American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Ms. Jill Abramson
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Jill Abramson has been a Senior Lecturer in the Department of English at Harvard University since 2014. She was the executive editor of The New York Times from September 2011 to May 2014. Previously she was managing editor of the paper from August 2003 until August 2011. As managing editor, Ms. Abramson helped supervise coverage of two wars, four national elections, hurricanes and oil spills. She also wrote about politics, in the Week in Review and Book Review sections. She served as Washington bureau chief from December 2000 until July 2003. She joined the newspaper in September 1997 and became Washington editor in 1999. Previously, Ms. Abramson worked at The Wall Street Journal from 1988 to 1997. While there, she served as deputy bureau chief in its Washington, D.C., bureau and investigative reporter, covering money and politics. Ms. Abramson is the author of Merchants of Truth, published in 2019. She is also the co-author of Strange Justice: The Selling of Clarence Thomas, published in 1994, and Where They Are Now: The Story of the Women of Harvard Law 1974, published in 1986. Strange Justice, a non-fiction finalist for the National Book Award and National Book Critics Circle Award in 1994, details the circumstances surrounding the confirmation hearings of Justice Clarence Thomas. Where They Are Now is a study of the 71 women in the Harvard Law School class of 1974. Ms. Abramson won the National Press Club award for national correspondence in 1992 for political coverage of money and politics.in 2018 she was appointed Adjunct Professor at Dublin City University's School of Communications. Ms. Abramson is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. She serves on the Journalism Advisory Board of ProPublica, an independent, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest. She also serves on the board of visitors of Columbia University's School of Journalism. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
2Name:  Dr. Cornelia Isabella Bargmann
 Institution:  Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Rockefeller University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1961
   
 
Cornelia I. Bargmann is currently both an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Torsten N. Wiesel Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Neural Circuits and Behavior at Rockefeller University. Born in Virginia, she received her Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1987. She won the Richard Lounsbery Award in Biology and Medicine from the National Academy of Sciences in 2009, the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience in 2012, and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences in 2013. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2002) and the National Academy of Sciences (2003). Cori Bargmann is recognized internationally through her elegant work on neural development and behavior using a tiny roundworm, C. elegans. The worm has become a key model organism in biomedical research because, having just 302 neurons, it is possible to know the detailed wiring of the nervous system on a cellular level and deduct the worm's behavior from its circuit. With the complete genome available, precise genetic manipulation can modify circuits and behavior. Insights gained from this powerful approach, on sensory perception, navigation, oxygen sensing, feeding behavior, and stress response, can now be used to guide research on the complexities of the human disorders such as dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism. Cori is a brilliant individual with a passion for science and scholarship and a generous and beloved person. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
3Name:  Dr. Bonnie L. Bassler
 Institution:  Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  209. Neurobiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1962
   
