American Philosophical Society
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1Name:  Dr. Hans Aarsleff
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402a
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1925
   
 
Hans Aarsleff was born near Copenhagen, Denmark in 1925. He attended local schools and graduated cum laude from nearby state Gymnasium in 1943 with concentrations in math and natural science. He matriculated from the University of Copenhagen in fall 1943, having studed English and French literatures and languages with emphasis on philosophy and linguistics. He studied Old Norse, Old and Middle English, Latin, Gothic, French and Sanskrit. During 1944-45, he was trained in underground resistance to the German Occupation, on duty four weeks after May 4, 1945. In fall 1948 Aarsleff was admitted on one-year scholarship to graduate study in English at the University of Minnesota, where the most memorable courses were Robert Penn Warren's on the theory of the novel and the theory of poetry. Aarsleff studied with John W. Clark and Harold B. Allen, taught courses in linguistics and history of the language as assistant to Allen; and studied Hittite with Donald Swanson. During the summers of 1949, 1950, and 1951 he sold ice cream and hot dogs with traveling amusement parks in some states in the Midwest and the West, a very rich and instructive experience. He was an instructor in freshman English at Minnesota from 1942-56 while also working as a busboy in the University Hospitals. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1960. His dissertation on "The Study of Language in England, 1780-1860", published revised under the same title in January of 1967 (with a re-issue in 1983), features innovative introduction on contextual method in the history of scholarship and linguistics, a form of history this book, by virtue of its method, was among the first to initiate. For important information related to the method, see his essay on Koerner's historiography of linguistics in Anthropological Linguistics, March 1973. Dr. Aarsleff joined the faculty at Princeton University in 1956 as an instructor in the Department of English. He became a professor in 1972 and emeritus in 1998. At Princeton, he has taught courses in Early English literature, Chaucer, Old English, Old Norse, history of the language, and the history of linguistic thought, in addition to the entire spectrum of English and largely also American literature as preceptor in many courses. He has published on issues in intellectual history from the 16th century to the 20th, including eight entries in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography and essays on, among others, Locke, Leibniz, Descartes, Herder, Condillac, Humboldt, Taine, Saussure and Joseph Bedier. Some of these essays were later included in a book in 1982. In 1988 came his interpretive introduction to a new translation of Wilhelm von Humboldt's final and chief work on language; in 2001, the Cambridge University Press published his translation with introduction of Condillac's Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge. He has also contributed on the philosophy of language to the forthcoming Cambridge History of Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. In 1984, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, and in 1994 he was elected to the APS and to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. His chief motive has always been to try to open up fresh ways of looking at things, to question and often to undermine received opinion, and to establish his positions on the grounds of wide and solid knowledge, on well-argued interpretation, and not least, on close attention to context - thus spurning questions - begging claims about climate and opinion as a mode of understanding. For these reasons, his work has often proved controversial, even heretical. But this is a mark of our times. In his years, scholarship has become steadily more compliant, more of the donkey-follow-donkey variety, without circumspection. It is common to see stuff that in notes refers to a slew of "see also" titles that are given without page references, the "see also" category thus easily comprising 2,000 pages or more. Very often, some or all of those titles contain material which, had the author read it, would have forced radical change in the author's argument and in its foundations. He finds good if not cheerful sense in what Max Planck called a "remarkable" fact he once learned in his work, namely that "a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it."
 
2Name:  Dr. Bruce Alberts
 Institution:  University of California, San Francisco
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  202. Cellular and Developmental Biology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Bruce Alberts is a molecular biologist of extraordinary breadth. His rigorous studies of the replication of the genome of a bacterial virus led to the concept of a complex "protein machine" that carries out the sequential steps of DNA replication. Along the way, he discovered novel proteins that unwind, stabilize or relax DNA as they participate in the replication process. Dr. Alberts is one of the principal authors of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, considered the field's leading advanced textbook and used widely in U.S. colleges and universities. Born in Chicago, he graduated from Harvard College with a degree in biochemical sciences and earned a doctorate from Harvard University in 1965. He joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1966 and after 10 years moved to the Medical School of the University of California, San Francisco, where he is now professor emeritus. He was awarded an American Cancer Society Lifetime Research Professorship in 1980. He served as president of the National Academy of Sciences from 1993 to 2005. Dr. Alberts has been a leader in efforts to improve science education in public schools and has guided policy studies as chairman of the Commission on Life Sciences of the National Research Council. He is the Editor-in-Chief of Science. In 2010 he was named winner of the George Brown Award for International Scientific Cooperation, in 2014 he was awarded the National Medal of Science, and in 2016 he was recognized by the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science.
 
