American Philosophical Society
Member History

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504. Scholars in the Professions[X]
1Name:  Mr. McGeorge Bundy
 Institution:  Carnegie Corporation of New York
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1919
 Death Date:  9/16/96
   
2Name:  Dr. Richard N. Gardner
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  February 16, 2019
   
 
Richard N. Gardner was Professor of Law and International Organization at Columbia Law School and Senior Counsel to Morgan Lewis, a global law firm. He served as U.S. Ambassador to Italy from 1977-81 and as U.S. Ambassador to Spain from 1993-97. During his service in Spain, he received the Thomas Jefferson Award for his contributions to U.S. citizens abroad. From 1961-65 he served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. He was a member of the President's Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations (ACTPN) and of the U.S. delegation to the Ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organization held in Seattle at the end of 1999. He was later a member of the State Department's Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy. Professor Gardner held a Doctor of Jurisprudence from Yale Law School, a Doctor of Philosophy degree in economics from Oxford University, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar, and a B.A. degree in economics from Harvard University. His Oxford thesis, published by the Oxford University Press as Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy, has been described as the "classic" study of Anglo-American economic collaboration in the creation of the Bretton Woods institutions and GATT. He authored four other books on international affairs, including In Pursuit of World Order: US Foreign Policy and International Organization. His latest book, Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the Cold War, was published in Italian by Mondadori in September 2004 and presented in the Italian Parliament by two former Italian Prime Ministers. The U.S. edition was published in 2005. He was also the author of numerous articles in Foreign Affairs, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, and other publications. In 1992 the Council on Foreign Relations published his booklet entitled Negotiating Survival: Four Priorities After Rio. Professor Gardner was a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the Council on Foreign Relations. He was a member of the International Advisory Board of Grupo Santander of Spain and served on the International Capital Markets Advisory Committee of the New York Stock Exchange. He was Vice President of the American Ditchley Foundation and a member of the Board of the Salzburg Seminar. In 2000, Professor Gardner served as a public delegate to the 55th "Millennium" United Nations General Assembly. He served as Special Advisor to the United Nations at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, as he did in 1972 to the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment. From 1982-93 he was Co-Chairman of the Aspen Institute Program on the United States and the World Economy. He also served from 1988-92 as chairman of the U.S. group in a joint Russian-American program on the United Nations and collective security, established under the auspices of the U.S. and Russian U.N. Associations. He was a member of a U.N. Association group engaged in a dialogue on multilateral issues with the Chinese Institute of International Studies. Professor Gardner married the former Danielle Almeida Luzzatto, a columnist for the Italian magazine Chi?. The Gardners had two children, Nina Gardner Olivieri, a lawyer and consultant in Paris, and Anthony Laurence Gardner, a former member of the staff of the National Security Council, a lawyer, and currently Executive Director of GE Commercial Finance-Europe in London. Richard N. Gardner died February 16, 2019 in New York, NY at the age of 91.
 
3Name:  Dr. Eugene Garfield
 Institution:  The Scientist; Institute for Scientific Information/Thomson Scientific
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  February 26, 2017
   
 
Eugene Garfield was a pioneer in information retrieval systems and the inventor of Current Contents (1958), Index Chemicus (1960), Science Citation Index (1964), Social Sciences Citation Index (1970), and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1975). He was an eclectic science communicator, founding publisher/editor of The Scientist, and author of over 1,000 articles and books. His annual impact factor rankings of ISI's Journal Citation Reports (1975) have promoted high journal standards worldwide. His HistCite system (1964) of algorithmic historiography now maps research topics from searches of the ISI Web of Science database of 30,000,000 articles. Modern scholarship in the sciences and the humanities relies heavily on the retrieval of information and the assessment of its impact on the thinking of others. Garfield developed the technique of Science Citation. Papers are ranked based on the number of times that they are referenced in other papers. Google is based on the same principle. Web sites are ranked in the list that is generated by the search words or phrase based on the number of times other Web sites refer to them. In their Stanford thesis that is the basis of the Google concept, Google's founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin cited Garfield's invention of Science Citations. His invention has been a major contribution to information technology and to American and world business. Eugene Garfield died February 26, 2017, at the age of 91.
 
