literature, religion, and cultural history of the Nanbeichao (early medieval) and Tang (late medieval) eras, with a special fondness for the poets of the seventh and eighth centuries. Broadly learned in Western literatures and languages from classical times through the modern period, in addition to East Asian traditions, his sinological studies have an unusual depth of comparative reference. Besides his own research, he has spent forty years as an editor of various scholarly journals, helping to define the field and shape the presentation of Western studies on premodern China, including as: associate editor of the Journal of Chinese Religions (1979-1982); editor of Tang Studies (1984-2006), which he transformed from a simple newsletter into the leading specialist journal on Tang China; East Asia editor of the venerable Journal of the American Oriental Society (1984-2000) and then Editor-in-Chief of that journal and of the society's monograph series (2000-2010), during which he also presided over a complete redesign of the journal; one of three co-editors of T'oung Pao (2009-17), the oldest and leading European journal of sinology, for which he was the first American-born editor in its 100-plus-year history; and since 2015 one of four editors of Brill's Handbuch der Orientalistik series. Among other activities he is the American Oriental Society's delegate to the American Council of Learned Societies and the ACLS's delegate to the Union Académique Internationale. Selected honors include: three fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies (1979-80, 1985-86, 1996, the latter partially funded by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation); President of the American Oriental Society (2006-07); Guggenheim Fellowship (2007-08); member of the Institute for Advanced Study, School of Historical Studies (2008-09, partially funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities); named to the Dayatang Chaired Professorship for one semester at Peking University (2016, to be assumed at a later date.)
 
17Name:  Dr. Vijay Kumar
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1962
   
 
Vijay Kumar is the Nemirovsky Family Dean of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Computer and Information Science and Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He studies control systems and collective behaviors in biological and robotic systems. His GRASP lab has developed multi-robot systems and microscale aerial robots that are capable of impressive coordination, such as swarming and teamwork. From 2012-14 he was assistant director of Robotics and Cyber Physical Systems in the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. As Dean and as a researcher he has contributed greatly to the standing of the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and to the surrounding community. He has been a member of the editorial boards of the IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, the ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics and the Springer Tract in Advanced Robotics (STAR). He served as Editor of the ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics from 2014-17. Vijay Kumar was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
18Name:  Mr. Frederick M. Lawrence
 Institution:  Phi Beta Kappa Society; Georgetown University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1955
   
 
Frederick M. Lawrence is the 10th Secretary and CEO of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the nation’s first and most prestigious honor society, founded in 1776. Lawrence is a Distinguished Lecturer at the Georgetown Law Center, and has previously served as president of Brandeis University, Dean of the George Washington University Law School, and Visiting Professor and Senior Research Scholar at Yale Law School. An accomplished scholar, teacher and attorney, Lawrence is one of the nation’s leading experts on civil rights, free expression and bias crimes. Lawrence has published widely and lectured internationally. He is the author of Punishing Hate: Bias Crimes Under American Law (Harvard University Press 1999), examining bias-motivated violence and the laws governing how such violence is punished in the United States. He is an opinion contributor to The Hill and US News, frequently contributes op-eds to various other news sources, such as Newsweek, the Boston Globe, the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Observer, the NY Daily News and The Huffington Post, and has appeared on CNN among other networks. Lawrence has testified before Congress concerning free expression on campus and on federal hate crime legislation, was the key-note speaker at the meeting of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) on bias-motivated violence, was a Senior Research Fellow at University College London, and the recipient of a Ford Foundation grant to study bias-motivated violence in the United Kingdom. Lawrence is a trustee of Beyond Conflict, serves on the Board of Directors of the National Humanities Alliance, the Editorial Board of the Journal of College and University Law, the National Commission of the Anti-Defamation League and the Advisory Board of RANE (Risk Assistance Network + Exchange) and has been a Trustee of Williams College and WGBH. At Phi Beta Kappa, Lawrence has focused on advocacy for the arts, humanities and sciences, championing free expression, free inquiry and academic freedom, and invigorating the Society’s 286 chapters and nearly 50 alumni associations. As president of Brandeis, Lawrence strengthened ties between the university and its alumni and focused on sustaining the university’s historical commitment to educational access through financial aid. His accomplishments during his presidency included restoring fiscal stability to the university and overseeing record setting increases in admissions applications, undergraduate financial aid and the university’s endowment. An acclaimed teacher, Lawrence taught an undergraduate seminar on punishment and crime that was one of the most popular undergraduate courses offered at Brandeis. Lawrence was widely regarded as a champion of the fine arts. He revitalized the university’s Rose Art Museum, recruited and hired a dynamic new museum director, and commissioned the Light of Reason sculpture, creating a dynamic outdoor space for the Brandeis community. Prior to Brandeis, Lawrence was dean and Robert Kramer Research Professor of Law at George Washington University Law School from 2005 to 2010. During his time at GW Law, Lawrence recruited the strongest classes in the school’s history, and his five years as dean were five of the six highest fund-raising years in the school’s history. He was Professor of Law at Boston University School of Law from 1988 to 2005, during which time he served as Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and received the Metcalf Award for Excellence in Teaching, the university’s highest teaching honor. Lawrence’s legal career was distinguished by service as an assistant U.S. attorney for the southern district of New York in the 1980s, where he became chief of the Civil Rights Unit. Lawrence received a bachelor’s degree in 1977 from Williams College magna cum laude where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and a law degree in 1980 from Yale Law School where he was an editor of the Yale Law Journal.
 
19Name:  Dr. Richard E. Lenski
 Institution:  Michigan State University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Richard E. Lenski is an evolutionary biologist, one who pursues an experimental approach to watch the process of evolution in action. In an on-going experiment that he started in 1988, Lenski and his team have been monitoring and analyzing 12 populations of E. coli bacteria as they evolve in a controlled environment for almost 70,000 generations. This work has provided fundamental insights into the process of microbial adaptation, the dynamics of genome evolution, and the origin of new functions. Samples have been stored periodically in freezers, and the cells that lived in different generations can be revived and directly compared - in effect, allowing time travel. In addition to studying microbial evolution, Lenski collaborates on experiments in which computer programs self-replicate, mutate, compete, and thereby evolve in and adapt to their virtual worlds. Lenski did his undergraduate studies at Oberlin College, graduate work at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and postdoctoral research at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He began his faculty career at the University of California, Irvine, before joining Michigan State University in 1991 as the John Hannah Professor of Microbial Ecology, with sabbatical stints at the University of Oxford and Université de Montpellier. Lenski has mentored more than 25 graduate students and postdoctoral associates who are now on the faculties of universities around the United States and the world. He is a past president of the Society for the Study of Evolution, and he helped start the BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, which brings together biologists, computer scientists, and engineers to illuminate and harness the power of evolution. Lenski has received fellowships from the Guggenheim and MacArthur Foundations, he holds an honorary degree from Wageningen University, and he is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the European Molecular Biology Organization, and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.
 
20Name:  Dr. Margaret Levi
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Margaret Levi is the Sara Miller McCune Director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS) at Stanford, Professor of Political Science, and Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University. She is also Jere L. Bacharach Professor Emerita of International Studies in the Department of Political Science at the University of Washington. She served as president of the American Political Science Association from 2004 to 2005. Her life-long research interest is the attributes of governance that affect the trustworthiness, legitimacy, and quality of government and other organizations. Levi is the author or coauthor of numerous articles and seven books, including Of Rule and Revenue (University of California Press, 1988) and In the Interest of Others (Princeton, 2013), co-authored with John Ahlquist.
 
Election Year
2018[X]
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