3Name:  Dr. Joyce Appleby
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  December 23, 2016
   
 
One of the most important historians of early America of her generation, Joyce Appleby was born in Omaha, Nebraska in 1929 and taught at the University of California, Los Angeles for twenty years. After graduating from Stanford University in 1950, she worked in the field of newspaper and magazine writing, including a stint for Mademoiselle magazine in New York City. She later returned to California, where she raised her family while earning a Ph.D. in history from Claremont Graduate School. Despite a late career start, Dr. Appleby has, through her books and about 25 important articles, reshaped perspectives on the ideological dimensions of early American life. She published a presidential biography of Thomas Jefferson in 2003, a collection of her essays, A Restless Past: History and the American Public, in 2005, and also recently edited a volume of the writings of Thomas Paine. Her latest book, The Relentless Revolution (2010), traces Capitalism through its various twists and turns and analyses its function as an extension of culture. She has served as president of the Organization of American Historians and as Harmsworth Professor at Oxford University. Dr. Appleby co-directed the History News Service, wrote op-ed essays and worked on the living wage movement in Los Angeles. She died December 23, 2016, at the age of 87.
 
4Name:  Dr. Gerhard H. Bowering
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Gerhard Böwering is Professor of Islamic Studies at Yale University. He was born and educated in Germany. After philosophical studies at Munich, he received a Diploma in Islamic Studies from Panjab University in Lahore, Pakistan and also studied Arabic in Cairo, Egypt. Following theological studies in Montreal, Dr. Böwering studied Islam at McGill University where he earned a Ph.D. in Islamic Studies in 1975. From 1975-84 he was first assistant and then associate professor at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1984, Dr. Böwering became Professor of Islamic Studies at Yale. He is the author of The Mystical Vision of Existence in Classical Islam (1980) and a critical Arabic edition of a Commentary on the Qur'an (1995 and 1997). He is presently preparing a monograph on the "Idea of Time in Islam" as well as a book entitled Wie die Muslime denken. His scholarly publications also include numerous articles and contributions to major reference books. Dr. Böwering was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1994.
 
5Name:  Dr. Joel E. Cohen
 Institution:  Rockefeller University & Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Joel E. Cohen is Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Professor of Populations and heads the Laboratory of Populations at the Rockefeller and Columbia Universities. At the Earth Institute of Columbia, Dr. Cohen holds appointments in the School of International and Public Affairs, the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology. Dr. Cohen's research deals with the demography, ecology, epidemiology and social organization of human and non-human populations, and with mathematical concepts useful in these fields. He received doctorates in applied mathematics in 1970 and in population sciences and tropical public health in 1973 from Harvard. He joined the faculty of Rockefeller University in 1975 and of Columbia University in 1995. Dr. Cohen has published more than 365 academic papers. His 14 books include (with Kemperman and Zbaganu) Comparisons of Stochastic Matrices, with Applications in Information Theory, Statistics, Economics and Populations Sciences, which received the Gheorghe Lazar Prize of the Romanian Academy, and How Many People Can the Earth Support, which earned Dr. Cohen the inaugural Olivia Schieffelin Nordberg Prize "for excellence in writing the population sciences." He is also the co-author (with B. Devine) of a book of scientific and mathematical jokes entitled Absolute Zero Gravity. Dr. Cohen was a co-recipient of the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 1999. Named one of "America's Top 100 Young Scientists" by Science Digest in 1984, Dr. Cohen was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1994 and to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1997. In 2015 he won the Golden Goos Award along with Christopher Small. Web Link 1: http://lab.rockefeller.edu/cohenje/cohenvita Web Link 2: http://lab.rockefeller.edu/cohenje/cohenall Web Link 3: http://lab.rockefeller.edu/cohenje/
 
