American Philosophical Society
Member History

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103. Engineering[X]
1Name:  Dr. Joanna Aizenberg
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1960
   
 
Joanna Aizenberg pursues a broad range of research interests that include biomimetics, smart materials, wetting phenomena, bio-nano interfaces, self-assembly, crystal engineering, surface chemistry, structural color and biomineralization. She received the B.S. degree in Chemistry in 1981, the M.S. degree in Physical Chemistry in 1984 from Moscow State University, and the Ph.D. degree in Structural Biology from the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1996. After spending nearly a decade at Bell Labs, Joanna joined Harvard University, where she is the Amy Smith Berylson Professor of Materials Science, Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Director of the Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology and Platform Leader in the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. The Aizenberg lab's research is aimed at understanding some of the basic principles of biological architectures and the economy with which biology solves complex problems in the design of multifunctional, adaptive materials. She then uses biological principles as guidance in developing new, bio-inspired synthetic routes and nanofabrication strategies that would lead to advanced materials and devices, with broad implications in fields ranging from architecture to energy efficiency to medicine. Aizenberg is elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science; and she is a Fellow of American Physical Society and Materials Research Society. Dr. Aizenberg received numerous awards from the American Chemical Society and Materials Research Society, including Fred Kavli Distinguished Lectureship in Nanoscience, Ronald Breslow Award for the Achievement in Biomimetic Chemistry, Arthur K. Doolittle Award in Polymeric Materials, ACS Industrial Innovation Award, and was recognized with two R&D 100 Awards for best innovations in 2012 and 2013 for the invention of a novel class of omniphobic materials and watermark ink technologies. In 2015 she received Harvard’s most prestigious Ledlie Prize that is awarded for the most valuable contribution to science made by a Harvard scientist. Joanna has served at the Board of Directors of the Materials Research Society and at the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Academies. She served on the Advisory Board of Langmuir and Chemistry of Materials, on Board of Reviewing Editors of Science Magazine, and is an Editorial Board Member of Advanced Materials.
 
2Name:  Dr. Frances H. Arnold
 Institution:  California Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1956
   
 
Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at Caltech, Frances Arnold pioneered protein engineering by directed evolution, with applications in alternative energy, chemicals, and medicine. She uses evolution augmented with machine learning to circumvent our profound ignorance of how DNA encodes function and create new biological molecules. She has been recognized by induction into the US National Academies of Science, Medicine, and Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Inventors Hall of Fame, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Her awards include the Charles Stark Draper Prize of the National Academy of Engineering (2011), the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2011), the Millennium Technology Prize (2016), the National Academy of Sciences’ Sackler Prize in Convergence Research (2017), and the Franklin Institute's Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science (2019). Frances Arnold won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work on directed evolution of enzymes. Arnold pioneered the 'directed evolution' technique, which is now used by hundreds of laboratories and companies to produce more useful enzymes. Dr. Arnold chairs the Advisory Panel of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowships in Science and Engineering and is a Trustee of the Gordon Research Conferences. She co-founded Gevo, Inc. in 2005 to make fuels and chemicals from renewable resources and Provivi, Inc. in 2014 to develop non-toxic modes of agricultural pest control.
 