 
Bonnie L. Bassler is currently both an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and and Endowed Squibb Professor in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University. Born in Illinois she received her Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1990. She has won a number of awards, including: the Eli Lilly and Company Research Award, American Society for Microbiology, 2006; the President's Distinguished Teaching Award, Princeton University, 2008; the Richard Lounsbery Award, National Academy of Sciences, 2011; the Shaw Prize, 2015; the Max Planck Research Award, 2016; the Dickson Prize in Medicine, 2018; and the 2020 Gruber Genetics Prize. In 2019 she became a member of the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars. She is a member of the American Society for Microbiology (president); the American Academy for Microbiology (chair, Board of Governors); the National Academy of Sciences, 2006; and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 2007. Bonnie Bassler discovered the universal use of chemical communication among bacteria, leading to a new paradigm of bacteria as interacting organisms. Early in her career, she discovered that bacteria use multiple chemical signals to communicate. She showed that this process, called quorum sensing, allows bacteria to coordinate behavior as a population and thereby act like multicellular organisms. Bassler subsequently made the seminal and startling discovery that bacteria communicate across species, and she identified the universal inter-species communication molecule. On the human health front, Bassler demonstrated that quorum sensing controls virulence in disease-causing bacteria, and that by manipulating quorum sensing she can halt virulence in globally-important pathogens. Her research paves the way for novel antibiotics targeting quorum sensing, and her group successfully demonstrated such therapeutic strategies. Bassler is internationally recognized for her passionate commitment to science education and outreach and to increasing gender and racial diversity in science, mathematics, and engineering. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
4Name:  Dr. Craig Calhoun
 Institution:  Arizona State University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Craig Calhoun is University Professor of Social Sciences at Arizona State University. He had served as President of the Social Science Research Council from 1999 to 2012, while also University Professor of Social Sciences and Director of the Institute of Public Knowledge at New York University. From 2012 to 2016, he was Director of the London School of Economics and Social Science, after which he was President of the Beggruen Institute from 2016 until 2018. Calhoun received his doctorate from Oxford University and has also been a professor and dean at the University of North Carolina and a visiting professor in Asmara, Beijing, Khartoum, Oslo, Paris, and Berlin. Under Calhoun’s leadership, the SSRC initiated major projects on public social science, global security and cooperation, gender and conflict, digital media and learning, the privatization of risk, religion and the public sphere, intellectual property rights, humanitarian emergences, HIV/AIDS, the social sciences in Africa, trans-regional integration in Asia, and a range of other issues. It has also substantially increased the number of fellowships it offers annually. As an individual scholar Calhoun has done research on a variety of themes in historical sociology, political economy, social movements, social theory, and the history of social sciences. His publications include The Roots of Radicalism: Tradition, the Public Sphere, and Early 19th Century Social Movements (Chicago 2012), Nations Matter: Culture, History, and the Cosmopolitan Dream (Routledge 2007), Nationalism (Minnesota 1997), Critical Social Theory: Culture, History and the Problem of Specificity (Blackwell, 1995), and Neither Gods Nor Emperors: Students and the Struggle for Democracy in China (California 1994). Calhoun edited a three-volume collection, Possible Futures (NYU 2011), which explores the impact of financial crisis, the challenges of global governance addressing issues from war to climate change, and the future of development.
 
5Name:  Dr. Michael T. Clegg
 Institution:  University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Michael T. Clegg received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in agricultural genetics and genetics respectively at the University of California, Davis. In 1972 he joined the faculty of Brown University moving from there to the University of Georgia in 1976. In 1984, he assumed the position of Professor of Genetics at the University of California, Riverside, where he also served as Dean of the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences from 1994 to 2000 and founding director of the Genomics Institute from 2000 to 2004. He assumed his present position as Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences at the University of California, Irvine, in 2004. Clegg's research specialty is population genetics and molecular evolution. His early work in population genetics focused on the dynamical behavior of linked systems of genes in plant and Drosophila populations. During this period, he also contributed to the theoretical study of multilocus systems employing computer simulations together with the analysis of mathematical models. Later he helped pioneer the comparative analysis of cholorplast DNA variation as a tool for the reconstruction of plant phylogenies. His current work is concerned with the use of genomic data and coalescent models to study crop plant domestication in barley and avocado. Clegg is also heavily engaged in international science policy and science diplomacy through his role as Foreign Secretary of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. During an academic career of over 40 years, Clegg has published more than 160 research articles and book chapters and he has coauthored or edited nine books. Clegg was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 1990 and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992. He was elected Foreign Secretary of the National Academy of Sciences in 2002 and reelected in 2006 and 2010. He has also served as President of the American Genetic Association and President of the International Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution. He is an Associate Fellow of the Academy of Sciences of the Developing World (TWAS) and a corresponding member of several foreign academies. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
6Name:  Dr. Andrea Mia Ghez
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1965
   