6Name:  Mr. Walter Cronkite
 Institution:  CBS News
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1916
 Death Date:  July 17, 2009
   
 
In a career spanning more than 60 years, Walter Cronkite has been perhaps the best known and most highly respected television news anchor in broadcast journalism. He earned that recognition in a career in which he covered virutally every major news event of his time and complied special reports on vital topics, including the Vietnam War, Watergate, the Middle East, the environment and the United States space program. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom for reporting and commenting on events "with a skill and insight which stands out in the news world, in a way which has made the news of the world stand out for us." He has received numerous broadcasting awards, including the Peabody and several Emmy Awards, and Harvard, Michigan and Duke Universities are among the many institutions that have recognized him with honorary doctorates. In 1966, Time magazine described Mr. Cronkite as "the single most convincing and authoritative figure in the television news," and he was the only journalist voted among the top 10 "most influential decision makers in America" in leadership surveys conducted by U.S. News and World Report from 1975 through 1978 and again in 1980. He became a special correspondent for CBS News in 1981 when he stepped down after 19 years as anchorman and managing editor of the CBS Evening News. Affectionately nicknamed "Old Iron Pants" for his unflappability under pressure, Mr. Cronkite is a man of extraordinary breadth who has shared useful knowledge with millions while promoting an understanding of important aspects of life.
 
7Name:  Ms. Marian Wright Edelman
 Institution:  Children's Defense Fund
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Marian Wright Edelman is founder and president of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) and has been an advocate for disadvantaged Americans for her entire professional life. Under her leadership, CDF has become the nation's strongest voice for children and families. A graduate of Spelman College and Yale Law School, Ms. Edelman began her career in the mid-60s when, as the first black woman admitted to the Mississippi Bar, she directed the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund office in Jackson, Mississippi. In l968, she moved to Washington, D.C., as counsel for the Poor People's Campaign that Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. began organizing before his death. She founded the Washington Research Project, a public interest law firm and the parent body of the Children's Defense Fund. For two years she served as the Director of the Center for Law and Education at Harvard University and in l973 began CDF. The recipient of over one hundred honorary degrees and many awards including the Albert Schweitzer Humanitarian Prize, the Heinz Award, a MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellowship, the Harvard Graduate School's Medal of Education Impact (2013) and the Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal (2016), Ms. Edelman was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian award, in 2000. She has also been recognized with the Robert F. Kennedy Lifetime Achievement Award for her writings, which include nine books: Families in Peril: An Agenda for Social Change; The Measure of Our Success: A Letter to My Children and Yours; Guide My Feet: Meditations and Prayers on Loving and Working for Children; Stand for Children; Lanterns: A Memoir of Mentors; Hold My Hand: Prayers for Building a Movement to Leave No Child Behind; I'm Your Child, God: Prayers for Our Children; I Can Make a Difference: A Treasury to Inspire Our Children; and The Sea Is So Wide and My Boat Is So Small: Charting a Course for the Next Generation. Ms. Edelman is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. In 2015 she was honored with the Inaugural James M. Lawson Humanitarian Award and in 2017 with the Inamori Ethics Prize.
 