3Name:  Mr. Norman R. Augustine
 Institution:  Lockheed Martin Corporation
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Norman R. Augustine was raised in Colorado and attended Princeton University where he graduated with a BSE in Aeronautical Engineering, magna cum laude, and MSE and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Xi. In 1958, he joined the Douglas Aircraft Company in California where he held titles of Program Manager and Chief Engineer. Beginning in 1965, he served in the Pentagon in the Office of Secretary of Defense as an Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering. Joining the LTV Missiles and Space Company in 1970, he served as Vice President, Advanced Programs and Marketing. In 1973, he returned to government as Assistant Secretary of the Army and in 1975 as Under Secretary of the Army and later as Acting Secretary of the Army. Joining Martin Marietta Corporation in 1977, he served as Chairman and CEO from 1988 and 1987, respectively, until 1995, having previously been President and Chief Operating Officer. He served as President of Lockheed Martin Corporation upon the formation of that company in 1995, and became its Chief Executive Officer on January 1, 1996, and later Chairman. Retiring as an employee of Lockheed Martin in August 1997, he joined the faculty of the Princeton University School of Engineering and Applied Science where he served as Lecturer with the Rank of Professor until July 1999. In 2019 he and his wife endowed three Professorships in Princeton's School of Engineering with the goal of addressing global challenges and creating the next generation of scientific leaders. Mr. Augustine served as Chairman and Principal Officer of the American Red Cross for nine years and as Chairman of the National Academy of Engineering, the Association for the United States Army, the Aerospace Industry Association, and the Defense Science Board. He is a former President of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Boy Scouts of America. He has been a member of the Board of Directors of ConocoPhillips, Black & Decker, Procter & Gamble and Lockheed Martin and a member of the Board of Trustees of Colonial Williamsburg, Johns Hopkins, Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is currently a Regent of the University System of Maryland. He is a 16-year member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and serves on the Department of Homeland Security Advisory Board and was a member of the Hart/Rudman Commission on National Security. Mr. Augustine has been presented the National Medal of Technology by the President of the United States, has five times been awarded the Department of Defense's highest civilian decoration, the Distinguished Service Medal, and has received the Joint Chiefs of Staff Distinguished Public Service Award. He recently received the 2013 CRDF Global George Brown Award for International Scientific Cooperation. He is co-author of The Defense Revolution and Shakespeare in Charge and author of Augustine's Laws and Augustine's Travels. He holds twenty-three honorary degrees and was selected by Who's Who in America and the Library of Congress as one of the Fifty Great Americans on the occasion of Who's Who's fiftieth anniversary. He has traveled in over 100 countries and stood on both the North and South Poles.
 
4Name:  Dr. Manson Benedict
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1977
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1907
 Death Date:  September 18, 2006
   
5Name:  Dr. William F. Brinkman
 Institution:  United States Department of Energy
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
William F. Brinkman received a Ph.D. in physics at the University of Missouri in 1965. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1966 after spending one year as an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at Oxford University. In 1972, he became head of the Infrared Physics and Electronics Research Department, and in 1974 he became the director of the Chemical Physics Research Laboratory. He held the position of director of the Physical Research Laboratory from 1981 until moving to Sandia in 1984. He returned to Bell Laboratories in 1987 to become executive director of the Physics Research Division. In 1993 he became Physical Sciences Research Vice President, and in January 2000 became Vice President, Research. He retired from this position in September 2001. He then served as president of the American Physical Society and senior research associate in the Department of Physics at Princeton University until June 2009 when he was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as Director of the Office of Science in the United States Department of Energy. Overseeing the nation's research programs in fusion energy sciences and nuclear and high-energy physics, the Office is the country's single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences. He retired from the position in 2013. William Brinkman's personal research covered materials classes of great engineering significance such as metals, semiconductors, superconductors and liquid crystals. He contributed significantly in the understanding of correlated electron motion, electron-hole liquid formation, exotic superfluid states and defects in liquid crystals. His technical leadership for the development of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for high capacity communications systems and optical fiber fabrication has revolutionized long distance transmission. He has chaired many committees shaping the national policy for technology development and science. A contribution of singular importance is the 8 volume 1986 NRC "Brinkman Report" on the status of physics. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and the American Physical Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002.
 