4Name:  Dr. Cyril M. Harris
 Institution:  Columbia University
 Year Elected:  1987
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  January 4, 2011
   
 
Cyril M. Harris was one of the world's leading acoustical consultants and engineers. He was born in 1917 and, after working as a researcher during World War II, he received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1945. He was employed as a research engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1945-51 before joining the faculty at Columbia University. Dr. Harris was named professor of architecture in 1964, chairman of the division of architectural technology at Columbia in 1974 and Charles Batchelor Professor of Electrical Engineering in 1976. He also served as an acoustical consultant for the Metropolitan Opera House and the John F. Kennedy Center for Performing Arts and was responsible for the acoustical revitalization of Avery Fisher Hall at New York's Lincoln Center. Dr. Harris is the author of works such as Acoustical Designing in Architecture (1950), Handbook of Noise Control (1957) and Shock and Vibration Handbook (1961) and has been presented with numerous awards including the A.I.A. Institute Medal (1980) and the Gold Medal of the Audio Engineering Society (1984). He also served as the 85th president of the New York Academy of Sciences (1991-93) and was Professor Emeritus of Architecture and Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Columbia University. Cyril Harris died January 4, 2011, at the age of 93, at his home in New York City.
 
5Name:  Professor Geoffrey C. Hazard
 Institution:  Hastings College of the Law, University of California
 Year Elected:  2003
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  January 11, 2018
   
 
One of the most distinguished figures in American law, Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr., received his LL.B. from Columbia University in 1954. He was a professor of law at the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Chicago, Yale University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Hastings College of the Law, University of California. Hazard's great scholarly distinction led to his selection in 1984 to succeed the late (APS member) Herbert Wechsler as Director of the American Law Institute. At the helm of the Institute for fifteen years, Hazard orchestrated the work of the unique American law reform enterprise which, for more than three-quarters of a century, brought together leaders of the bar, the bench and the academy in long-term efforts to examine, render coherent, and appropriately "restate" major areas of legal doctrine, both substantive and procedureal. The Institute's celebrated "restatements" of the law have become grist for the mills of courts, state legislatures, and, in certain selected fields, Congress and federal agencies. In 1999 Hazard retired from the Directorship in order to resume, on a full-time basis, his own teaching and scholarly endeavors in realms in which he was preeminent: legal ethics and civil procedure. His legal scholarship was widely respected not only by his academic colleagues but by practicing lawyers and members of the judiciary as well. Geoffrey Hazard was the author of works such as Quest for Justice (1973); (with F. James, Jr., J. Leubsdorf) Civil Procedure (5th edition, 2004); Ethics in the Practice of Law (1978); (with W. Brazil, P. Rice) Managing Complex Litigation: A Practical Guide to the Use of Special Masters (1983); (with S. Koniak, R. Cramton) The Law and Ethics of Lawyering (4th edition, 2005); and (with M. Taruffo) American Civil Procedure: An Introduction (1993). He was also the editor of Law in a Changing America (1968) and (with D. Rhode) The Legal Profession: Responsibility and Regulation. A member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (1986), he was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2003. Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr., died January 11, 2018, at the age of 88.
 