8Name:  Dr. W. G. Ernst
 Institution:  Stanford University
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  105. Physical Earth Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1931
   
 
W.G. Ernst joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles, on January 1, 1960. He rose through the ranks to professor of geology and geophysics, chairman of the department of geology, (1970-74), chairman of the department of earth and space sciences, (1978-82), and UCLA director of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (1987-89). On September 1, 1989, he moved to Stanford University for a five-year term as dean of the School of Earth Sciences. Since 1999, he has held the Benjamin M. Page Chair, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University. Dr. Ernst was chairman of the Board of Earth Sciences of the National Research Council (1984-87), served on the NRC Board of Earth Sciences and Resources (1988-93), and is a trustee for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC (1990-present). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (chairman, section of Geology, 1979-82; secretary, then chair of Class I from 1997-2003) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Geological Society of America (president, 1985-86), and the Mineralogical Society of America (president, 1980-81). Dr. Ernst is also the author of six books and research memoirs, editor of 15 other research volumes, and author of more than 220 scientific papers, (not including numerous abstracts, book reviews, etc.) dealing with the physical chemistry of rocks and minerals; the Phanerozoic interactions of lithospheric plates and mobile mountain belts, especially in central Asia, the Circumpacific and the Western Alps; early Precambrian petrotectonic evolution; ultrahigh-pressure subduction-zone metamorphism and tectonics; geobotanical studies; Earth System science/remote sensing; and mineralogy and human health. He received the Mineralogical Society of America MSA Award in 1969 and its Roebling Medal for 2005, UCLA Faculty Research Lecturer in 1988, the Geological Society of Japan Medal for 1998, the Stanford School of Earth Sciences Outstanding Teaching Award for 2003, the Penrose Medal of Geological Society of America for 2004, and the American Geological Institute's Legendary Geoscientist Award in 2008.
 
9Name:  Prof. E. Allan Farnsworth
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  304. Jurisprudence and Political Science
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  January 31, 2005
   
10Name:  Dr. Paul Greengard
 Institution:  Rockefeller University
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  April 13, 2019
   
 
Paul Greengard was Vincent Astor Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience at The Rockefeller University from 1983 until his death in 2019. He received his Ph.D. degree from Johns Hopkins University in 1953. He then spent five years in England receiving advanced training at the University of London, at Cambridge University and at the National Institute of Medical Research. Upon his return to the United States, Greengard worked as Director of the Department of Biochemistry at Geigy Research Laboratories, in Ardsley, New York, for eight years. From 1968 to 1983, he served as Professor of Pharmacology and Psychiatry at Yale University. Greengard authored over 1,000 scientific publications and his achievements earned him numerous prestigious awards. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000 for his discovery of how dopamine and a number of other neurotransmitters exert their action in the brain. Paul Greengard died April 13, 2019 in Manhattan at the age of 93.
 
11Name:  Dr. Prudence Oliver Harper
 Institution:  Metropolitan Museum of Art
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Curator Emerita Prudence Oliver Harper joined the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Department of the Ancient Near East in 1958. She received her Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1977 and became curator and head of the Department of Ancient Near East in 1982. Over the course of her career, Dr. Harper led the installation of the museum's Ancient Near Eastern Art galleries, published the results of a major archaeological enterprise (Sasanian Remains from Qasr-i Abu Nasr, 1973) and compiled a thoughtful exhibition on an iconographic and ideological theme with a very important catalog (The Royal Hunter, 1978). The first volume of her Sasanian Silver Vessels (1981), together with a large set of articles, is the standard study of royal images in Late Antique Sasanian art. Her articles on Anatolian ivories and Neo-Babylonian clay scultpures also demonstrate the breadth of her knowledge. Dr. Harper has also been instrumental in maintaining and fostering continuous contacts with scholars in Russia, especially during difficult times. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Dr. Harper has also served as chair of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Curatorial Forum and on the editorial board of the Metropolitan Museum Journal.
 
12Name:  Prof. Francis Haskell
 Institution:  University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  January 18, 2000
   
13Name:  Dr. Vyacheslav V. Ivanov
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles & Russian State University for the Humanities
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  October 7, 2017
   