6Name:  Dr. George F. Carrier
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  1976
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  March 8, 2002
   
7Name:  Dr. Alfred Y. Cho
 Institution:  Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Alfred Y. Cho was born July 10, 1937 in Beijing, China. He retired as the Semiconductor Research Vice President, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies in 2001. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1960, 1961, and 1968, respectively. In 1961, prior to obtaining his Ph.D. degree, he worked at Ion Physics Corporation, Burlington, Massachusetts, a subsidiary of High Voltage Engineering Corporation, where he studied charged micron-sized solid particles in high electric fields. In 1962, he joined TRW-Space Technology Laboratories, Redondo Beach, California, and engaged in research in high current density ion beams. He returned to the University of Illinois in 1965 and received a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1968. Upon his graduation in 1968, he joined Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey as a Member of Technical Staff and was promoted to Department Head in 1984. He was named Director of the Materials Processing Research Laboratory in 1987 and Semiconductor Research Vice President in 1990. He is now an Adjunct Semiconductor Research Vice President, Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Illinois. He has made seminal contributions to materials science and physical electronics through his pioneering development of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) crystal growth process. He demonstrated that MBE could be used to prepare epitaxial films one atomic layer at a time, with exceptional control at atomic dimensions and further showed that these films could be the basis of devices with never before realized electrical and optical properties. His work has bridged many disciplines ranging from fundamental quantum physics, through epitaxial crystal growth, to device fabrication and testing. The capabilities of MBE have allowed new fields of materials research to develop. The ability to precisely make quantum wells has had a far-reaching impact, ranging from classroom physics to revolutions in electronic and optical devices for the consumer electronics, computer and communications industries MBE is broadly used today for advanced multilayer crystal growth and has led to radically new devices including high-speed transistors, microwave devices, laser diodes and detectors. Most of the semiconductor lasers used in today's compact disc players and CD-ROM'S are manufactured using MBE-grown material. Presently, MBE is used to produce the Hall sensors used as disk drive speed controllers for computers and VCRs. High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) which are utilized as high speed circuit components and in high frequency, low noise, direct broadcast satellite and wireless communications are manufactured by MBE. This impact of MBE on fundamental science has been as dramatic as its impact on semiconductor technology. A significant ongoing contribution of MBE is the experimental generation of low dimensional systems. The discovery of an entirely new state of electrons, the fractional quantized Hall effect, was made possible as a result of MBE crystal quality. More recently (1994) he and coworkers demonstrated a fundamentally new type of laser which is a unipolar intersubband semiconductor laser called the quantum cascade (QC) laser. Dr. Cho has authored over 590 papers in surface physics, crystal growth, and device physics and performance. He holds 75 patents on crystal growth and semiconductor devices related to MBE. He is a recipient of the Electronics Division Award of the Electrochemical Society (1977), the American Physical Society International Prize for New Materials (1982), the IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Award (1982), the GaAs Symposium Award - Ford (1986), the Heinrich Welker Medal - Siemens (1986), the Solid State Science and Technology Medal of the Electrochemical Society (1987), the World Materials Congress Award of ASM International (1988), the Gaede-Langmuir Award of the American Vacuum Society (1988), the Industrial Research Institute Achievement Award of the Industrial Research Institute, Inc. (1988), the New Jersey Governor's Thomas Alva Edison Science Award (1990), the International Crystal Growth Award of the American Association for Crystal Growth (1990), the Asian American Corporate Achievement Award (1992), the AT&T Bell Labs Fellow Award (1992), the National Medal of Science, presented by President Clinton (1993), the Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993-94), the IEEE Medal of Honor (1994), the Materials Research Society Von Hippel Award (1994), The Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute (1995), the Computer and Communications Prize of the C & C Foundation, Japan (1995), the New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame (1997), Honorary Doctor of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1999), the Willis E. Lamb Medal for Laser Physics (2000), the University of Illinois Alumni Achievement Award (2000), the IEEE Third Millennium Medal (2000), the NASA Group Achievement Award (2000), Honorary Doctor of Science Degree, City University of Hong Kong (2000) and the Honorary Doctor of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University (2001), and the 2005 National Medal of Technology, announced and presented by President Bush in 2007. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, the American Physical Society, and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He is a member of the U. S. National Academy of Engineering (1985), the National Academy of Sciences (1985), the Third World Academia of Sciences (1987), the Academia Sinica (1990), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (1996), and the American Philosophical Society (1996). He is married to Mona Willoughby; they have four children, Derek, Deidre, Brynna, and Wendy. His outside interests include painting, calligraphy, photography, table tennis, and most recently, learning how to play golf.
 