 
Andrea M. Ghez, distinguished professor of Physics & Astronomy and head of UCLA's Galactic Center Group, is a world-leading expert in observational astrophysics. She earned her B.S. in Physics from MIT in 1987 and her Ph.D. from Caltech in 1992, and has been on the faculty at UCLA since 1994. She has used the Keck telescopes to demonstrate the existence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy, with a mass 4 million times that of our sun. This is the best evidence yet that these exotic objects really do exist, and provides us with a wonderful opportunity to study the fundamental laws of physics in the extreme environment near a black hole, and learn what role this black hole has played in the formation and evolution of our galaxy. Professor Ghez has actively disseminated her work to a wide variety of audiences through more than 100 refereed papers and 200 invited talks, as well features in textbooks, documentaries, and science exhibits. She has received numerous honors and awards including the Crafoord Prize, a MacArthur Fellowship, election to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the Aaronson Award from the University of Arizona, the Sackler Prize from Tel Aviv University, the American Physical Society's Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award, the American Astronomical Society's Newton Lacy Pierce Prize, a Sloan Fellowship, a Packard Fellowship, the 2012 Crafoord Prize in Astronomy, and several teaching awards. Her most recent service work includes membership on the National Research Council's Board on Physics & Astronomy, the Thirty-Meter-Telescope's Science Advisory Committee, the Keck Observatory Science Steering Committee, and the Research Strategies Working Group of the UC Commission on the Future. Andrea Ghez won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2020. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
7Name:  Dr. Jon Elster
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Jon Elster (Ph.D., University of Paris, 1972) taught at Paris, Oslo and Chicago before coming to Columbia. His publications include Ulysses and the Sirens, Sour Grapes, Making Sense of Marx, The Cement of Society, Solomonic Judgements, Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences, Local Justice, Political Psychology, Alchemies of the Mind, Ulysses Unbound, and Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. His research interests include the theory of rational choice, the theory of distributive justice, and the history of social thought (Marx and Tocqueville). He is currently working on a comparative study of constitution-making processes from the Federal Convention to the present and is engaged in a project on the microfoundaitons of civil war.
 
8Name:  Dr. Renée Claire Fox
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  September 23, 2020
   
 
Renée C. Fox, a summa cum laude graduate of Smith College, earned her Ph.D. in Sociology in 1954 from Radcliffe College, Harvard University, where she studied in the Department of Social Relations. Before joining the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in 1969, she was a member of the Columbia University Bureau of Applied Social Research, taught for twelve years at Barnard College, and then spent two years as a Visiting Lecturer in the Department of Social Relations at Harvard. At the University of Pennsylvania, she was a professor in the Department of Sociology with joint, secondary appointments in the Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, and in the School of Nursing; and she held an interdisciplinary chair as the Annenberg Professor of the Social Sciences. From 1972-1978 she was the Chair of the Penn Sociology Department. On July 1, 1998, she became the Annenberg Professor Emerita of the Social Sciences. She is also an Emerita Senior Fellow of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. Renée Fox’s major teaching and research interests - sociology of medicine, medical research, medical education, and medical ethics - have involved her in first-hand, participant observation-based studies in Continental Europe (particularly in Belgium), in Central Africa (especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo), and in the People’s Republic of China, as well as in the United States. She has lectured in colleges, universities, and medical schools throughout the United States, and has taught in a number of universities abroad. During the 1996-1997 academic year, she was the George Eastman Visiting Professor at the University of Oxford. Her books include: Experiment Perilous: Physicians and Patients Facing the Unknown; The Sociology of Medicine: A Participant Observer’s View; Essays in Medical Sociology; In the Belgian Château: The Spirit and Culture of a European Society in an Age of Change; In the Field: A Sociologist’s Journey, and (in co-authorship with Judith P.Swazey), The Courage to Fail: A Social View of Organ Transplants and Dialysis, Spare Parts: Organ Replacement in American Society, and Observing Bioethics. Her most recent book is her "ethnographic autobiography," In the Field: A Sociologist’s Journey, published in 2010. Fox is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and an Honorary Member of Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. She is the holder of a Radcliffe Graduate School Medal, and of a Centennial Medal from the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Harvard University, and is a recipient of the American Sociological Association’s Leo G. Reeder Award for Distinguished Contributions to Medical Sociology. She has received several teaching awards: an E. Harris Harbison Gifted Teaching Award of the Danforth Foundation, and a Lindback Foundation Award for Teaching at the University of Pennsylvania. She holds eleven honorary degrees, and in 1995, the Belgian Government named her Chevalier of the Order of Leopold II. In October 2007, she was the recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. In 2015 she was the recipient of the Hastings Center for Bioethics' Henry Knowles Beecher Award. She died on September 23, 2020, at age 92.
 