 
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov was born in 1929 in Moscow. Thanks to his parents (a well-known Russian writer and an actress of the Meyerhold avant-garde theatre) and their friends, he received a traditional Russian education and began writing poems, essays and prose works at an early age (most of which were never published). He continued his education at Moscow University (in the departments of Romance and Germanic philology and Sanskrit and Indo-European Studies) and received his Ph.D. in Hittite and Indo-European linguistics in 1955. He then taught comparative and general linguistics there, until he was dismissed in 1958 because of his friendship with Boris Pasternak. Due to political reasons, for thirty years he was unable to travel abroad as the government denied him an official travel visa. Fortunately, he was still able to continue his research work at the Institutes of the Academy of Sciences. In 1988 he was invited to return to Moscow University where he then became Chair of the new Department of the Theory and History of World Culture and Director of its affiliated Research Institute. Amidst the new political trends in Russia, he was elected to serve in the Russian Congress of People's Deputies, representing the researchers from the Institutes of the Academy. He has been appointed to several academies in Russia, Latvia, Great Britain, and the United States. With several Moscow and Tartu friends, he co-founded the Moscow-Tartu school of semiotics. In 1988, Professor Ivanov began teaching regularly at American universities - first at Yale University, then at Stanford University, and finally at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he was a professor in the department of Slavic Languages and Literatures and in the Indo-European Studies Program. Ivanov shared his time between Los Angeles and Moscow, where he taught in the Russian State University for the Humanities. He authored more than fifteen books and 1,000 journal articles. From 1992 on, he was editor-in-chief of a new journal in Slavic studies: Elementa. Journal of Slavic Studies and Comparative Cultural Semiotics, which continues the tradition of the Moscow-Tartu school. Professor Ivanov also directed the Library of Foreign Literature in Moscow and played a central role in promoting the necessity of open access to information in the democratization of Russian society. In addition to his standing as one of the great minds in 20th century intellectual life, Professor Ivanov was one of the greatest defenders of human rights in his country. Vyacheslav Ivanov died on October 7, 2017 at the age of 88.
 
14Name:  Dr. Mary Ellen Jones
 Institution:  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  8/23/96
   
15Name:  Dr. Richard M. Karp
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Richard M. Karp was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 3, 1935. He attended Boston Latin School and Harvard University, receiving his Ph.D. in 1959. From 1959-68 he was a member of the Mathematical Sciences Department at IBM Research. From 1968-94 and from 1999 to the present he has been a Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, where he held the Class of 1939 Chair and is currently a University Professor. From 1988-95 and 1999 to the present he has been a Research Scientist at the International Computer Science Institute in Berkeley. From 1995-99 he was a Professor at the University of Washington. During the 1985-86 academic year he was the co-organizer of a Computational Complexity Year at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute in Berkeley. During the 1999-2000 academic year he was the Hewlett-Packard Visiting Professor at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute. The unifying theme in Karp's work has been the study of combinatorial algorithms. His 1972 paper, "Reducibility Among Combinatorial Problems," showed that many of the most commonly studied combinatorial problems are NP-complete, and hence likely to be intractable. Much of his work has concerned parallel algorithms, the probabilistic analysis of combinatorial optimization algorithms and the construction of randomized algorithms for combinatorial problems. His current activities center around algorithmic methods in genomics and computer networking. He has supervised thirty-six Ph.D. dissertations. His honors and awards include the U.S. National Medal of Science, the Turing Award, the Kyoto Prize, the Fulkerson Prize, the Harvey Prize (Technion), Harvard University's Centennial Medal, the Lanchester Prize, the Von Neumann Theory Prize and Lectureship, the University of California, Berkeley's Distinguished Teaching Award and Miller Research Professorship, the Babbage Prize, and ten honorary degrees. He is a member of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, the American Philosophical Society and the French Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association for Computing Machinery and the Institute for Operations Research and Management Science.
 
16Name:  Dr. Nannerl O. Keohane
 Institution:  Princeton University; Duke University
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Nannerl O. Keohane is Laurance S. Rockefeller Distinguished Visiting Professor of Public Affairs at Princeton University. She served as the eighth president of Duke University from 1993-2004, becoming the university's first female president. Prior to her tenure at Duke, Dr. Keohane served as president of Wellesley College for 12 years. Over the course of her career she has been a strong, vital advocate for educational excellence as well as a distinguished scholar of political science, with research interests including political philosophy, feminism and education. Dr. Keohane received her Ph.D. from Yale University in 1967 and taught at Swarthmore College (1967-73), the University of Pennsylvania (1970-72) and Stanford University (1973-81) before moving to Wellesley in 1981. She is the author of works including Philosophy and the State in France: The Renaissance to the Enlightenment (1980), and Higher Ground (2006). Among other awards, she received New York University's Woman of Distinction Award in 2012.
 