8Name:  Dr. John Cocke
 Institution:  IBM
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  July 16, 2002
   
9Name:  Dr. Monica Olvera de la Cruz
 Institution:  Northwestern University
 Year Elected:  2020
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1959
   
 
Monica Olvera de la Cruz is the Lawyer Taylor Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Professor of Chemistry; Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Professor of Physics and Astronomy; director of the Center for Computation and Theory of Soft Materials; and deputy-director of the Center for Bio-Inspired Energy Science. Monica Olvera de la Cruz obtained her B.A. in physics from the UNAM, Mexico, in 1981, and her Ph.D. in physics from Cambridge University, UK, in 1985. She was a guest scientist (1985-86) in the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. She joined Northwestern University in 1986, where she is the Lawyer Taylor Professor of Materials Science & Engineering, Professor of Chemistry, Chemical & Biological Engineering and Physics and Astronomy. From 2006-2013 she directed the Materials Research Center at Northwestern. From 1995-97 she was a staff scientist in the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique, Saclay, France, where she also held visiting scientist positions in 1993 and in 2003. She has developed theoretical models to determine the thermodynamics, statistics and dynamics of macromolecules in complex environments including multicomponent solutions of heterogeneous synthetic and biological molecules, and molecular electrolytes. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2020.
 
10Name:  Dr. Edward E. David
 Institution:  EED, Inc.
 Year Elected:  1979
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  February 13, 2017
   
 
Edward E. David was the president of EED, Inc, advisors to industry, government and universities, and consults on research and development, strategic planning and management, intellectual property, technology transfer, enhancing corporate research programs and developing corporate-academic research partnerships for the Washington Advisory Group. He received his doctorate in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1950 and spent the first two decades of his research career at Bell Telephone Laboratories, ascending to the position of executive director. From 1970-73 Dr. David served as science advisor to the President of the United States and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He was also president of Exxon Research and Engineering Company from 1977-86, leading the corporation's research operations in projects both domestically and abroad. Dr. David was on the boards of several businesses and on technical advisory boards nationally and abroad. In 2009 he was awarded the Exceptional Public Service Medal for his outstanding leadership, dedication, and commitment to NASA as a member of the NASA Advisory Council. He was a retired U.S. Representative to the NATO Science Committee as well as a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2017. Edward E. David, Jr., died February 13, 2017, at age 92, at his home in Bedminster, New Jersey.
 
11Name:  Dr. Robert H. Dennard
 Institution:  IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1932
   
 
Robert H. Dennard is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and a member of the American Philosophical Society. He received the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award in 1982. In 1988 he was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Reagan for his invention of the one-transistor dynamic RAM cell. He received the IRI Achievement Award from the Industrial Research Institute in 1989 and the Harvey Prize from Technion, Haifa, Israel, in 1990. Dr. Dennard was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio in 1997. In 2001 he received the Aachener and Munchener Prize for Technology and also was awarded the IEEE Edison Medal. He received the Vladimir Karapetoff Award from Eta Kappa Nu in 2002 and the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005. Dr. Dennard received NEC’s C&C Prize in 2006 and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering in 2007. In 2013, he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Electronics. In January 2017 he was awarded the National Academy of Sciences' Award for the Industrial Application of Science. Dr. Dennard and his wife Jane Bridges live in Croton-on-Hudson, NY. They are active participants in Scottish Country Dancing and choral singing.
 