9Name:  Dr. Marjorie Garber
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Marjorie Garber is an internationally renowned scholar of Shakespeare, Renaissance literature and contemporary culture. Her interests encompass literary and cultural theory, psychoanalysis, gender, sexuality, the arts, and intellectual life. Her books include Shakespeare’s Ghost Writers (1987); Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety (1992);Vice-Versa: Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life (1995); Dog Love (1997); Sex and Real Estate (2000); Academic Instincts (2001); Shakespeare After All (2004); Patronizing the Arts (2008);Shakespeare and Modern Culture (2008) and The Use and Abuse of Literature (2011); as well as several volumes of collected essays: Symptoms of Culture (1998); Quotation Marks (2002); Profiling Shakespeare (2008); Loaded Words (2012); and Character: The History of a Cultural Obsession (2020). Shakespeare After All was awarded the prestigious Christian Gauss Prize by the Phi Beta Kappa Society in 2005. Her essays, known for their incisive wit, have established her as an astute cultural critic and commentator on modern life. Her dynamic and compelling lectures on Shakespeare have been widely influential for generations of students and scholars. Her recent work has addressed the arts, theater and performance, the centrality of literature and the future of the humanities. Dr. Garber is the William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of English and Visual and Environmental Studies at Harvard University. She received her B.A. from Swarthmore College (with Highest Honors) in 1966, and her Ph.D. from Yale University in 1969. She taught at Yale for a decade and then at Haverford College before joining the Harvard faculty in 1981. At Harvard she has been Director of the Humanities Center, Chair of the Department of Visual and Environmental Studies, Director of the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Chair of the Committee on Dramatic Arts, and Associate Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Garber is the former President of the international Consortium of Humanities Centers and Institutes and a continuing member of its advisory board, and has served on the Board of Directors of the American Council of Learned Societies. She is a Trustee of the English Institute, and a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar.
 
10Name:  Dr. S. James Gates
 Institution:  University of Maryland
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Sylvester James (Jim) Gates, Jr., is College Park Professor emeritus at the University of Maryland and emeritus director of its Center for String and Particle Theory. Known for his work on supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstring theory, Dr. Gates uses mathematical models to explore the elementary particles and fundamental forces of nature. Dr. Gates completed both his undergraduate and graduate studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earning two bachelor’s degrees (in mathematics and physics) in 1973 and a Ph.D. in physics (foocused on elementary particle physics and quantum field theory) in 1977. His doctoral thesis was the first thesis at MIT to deal with supersymmetry, a topic that has dominated theoretical physics since that time. Before joining the faculty of the University of Maryland in 1984, Dr. Gates held postdoctoral appointments as a Harvard University Society of Fellows Junior Fellow and as a Research Fellow at the California Institute of Technology. He currently serves as a member of the Maryland State Board of Education and the U. S. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. In 1984, working with M. T. Grisaru, M. Rocek, and W. Siegel, Dr. Gates co-authored Superspace, the first comprehensive book on the topic of supersymmetry. He has published more than two hundred research papers. Some of his research in physics has led to the creation of surprising new results in the field of mathematics, including complex manifolds, network theory, and representation theory. International aspects of his career includes appointments as a Fellow of the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies (South Africa), Professor-at-large at the University of Western Australia (Australia), and a Distinguished Research Chair of the Perimeter Institute (Canada), and a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (United Kingdom). He authored the 2006 Italian book L’arte della fisica, published in Rome, and popular-level discussion entitled ‘‘Symbols of Power,’’ published in the British journal Physics World. "Symbols of Power" describes research begun in 2004 on Adinkras, a new concept that links computer codes like those used in browsers to the supersymmetric equations of fundamental physics. During his career, Dr. Gates has received a number of honors for his teaching, including the 1999 College Science Teacher of the Year from the Washington Academy of Sciences, the 2002 Distinguished Scholar-Teacher from the University of Maryland, and the 2003 Klopsteg Award from the American Association of Physics Teachers. In 2006, the American Association for the Advancement of Science honored him with the Public Understanding of Science Award. He won the National Medal of Science in 2012. Dr. Gates is a member of the board of trustees of Society for Science & the Public and of the board of advisors for the Department of Energy's Fermi National Laboratory. He was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2011. In 2018 the American Physical Society elected him to its presidential line. He will serve as vice president of the American Physical Society in 2019, president-elect in 2020, and president in 2021. He has been featured extensively in many science documentaries on physics, most notably The Elegant Universe in 2003. In 2006, he completed a DVD lecture series titled Superstring Theory: The DNA of Reality for The Teaching Company to make the complexities of unification theory comprehensible to laypeople. During the 2008 World Science Festival, Dr. Gates narrated a ballet, The Elegant Universe, with an on-line resource presentation of the art forms (called Adinkras) connected to his scientific research. The NOVA/PBS fall 2011 presentation of the science documentary The Fabric of the Cosmos prominently features Dr. Gates.
 