6Name:  Ms. Ada Louise Huxtable
 Institution:  Wall Street Journal & New York Times
 Year Elected:  1989
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  January 7, 2013
   
 
Pulitzer Prize winner Ada L. Huxtable was for many years the architecture critic for The New York Times. She received her A.B. from Hunter College and did her postgraduate studies at New York University's Institute of Fine Arts. Following a stint as assistant curator of architecture and design at the Museum of Modern Art (1946-50), Ms. Huxtable became a freelance writer and contributing editor for the publications Progressive Architecture and Art in America (1950-63). She joined The New York Times as architecture critic in 1963 and served on the newspaper's editorial board from 1973 until her retirement in 1982. Ms. Huxtable has also written extensively on architecture for The Wall Street Journal. She is the author of numerous works on architecture, including Classic New York (1964), Kicked a Building Lately? (1973), The Tall Building Artistically Considered: The Search for Skyscraper Style (1985); a biography of Frank Lloyd Wright. (2004) and On Architecture: Collected Reflections on a Century of Change (2008). She was awarded the Louis Auchincloss Prize at the Museum of the City of New York in December 2008. Ada Louise Huxtable died on January 7, 2013, at the age of 91 in Manhattan.
 
7Name:  Professor Herma Hill Kay
 Institution:  University of California, Berkeley
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1934
 Death Date:  June 10, 2017
   
 
Herma Hill Kay received a J.D. at the University of Chicago Law School in 1959. She was the Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, where she was Dean of the Law School from 1992-2000. Kay was only the second woman hired on the Berkeley Law faculty - when the first announced her plans to retire. But by the time Kay stepped down as dean, the student body was more than 50 percent female. That figure stood at 10 percent in 1969. "[Kay's] mentoring of women law students and young faculty opened the door to legal careers that simply did not exist before she and other women of her generation began to imagine them," wrote Berkeley emerita law professor Eleanor Swift in a 2016 article in the California Law Review. "The women law professors whom she mentored throughout her career constitute her enduring legacy to the law and to legal education." Kay's influence goes far beyond the legal academy, however. She was a driving force behind California's 1969 adoption of so-called no-fault divorce, when she sat on the state's Commission on The Family. California was the first to adopt the rule, which has since been embraced by nearly every other state. She also co-authored the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act, which provides a national standard for no-fault divorce. She was a recipient of the Research Award from the American Bar Foundation, the Margaret Brent Women Lawyers of Distinction award of the ABA Commission on Women in the Profession, and the Marshall-Wythe Medal. She was the author (with M. West) of Text, Cases, and Materials on Sex-Based Discrimination (6th edition, 2006); and of (with D. Currie, L. Kramer and K. Roosevelt) Conflict of Laws: Cases, Comments, Questions, (7th edition, 2006). Herma Hill Kay was a recognized leader in legal education and also a productive scholar in the important fields of family law, sex-based discrimination, and conflict of laws. Except for visiting professorships elsewhere, she spent her entire 45-year career at the University of California, Berkeley. She presided over such national organizations as the Association of American Law Schools, the Trustees of the Russell Sage Foundation, and the National Order of the Coif and was a valued, long-time member of the Council of the American Law Institute. Her writings in family law won her the prestigious Research Award of the American Bar Foundation in 1990. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2000. Herma Hill Kay died June 10, 2017, at age 82, in Berkeley, California.
 
8Name:  Professor Harold Hongju Koh
 Institution:  Yale Law School
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Harold Hongju Koh earned his J.D. from Harvard University in 1980. After clerking for Judge Malcolm Wilkey and Justice Harry Blackmun, he served as an associate at Covington & Burling and as attorney-adviser in the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Counsel. In 1985 he joined the faculty at Yale Law School. At Yale, Koh quickly established himself as one of the nation's leading scholars of international law, with special emphasis on international human rights law. He also put his scholarship into practice from 1998-2001 as Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, a post of substantial importance in the Clinton years. On returning to Yale in 2001, Koh, through extensive scholarship coupled with amicus briefs in major cases, soon became a highly influential critic of the rights-restrictive legal regime of the Bush administration. Koh was Gerard C. and Bernice Latrobe Smith Professor of International Law, 1993-2009, and Dean of the Law School, 2004-2009. With prodigious energy, he led his institution into a position of global academic eminence. President Obama appointed Koh Legal Advisor to the United States Department of State. He returned to Yale as Sterling Professor of International Law in January 2013. Harold Koh is the author of The National Security Constitution, 1990; International Business Transactions in United States Courts, 1998; and The Human Rights of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Different but Equal, 2003. He has received the American Political Science Association's Richard E. Neustadt Award, 1991; the Wolfgang Friedmann Award of Columbia Law School, 2003; and the Louis B. Sohn Award of the American Bar Association, 2005. He became a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2000. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2007.
 