17Name:  Dr. Edwin D. Kilbourne
 Institution:  New York Medical College
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  205. Microbiology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  February 21, 2011
   
 
Edwin Dennis Kilbourne spent his professional lifetime in the study of infectious diseases, with particular reference to virus infections. His early studies of coxsackieviruses and herpes simplex preceded intensive study of influenza in all of its manifestations. His primary contributions have been to the understanding of influenza virus structure and genetics and the practical application of these studies to the development of influenza vaccines and to the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of influenza. His studies of influenza virus genetics resulted in the first genetically engineered vaccine of any kind for the prevention of human disease. A new approach to influenza immunization has received 2 United States Patents. Following his graduation from Cornell University Medical College in 1944, and an internship and residency in medicine at the New York Hospital, he served two years in the Army of the United States. After three years at the Rockefeller Institute, he served successively as Associate Professor of Medicine at Tulane University, as Professor of Public Health at Cornell University Medical College, and as founding Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, at which he was awarded the rank of Distinguished Service Professor. He was Emeritus Professor at New York Medical College. He was a member of the Association of American Physicians and the National Academy of Sciences and was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1994. He was the recipient of the Borden Award of the Association of American Medical Colleges for Outstanding Research in Medical Sciences and of an honorary degree from Rockefeller University in addition to other honors and lectureships. As an avocation, Dr. Kilbourne published light verse and essays and articles for the general public on various aspects of biological science. Edwin Kilbourne died on February 21, 2011, at the age of 90, in Madison, Connecticut.
 
18Name:  Mr. Frederik Willem de Klerk
 Institution:  Former President of South Africa
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1936
 Death Date:  November 11, 2021
   