11Name:  Dr. Atul Gawande
 Institution:  Harvard University, Brigham and Women's Hospital
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1965
   
 
Atul Gawande is currently an Associate Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, an Associate Professor of Health Policy and Management at Harvard University School of Public Health and General and Endocrine Surgeon at Brigham and Women's Hospital. On November 9, 2020 he was named a member of President-elect Joe Biden's COVID-19 Advisory Board. Born in New York, he received his M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1995. He received a MacArthur Fellowship in 2006 and has authored Complications: A Surgeon's Notes on an Imperfect Science (2002), Better: A Surgeon's Notes on Performance (2007), The Checklist Manifesto (2010), and Being Mortal (2014). He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (2011). Atul Gawande combines the talents of a surgeon and a splendid writer whose mission is to make hospitals in general and surgery in particular safer and more cost effective in the United States and around the globe. His training in medicine and public health and his current work in teaching, research, and the practice of surgery at one of America's most respected hospitals provide him with practically unique qualifications to affect policies and procedures in hospital settings through his writings. As a staff writer for The New Yorker, he contributes essays that garner national attention and his first book has been published in more than a hundred countries. His research, which has resulted in numerous publications in the medical journals, focuses on surgical technique, medical care for combat wounds, and medical errors. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
12Name:  Dr. Charles M. Geschke
 Institution:  Adobe Systems Incorporated
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1939
 Death Date:  April 16, 2021
   
 
Charles (Chuck) Geschke co-founded Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1982. A leader in the software industry for more than 40 years, Geschke retired from his position as president of Adobe in 2000 and continued to share the chairmanship of the board with Adobe’s co-founder John Warnock. Prior to co-founding Adobe Systems, Geschke formed the Imaging Sciences Laboratory at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in 1980, where he directed research activities in the fields of computer science, graphics, image processing, and optics. From 1972 to 1980, he was a principal scientist and researcher at Xerox PARC's Computer Sciences Laboratory. Before beginning full time graduate studies in 1968, he was on the faculty of the mathematics department of John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio. Geschke has actively participated on several boards of educational institutions, non-profits, technology companies, and arts organizations. From 1989 until 2007 Geschke served on Board of Trustees of the University of San Francisco and chaired the board for four years beginning in 2002. He is a member of the Board of Governors of the San Francisco Symphony and the board of the Commonwealth Club of California. He also serves on the board of the Egan Maritime Foundation, the board of the National Leadership Roundtable On Church Management and the board of the Nantucket Boys and Girls Club. In 1995, Geschke was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. In 2008, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In October 2009, Geschke was awarded the 2008 National Medal of Technology and Innovation by President Barack Obama. In the fall of 2010, Geschke was presented with the Marconi Society Award for scientific contributions to human progress in the field of information technology. In the spring of 2012, Geschke was elected as a member of the American Philosophical Society. Industry and business leaders, including the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Carnegie-Mellon University, the National Computer Graphics Association, and the Rochester Institute of Technology, have honored Geschke’s technical and managerial achievements. He received the regional Entrepreneur of the Year Award in 1991 and the national Entrepreneur of the Year Award in 2003. In 2002, he was elected a Fellow of the Computer History Museum and in 2005 he was given the Exemplary Community Leadership Award by the NCCJ of Silicon Valley. Geschke received the Medal of Achievement from the American Electronics Association (AeA) in 2006. In 2007, he received the John W. Gardner Leadership Award. In 2000, Geschke was ranked the seventh most influential graphics person of the last millennium by Graphic Exchange magazine. He and his wife Nancy were honored with the St. Elizabeth Ann Seton Award in 2012 for their charitable endeavors. Geschke holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University and a M.S. in mathematics and an A.B. in Latin, both from Xavier University. He died on April 16, 2021.
 