12Name:  Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  February 20, 2017
   
 
Mildred Dresselhaus was born in Brooklyn, New York and grew up in a poor section of the Bronx. She attended the New York City public schools through junior high school. She then went to Hunter College High School in New York City and continued her education at Hunter College. She was a Fulbright Fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University from 1951-52. Next, she earned her master's degree at Radcliffe in 1953 and continued on to get a Ph.D. at the University of Chicago in 1958. Her thesis was on "The Microwave Surface Impedance of a Superconductor in a Magnetic Field." At the University of Chicago she came into contact with Enrico Fermi, one of the great physicists of the 20th century. The "survival" tactics that helped propel her to success were honed in her earliest years; raised in poverty, she learned as a child to protect herself against daily intimidation in a tough New York neighborhood. Dr. Dresselhaus started college planning to go into elementary school teaching. When she was a sophomore at Hunter College, she met Rosalyn Yalow, who taught her physics and later became a Nobel Laureate in medicine (1977). It was in part due to her interactions with Rosalyn Yalow that Dr. Dresselhaus recognized her potential as a physicist and developed higher goals for herself. Also coming from a disadvantaged background, Yalow encouraged the young undergraduate to press ahead despite detractors, taught her to recognize and seize opportunity, and followed her career as it unfolded with "advice and love". Mildred Dresselhaus moved to Cornell University to complete her NSF sponsored Post-Doctoral fellowship where she continued her studies on superconductivity. After her post-doctorate days were over, she and her husband moved to the Boston area where they both got jobs at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts. Both worked at Lincoln Labs for the next 7 years. At the Lincoln Laboratory, she switched from research on superconductivity to magneto-optics and carried out a series of experiments that led to a fundamental understanding of the electronic structure of semimetals, especially graphite. With four young children, she was invited in 1967 by Louis Smullin, head of the Electrical Engineering Department, to come to MIT and be a visiting professor for a year. She was so enthusiastic about teaching undergraduates and graduate students, and about working with graduate students on research projects, that she was in 1968 appointed as a tenured full professor. She remained on the MIT faculty throughout her career, pursuing an intense research and teaching career in the area of electronic materials. A leader in promoting opportunities for women in science and engineering, Dr. Dresselhaus received a Carnegie Foundation grant in 1973 to encourage women's study of traditionally male dominated fields, such as physics. In 1973, she was appointed to The Abby Rockefeller Mauze chair, an Institute-wide chair, endowed in support of the scholarship of women in science and engineering. She greatly enjoyed her career in science. As Dr. Dresselhaus says about working with MIT students, "I like to be challenged. I welcome the hard questions and having to come up with good explanations on the spot. That's an experience I really enjoy." She has over her career graduated over 60 Ph.D. students and has given many invited lectures worldwide on her research work. Her later research interests were on little tiny things, which go under the name of nanostructures, carbon nanotubes, bismuth nanowires and low dimensional thermoelectricity. Awards received include the Karl T. Compton Medal for Leadership in Physics from the American Institute of Physics (2001); the Medal of Achievement in Carbon Science and Technology from the American Carbon Society (2001); honorary membership in the Ioffe Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2000); the National Materials Advancement Award of the Federation of Materials Societies (2000); 19 honorary doctorate degrees; the Nicholson Medal of the American Physical Society (2000); the Weizmann Institute's Millennial Lifetime Achievement Award (2000); UNESCO's Award for Women in Science (2007); the University of Chicago's Alumni Medal (2008); the Presidential Enrico Fermi Award (2012); the Kavli Prize from the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (2012), the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the IEEE Medal of Honor (2015). She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995. Mildred Dresselhaus died February 20, 2017, in Cambridge, Massachusetts at the age of 86.
 
13Name:  Mr. Roger L. Easton
 Institution:  Naval Research Laboratory & KERNCO & New Hampshire Electric Cooperative
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1921
 Death Date:  May 8, 2014
   