9Name:  Mr. H. C. Robbins Landon
 Institution:  University of Wales College of Cardiff
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  November 20, 2009
   
 
Musicologist Howard Chandler Robbins Landon is the John Bird Professor of Music Emeritus at the University of Wales College of Cardiff. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1926 and studied music at Swarthmore College and Boston University. He subsequently moved to Europe, where he worked as a music critic. From 1947 he did research in Vienna on Joseph Haydn, a composer on whom he would become a noted expert. His book Symphonies of Joseph Haydn was published in 1955, with the five volume Haydn: Chronicle and Works following at the end of the 1970s. He also edited a number of Haydn's works. Dr. Landon has also published work on other 18th century composers, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Antonio Vivaldi. His other books include Handel and his World (1984); Mozart, the golden years, 1781-1791 (1989); and Vivaldi: Voice of the Baroque (1993).
 
10Name:  Professor Martha Minow
 Institution:  Harvard Law School
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Martha Minow is Carter Professor of General Jurisprudence at Harvard Law School and Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard University. On July 1, 2018 she will begin her appointment as the 300th Anniversary University Professor at Harvard. She served as the Dean and Jeremiah Smith, Jr. Professor at Harvard Law School, 2009-2017, where she has taught since 1981. An expert in human rights with a focus on members of racial and religious minorities and women, children, and persons with disabilities, her scholarship also has addressed private military contractors, management of mass torts, transitional justice, and law, culture, and social change. She has published over 150 articles and her books include Partners, Not Rivals, Privatization and the Public Good; Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History After Genocide and Mass Violence; Not Only for Myself: Identity Politics and Law; and Making all the Difference: Inclusion, Exclusion, and American Law. She has edited or co-edited many books including Government by Contract; Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference; Breaking the Cycles of Hatred: Memory, Law and Repair; Imagine Co-Existence: Restoring Humanity After Violent Ethnic Conflict; Law Stories; Family Matters; Civil Procedure: Doctrine, Practice and Context; Women and the Law; and Narrative, Violence and the Law: The Essays of Robert M. Cover. In Brown's Wake: Legacies of America's Educational Landmark, was be published in 2010. Following nomination by President Obama and confirmed by the Senate, she served as vice-chair of the board of the Legal Services Corporation. A Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Michigan and the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Minow received her law degree at Yale Law School before serving as a law clerk to Judge David Bazelon and Justice Thurgood Marshall. A member of the Academy of Arts & Sciences, she has received the Sacks-Freund Teaching Award at Harvard Law School; the Holocaust Center Award, the Radcliffe Graduate Society Medal and honorary doctorates in Education (Wheelock College) and law (University of Toronto). She was awarded the 2015-16 Gittler Prize.
 