13Name:  Dr. Wu Hung
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Wu Hung is currently the Harrie A. Vanderstappen Distinguished Service Professor in Chinese Art History in the Department of Art History and Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. Born in China, he earned his Ph.D. in 1987 from Harvard University. He has won the Levenson Prize of the Association for Asian Studies (1991). His publications include: The Wu Liang Shrine, 1989; Monumentality in Early Chinese Art and Architecture, 1995; The Double Screen: Medium and Representation in Chinese Painting, 1996; (with R. Barnhart, et al) 3000 Years of Chinese Painting, 1997; (with C. Phillips) Between Past and Future: New Photography and Video from China, 2004; Remaking Beijing: Tiananmen Square and the Creation of a Political Space, 2005; Art of the Yellow Spring: Rethinking Chinese Tombs, 2010. He is the editor of Chinese Art at the Crossroads: Between Past and Future, Between East and West (2001) and, with K. Tsiang, Body and Face in Chinese Visual Culture (2005). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2007). Wu Hung is a leading historian of Chinese art, renowned for his study of art and visual culture in early China. In his 1989 book, The Wu Liang Shrine, he analyzed how a pictorial program in the second century CE reflected Confucian ideology, going beyond the usual formal and iconographical analyses into social history. Art of the Yellow Springs: Understanding Chinese Tombs (2010) examined excavated materials from Neolithic to late Medieval periods and interpreted them in their appropriate funerary contexts. He has also written extensively about twentieth century art. In addition, he has curated more than two dozen exhibitions, largely in contemporary painting and photography, in the United States, Germany, China, and Korea. Wu Hung was selected to give the 68th annual A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
14Name:  Dr. Alice Kessler-Harris
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Alice Kessler-Harris is currently the R. Gordon Hoxie Professor of American History in Honor of Dwight D. Eisenhower at Columbia University.Born in England, she received her Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1968. She won the Bancroft Prize from Columbia University in 2001 and the Philip Taft Prize from Cornell University in 2001 and 2007. She is the author of: The Open Cage: An Anzia Yezierska Collection, 1979; Women Have Always Worked: A Historical Overview, 1981; Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States, 1982; A Woman's Wage: Historical Meanings and Social Consequences, 1990; In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in Twentieth Century America, 2001; and Gendering Labor History, 2007. She is a member of the American Studies Association (president, 1992); Law and Working Class History Association (president, 2008); and the Organization of American Historians (president-elect, 2009). Alice Kessler-Harris is a pioneering historian of a labor history that embraces women as well as men and a writer who regularly engages the deep moral and political questions that have shaped American life. She is associated with devising the concept of "economic citizenship" and tracing its development through the course of the 20th century, challenging established understandings of Social Security and other federal policies that affect all citizens. Her two major books are each based on over a decade of archival research. She has written or edited nine more books and more than 60 essays and articles, some, like "Organizing the unorganizable" (1975), "Treating the male as other" (1993), and "Coalitions of the imagination" (2004) have become classics. Kessler-Harris is unusual among social historians for her attentiveness to the arts and to literature; she played a major role in introducing the Yiddish writer Anzia Yezierskia to the American public. She is now engaged in writing a biography of Lillian Hellman, which is forthcoming in 2012. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
15Name:  Dr. Mary-Claire King
 Institution:  University of Washington School of Medicine
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  207. Genetics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Mary-Claire King is currently the American Cancer Society Research Professor at the Department of Medicine (Medical Genetics) and the Department of Genome Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle. Born in Illinois, she received her Ph.D. in 1973 from University of California, Berkeley. She has won the Brinker Award for Breast Cancer Research from the Komen Foundation (1999), the Genetics Prize of the Peter Gruber Foundation (2004), the Heineken Prize for Medicine of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (2006), the Lasker Award (2014), the National Medal of Science (2015), the Szent-Gyorgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research (2016), and the Helen Dean King Award of the Wistar Institute (2019). She is a member of the Institute of Medicine (1994), American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1999), National Academy of Sciences (2004), and the French Academy of Sciences (2009). Mary-Claire King's work revolutionized scientific approaches as well as clinical practice in breast cancer. In 1990, using then novel techniques, she defined and identified the location of a single gene (BRCA1) as causing inherited breast cancer. This gene and another gene (BRCA2) were also associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Her collaboration with Israeli and Palestinian colleagues led to the identification of novel deafness genes. She also pioneered genetic techniques to define familial relationships of deceased individuals. She applied these tests to unite grandmothers with their grandchildren whose parents had been killed during state-sponsored violence in Argentina between 1976 and 1983. Mary-Claire's work has had a wide impact in the USA and internationally and she has received many honors. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
16Name:  Dr. Donald E. Knuth
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Donald E. Knuth (B.S. and M.S., Case Institute of Technology 1960; Ph.D., California Institute of Technology 1963) is Professor Emeritus of The Art of Computer Programming at Stanford University, where he supervised the Ph.D. dissertations of 28 students since becoming a professor in 1968. He is the author of numerous books, including four volumes (so far) of The Art of Computer Programming, five volumes of Computers & Typesetting, nine volumes of collected papers, and a non-technical book entitled 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated. His software systems TeX and MF are extensively used for book publishing throughout the world. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Philosophical Society, and he is a foreign associate of the French, Norwegian, Bavarian, and Russian science academies as well as the Royal Society of London. He received the Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery in 1974; the National Medal of Science from President Carter in 1979; the Steele Prize from the American Mathematical Society in 1986; the Adelskold Medal from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1994; the Harvey Prize from the Technion of Israel in 1995; the John von Neumann Medal from the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers in 1995; the Kyoto Prize from the Inamori Foundation in 1996; the Frontiers of Knowledge award from the BBVA Foundation in 2010; the Faraday Medal from the IET in 2011; and the Lifetime Achievement Award from Marquis Who's Who in 2017. He holds honorary doctorates from Oxford University, the University of Paris, the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, the University of St. Petersburg, the University of Marne-la-Vallee, Masaryk University, St. Andrews University, Athens University of Economics and Business, the University of Macedonia in Thessaloniki, the University of Tubingen, the University of Oslo, the University of Antwerp, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, the University of Bordeaux, the University of Glasgow, and nineteen colleges and universities in America.
 