 
Frederik Willem (F.W.) de Klerk was born in Johannesburg on March 18, 1936, the son of Senator Jan de Klerk, a senior Cabinet Minister. His school years were spent mainly in Krugersdorp, where he matriculated at Monument High School. He attended the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education and graduated in 1958 with B.A. and LL.B degrees (cum laude). During his university years he was actively involved in student affairs. Mr. de Klerk joined a firm of attorneys in Vereeniging that he helped to develop into one of the leading law firms outside South Africa's major metropolitan areas. At the same time he played a prominent role in numerous community activities. In 1972 he was offered the Chair of Administrative Law at Potchefstroom University but had to decline because of his decision to enter active politics. In November 1972 he was elected as Member of Parliament for Vereeniging. In 1978, shortly after his 42nd birthday and after only five and a half years as a back-bencher, he was appointed to the Cabinet. During the following 11 years he was responsible for the following portfolios consecutively: Posts and Telecommunications and Social Welfare and Pensions; Sport and Recreation; Mining and Environmental Planning; Mineral and Energy Affairs; Internal Affairs, as well as the Public Service; and National Education (the portfolio that he held when he was elected as State President). On July 1, 1985 Mr. de Klerk became Chairman of the Minister's Council in the House of Assembly. He became Leader of the House of Assembly on December 1, 1986. Mr. de Klerk was elected to the key post of Leader of the National Party in the Transvaal on March 6, 1982. On February 2, 1989, the caucus of the National Party chose him as the national Leader of the Party. On August 15, 1989, after the resignation of President P. W. Botha, Mr. de Klerk became Acting State President, and after the general election of September 6, was inaugurated as State President on September 20, 1989. Mr. de Klerk served as State President until President Nelson Mandela's inauguration on May 10, 1994. During this period he initiated and presided over the inclusive negotiations that led to the dismantling of "apartheid" and the adoption of South Africa's first fully democratic constitution in December 1993. After leading the National Party to the second place in South Africa's first fully representative general election of April 27, 1994 Mr. de Klerk was inaugurated as one of South Africa's two Executive Deputy Presidents. He served in this capacity until the end of June 1996 when his Party, under his leadership, decided to withdraw from the Government of National Unity. He was Leader of the Official Opposition until his retirement from active party politics on September 9, 1997. Mr. de Klerk has received numerous national and international honours and honorary doctorates. In 1981 he was awarded the South African Decoration for Meritorious Service. In 1992, he received the Prix du Courage Internationale (The Prize for Political Courage) and was co-recipient of the UNESCO Houphouet-Boigny Prize. He was also awarded the Prince of Asturias Prize in Spain during the same year. In July 1993, together with Mr. Nelson Mandela, Mr. de Klerk received the Philadelphia Peace Prize and on December 10 the same year was the co-recipient, also with Nelson Mandela, of the Nobel Peace Prize. In January 2000 Mr. de Klerk published his autobiography "The Last Trek - a New Beginning" and the same year established the F. W. de Klerk Foundation, which is dedicated to the promotion of peace in multi-communal societies. He makes numerous speeches around the world and actively participates as an elder statesman in international conferences on the promotion of harmonious relations in multi-communal societies, the future of Africa and South Africa and the challenges facing the world during the new millennium. Mr. de Klerk is in the process of establishing the Global Leadership Foundation, a foundation which has been registered in Switzerland with operational headquarters in London. Its objective will be to play a constructive role in the promotion of peace, democracy and development. A number of internationally respected former leaders and experts will join him in this new initiative. He is also the Honorary Chairman of the Prague Society for International Co-operation in the Czech Republic; a Member of the Assembly of the Parliament of Cultures in Istanbul and plays a substantial role in Forum 2000, a think tank initiated by former President Vaclav Havel and Nobel laureate Eli Wiesel. In addition, he serves on the advisory boards of the Peres Centre for Peace in Israel and the Global Panel in Germany. Mr. de Klerk lives on a farm outside Paarl about 60 kms from Cape Town where he and his wife Elita will soon be producing their own wine. He enjoys reading, the outdoor life and golf.
 
19Name:  Dr. Walter Kohn
 Institution:  University of California, Santa Barbara
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  April 20, 2016
   
 
Walter Kohn was Professor of Physics Emeritus and Research Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara at the time of his death on April 20, 2016 at the age of 93. A condensed matter theorist, Dr. Kohn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1998 for his development of the density-functional theory. He made seminal contributions to the understanding of the electronic structure of materials and played a leading role in the development of the density functional theory, which has revolutionized scientists' approach to the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solid materials in physics, chemistry and materials science. With the advent of supercomputers, density functional theory has become an essential tool for electronic materials science. Dr. Kohn also made major contributions to the physics of semiconductors, superconductivity, surface physics and catalysis. As the founding director of the National Science Foundation's Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, he helped transform the Institute into one of the leading research centers in physics. Prior to joining UCSB in 1979, Dr. Kohn taught at Harvard University (1948-50), the Carnegie Institute of Technology (1950-53), and the University of California, San Diego (1953-79). He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1948. Dr. Kohn was the recipient of numerous honors, including a Guggenheim fellowship (1963), the Oliver Buckley Prize (1960), the National Medal of Science (1988) and membership in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
 
20Name:  Dr. Ira M. Lapidus
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404b
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
A versatile scholar whose 1967 book revolutionized the study of Muslim cities, Ira Lapidus then generated a spate of follow-up investigations on the structure of medieval societies. In over 40 years of scholarship at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is Professor Emeritus of History, Dr. Lapidus has proved exceptionally well versed in the scholarship of both western and eastern medieval studies. The author of works such as the aforementioned Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages (1967) and A History of Islamic Societies (1988), Dr. Lapidus possesses an acute sense of how to express complex phenomena in simple terms. The longtime chair of Berkeley's Center for Middle Eastern Studies, he remains, through his scholarship and teaching, one of the most influential and creative interpreters of medieval Islam.
 
Election Year
1994[X]
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