11Name:  Dr. Joseph Rishel
 Institution:  Philadelphia Museum of Art
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
Since arriving at the Philadelphia Museum of Art from the Art Institute of Chicago in 1971, Joseph J. Rishel has made his life’s work the expansion and research of the museum’s collections, the engagement with its international public, and the fulfillment of its potential to contribute to its immediate community. He currently serves there as the Gisela and Dennis Alter Senior Curator of European Painting before 1900 and recently took a post at the National Gallery of Art as Samuel H. Kress Professor. Through a series of extraordinary exhibitions, including Cézanne (1995-96), The Splendor of 18th Century Rome (2000), Manet and the Sea (2003-04), The Arts in Latin America, 1492-1820 (2006-07), and Cézanne and Beyond (2009), this curator and diplomat has imagined new ways of presenting works both famous and unknown, and he has overcome immense obstacles in realizing these visions. Within the museum profession he is highly regarded for his dedication to the formation of a new generation of curators, and he has been particularly supportive of the combination of technical analysis with historical evidence in research. In Philadelphia he serves as chairman of the Barnes Foundation Collection Assessment Advisory Committee. From Mexico City to London and Paris, he is held in the highest esteem as a colleague and convivial companion by artists and scholars alike. He received his M.A. from the University of Chicago in 1962 and is the author or coauthor of a number of works including Delacroix: The Late Work, (with E. Delacroix, et al 1998), Goya: Another Look (2006), and Cezanne and Beyond (with K. Sachs and a team of scholars 2009). He has been honored a number of times, including twice by the French Government, being named Chevalier, l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 1996 and Officier dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2002. Rishel is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2010.
 
12Name:  Dr. Vincent Scully
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  November 30, 2017
   
 
Vincent J. Scully Jr. was born in New Haven, Connecticut and attended Hillhouse High School, on the site of what would later become Morse College, where he served as master from 1969-75. For a half a century he taught hundreds of students in packed lecture halls at Yale University. Even after retiring as Sterling Professor Emeritus of the History of Art, he was one of the university's most recognized scholars and has published many articles and more than a dozen books which span a wide spectrum of subject matter. Observing early in his teaching career that urban development during the 1950s tended to destroy neighborhoods by the imposition of freeways and superblocks, Dr. Scully argued fervently that the principles of modernism are incompatible with communal values. Several of his students have gone on to become important American architects, and his influence now manifests itself in the design of many urban and suburban sites throughout the nation. Among Dr. Scully's best-known works are The Shingle Style: Architectural Theory and Design from Richardson to the Origins of Wright; Frank Lloyd Wright; The Earth, the Temple, and the Gods: Greek Sacred Architecture; Louis I. Kahn; Pueblo: Mountain, Village, Dance; The Villas of Palladio; and Architecture: the Natural and the Manmade. Vincent J. Scully died on November 30, 2017 in Lynchburg, VA at the age of 97.
 
13Name:  Professor Patricia J. Williams
 Institution:  Northeastern University; Columbia University
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  504. Scholars in the Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Patricia Williams is currently James L. Dohr Professor of Law at Columbia University as well as Columnist for The Nation. She earned her J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1975. Prior to moving to Columbia, she worked in the Office of the City Attorney of Los Angeles, for the Western Center on Law and Poverty of Golden Gate University School of Law, at the City University of New York Law School at Queens College, and at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Patricia Williams is a preeminent theorist of race in relation to law in modern American public life, an esteemed scholar and celebrated public intellectual. Her first book was an immediate classic, not only for her penetrating insights at the intersection of race, gender and rights consciousness, but also for her analysis of everyday life as the setting where equality’s vexed and contradictory lifeworlds matter and are worked out – if they are. She is highly regarded as a critical race theorist, feminist theorist, and civil rights scholar; her influence makes these veins of scholarship necessary and accessible to each other. She also brought a new voice to scholarship and journalism – immersed in observed experience, yielding evidence unseen in the more filtered formality of conventional academic writing. Signs of her stature include her many awards, the Reith Lectures (BBC), and her place in Columbia’s oral history archive. Her awards include the Pioneer of Civil and Human Rights Award of the National Conference of Black Lawyers in 1990 and a MacArthur Fellowship in 2000. She is on the board of advisors at the Center of Constitutional Rights and the board of directors at the National Organization for Women. She is the author of The Alchemy of Race and Rights: Diary of a Law Professor (1991), The Rooster's Egg: On the Persistence of Prejudice (1995), and The Blind Goddess: A Reader on Race and Justice (2011). Patricia Williams was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2019.
 
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