17Name:  Dr. Rosalind Krauss
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Professor Krauss' attempts to understand the phenomenon of modernist art, in its historical, theoretical, and formal dimensions, have led her in various directions. She has, for example, been interested in the development of photography, whose history-running parallel to that of modernist painting and sculpture-makes visible certain previously overlooked phenomena in the "high arts," such as the role of the indexical mark, or the function of the archive. She has also investigated certain concepts, such as "formlessness," "the optical unconscious," or "pastiche," which organize modernist practice in relation to different explanatory grids from those of progressive modernism, or the avant-garde.
 
18Name:  Mr. Cormac McCarthy
 Institution:  Santa Fe Institute
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Cormac McCarthy is often cited as one of America’s foremost writers of fiction. His beautiful, spare prose has won him widespread praise from scholars and critics. In 2010, the London Times ranked McCarthy’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, The Road, #1 on its list of the 100 best fiction and non-fiction books of the past 10 years. McCarthy’s work has ranged from American Southern Gothic, to westerns, to post-apocalyptic allegory, with themes of obsession, impending doom, and the dark nature of humankind that sometimes echo his favorite book, Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick. He is the author of The Orchard Keeper, 1965; Outer Dark, 1968; Child of God, 1974; Suttree, 1979; Blood Meridian, Or the Evening Redness in the West, 1985; All the Pretty Horses, 1992; The Crossing, 1994; The Stonemason: A Play in Five Acts, 1994; The Gardener’s Son: A Screenplay, 1996; Cities of the Plain, 1998; No Country for Old Men, 2005; The Road, 2006; and The Sunset Limited: A Novel in Dramatic Form, 2006. His awards include the Ingram-Merrill Award, 1959, 1960; Faulkner Prize, 1965; Guggenheim Fellowship, 1969; MacArthur Fellowship 1981; National Book Award, National Book Foundation, 1992; National Book Critics Circle Award, 1992; James Tait Black Memorial Prize for Fiction, 2006; Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, 2007; and the PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction, PEN American Center, 2008. Cormac McCarthy is a Senior Fellow and a member of the Board of Trustees at the Santa Fe Institute. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012.
 
19Name:  Dr. Marjorie Perloff
 Institution:  Stanford University; University of Southern California
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1931
   
 
Marjorie Perloff is Sadie D. Patek Professor Emerita at Stanford University and Florence Scott Professor Emerita at the University of Southern California. She is the author of fifteen books on Twentieth and Twenty-First Century poetries and poetics, Continental European and Brazilian, as well as Anglo-American, including books on W. B. Yeats, Robert Lowell, and Frank O’Hara; The Poetics of Indeterminacy: Rimbaud to Cage (1981), The Futurist Moment: Avant-Garde, Avant-Guerre, and the Language of Rupture (1986, new edition, 1994), Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of Media (1992), and Wittgenstein’s Ladder: Poetic Language and the Strangeness of the Ordinary(1996, 1998 paperback; translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Slovenian, and French). Her memoir The Vienna Paradox was published by New Directions in 2004, and will appear in German translation in 2012. Her most recent books are Unoriginal Genius: Poetry by Other Means in the New Century and The Sound of Poetry, the Poetry of Sound, co-edited with Craig Dworkin, both from the University of Chicago Press in 2010. Perloff has been a frequent reviewer for periodicals from TLS and The Washington Post to all the major scholarly journals, and she has lectured at most major universities in the U.S. and at European, Asian, and Latin American universities and festivals. She was recently the Weidenfeld Professor of European Literature at Oxford University and the Kelly Writers House Professor at the University of Pennsylvania. Perloff has held Guggenheim, NEH, and Huntington fellowships, served on the Advisory Board of the Stanford Humanities Center. In 2014 she was awarded the Washington University International Humanities Medal. She was President of the American Comparative Literature Association from 1993-95 and of the Modern Language Association (MLA) in 2006. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and recently was named Honorary Foreign Professor at the Beijing Modern Languages University. She received an Honorary Degree, Doctor of Letters, from Bard College in May 2008. A native of Vienna, Austria, who grew up in New York City, Marjorie lives in Los Angeles, where her husband, Dr. Joseph K. Perloff is American Heart Association Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Pediatrics. For further information: http:// marjorieperloff.com/
 
20Name:  Dr. George Rupp
 Institution:  International Rescue Committee
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
George Rupp was president of the International Rescue Committee from 2002 to 2013. As the IRC's chief executive officer, Dr. Rupp oversaw the agency's relief and development operations in over 40 countries and its refugee resettlement and assistance programs throughout the United States. In addition, he led the IRC's advocacy efforts in Washington, Geneva, Brussels and other capitals on behalf of the world's most vulnerable people. He regularly visited IRC program sites worldwide. Before joining the IRC, Dr. Rupp was president of Columbia University. During his nine-year tenure, he focused on enhancing undergraduate education, on strengthening the relationship of the campus to surrounding communities and New York City as a whole, and on increasing the university's international orientation. At the same time, he completed both a financial restructuring of the university and a $2.84 billion fundraising campaign that achieved eight successive records in dollars raised. Prior to his time at Columbia, Dr. Rupp served as president of Rice University, where in the course of his eight years applications for admission almost tripled, federal research support more than doubled, and the value of the Rice endowment increased by more than $500 million to $1.25 billion. Before going to Rice, Dr. Rupp was the John Lord O'Brian Professor of Divinity and dean of the Harvard Divinity School. Under his leadership, the curriculum of the school was revised to address more directly the pluralistic character of contemporary religious life. Further developments included new programs in women's studies and religion, Jewish-Christian relations, and religion and medicine. Born in New Jersey of immigrant parents, Dr. Rupp has studied and conducted research for extended periods in both Europe and Asia. He was awarded an A.B. from Princeton University in 1964, a B.D. from Yale Divinity School in 1967, and a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1972. He is the author of numerous articles and five books, including Globalization Challenged: Commitment, Conflict, and Community (2006). He has served as chair of the Association of American Universities, is currently the co-president of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, and serves on the boards of the Committee for Economic Development, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Henry Luce Foundation, the Institute for International Education, and the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. George Rupp and his wife Nancy have two adult daughters, both anthropologists, and six grandchildren.
 
Election Year
2012[X]
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