 
Roger Easton was born in a small village in northern Vermont to a town doctor and his school teacher wife. He and his older brothers and one younger sister went to local schools where they had very good teachers. He followed his older brother to Middlebury College where he was graduated during World War II. He went to work at the Naval Research Laboratory in 1943 with his initial work being on blind landing system for aircraft. In 1945 he was married to the former Barbara Coulter of Flint, Michigan. They had five children, three girls and two boys and five grandchildren. Two of the girls died in adulthood of two different cancers. When the development of rockets became important, he joined the Rocket Sonde branch and participated in the proposal that put NRL in the satellite launching business. He designed the Vanguard I satellite, now the oldest in space. Following the launch of the Russian Sputnik, he conceived the U.S. Navy Space Surveillance System, an electronic fence extending across the southern U.S. and detecting all satellites that crossed it. Later he added another fence parallel to the first one. With the two fences we were able to obtain near instantaneous orbital elements on all space objects crossing both fences. The second fence was a continuous wave radar type with timing signals sent by the transmitter and detected over the horizon and by reflection. With this fence it was possible to locate the satellites very accurately. However, the fence had one problem: that cesium-beam clocks had to be carried between the transmitter and the receiver in order to synchronize them. From this operation came the idea of having a satellite carry the clock and, since both the transmitter and the receiver would be visible simultaneously, the clock would not need to be a very stable device - a crystal oscillator would do. A few weeks later the idea appeared that this might be the basis of a navigation device with a great virtue of being capable of measuring range and of being passive so the user need not interrogate the satellite and hence the system would not be overloaded. Following these thoughts a simplified version was demonstrated to personnel from the Naval Air Systems Command. A work order followed and two satellites were used for the time transfer between England, Australia, New Zealand and the U.S. These satellites used crystal oscillators as their timing sources. The next satellite used a rubidium clock designed by E. Jechart of Germany. Two of them were modified at NRL for use in space, the first ones so used. The next satellite, called either TIMATIONS 4 or NDS 2 (for Navigations Development Satellite) was launched on June 23, 1977 into a 12 hour orbit with cesium beam clocks and almost all of the characteristics of the GPS satellites. With this satellite we were able to measure the change in frequency due to gravitation very well and very close to that predicted by Einstein's general theory of gravitation. In 1980 Roger and Mrs. Easton retired to Canaan, New Hampshire where he started a career in public service. In 1982, he was elected in the first of two terms to the New Hampshire General Court and he later ran, unsuccessfully, for Governor. He served three terms as director of the New Hampshire Electric Cooperative, and he has served on the Planning Board for the Town of Canaan. Awards he has received include the following: The Navy Distinguished Civilian Service Award; The Institute of Navigation Thurlow Award; and the Sigma Xi Applied Science Award. Two awards are named for him - one for Space Surveillance and one for Space Navigation. In 1996 Roger Easton was inducted into the GPS Hall of Fame and in 2010 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 1997 he was awarded the Magellanic Premium Award of the American Philosophical Society and, in 1998, he was elected to the Society.
 
14Name:  Dr. Harold E. Edgerton
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1972
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1903
 Death Date:  1/4/90
   
15Name:  Dr. Hiroshi Inose
 Institution:  National Institute of Informatics
 Year Elected:  1979
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  October 11, 2000
   
16Name:  Dr. Irwin Mark Jacobs
 Institution:  Qualcomm Inc.; Salk Institute for Biological Studies
 Year Elected:  2013
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1933
   
 
Irwin Mark Jacobs is Founding Chairman and CEO Emeritus of Qualcomm, a company he co-founded in 1985. As CEO through 2005 and Chairman through 2009, he led the growth from startup to Fortune 500 Company, now with over 28,000 employees worldwide. Qualcomm pioneered the development and commercialization of CDMA wireless technology, the basis for all third-generation cellular networks which now provide voice and broadband Internet access for over 1.6 billion customers. Qualcomm is the world’s largest semiconductor supplier for wireless products and a leader in introducing fourth-generation technology. For 15 consecutive years, QUALCOMM has been named to Fortune’s list of The 100 Best Companies To Work For. Dr. Jacobs previously served as co-founder, CEO and chairman of LINKABIT Corporation, leading the development of Very Small Aperture Earth Terminals (VSATs) and the VideoCipher® satellite-to-home TV system. LINKABIT merged with M/A-COM in August 1980, and Dr. Jacobs served as executive vice president and a member of the board of directors until his resignation in April 1985. Over 100 San Diego communications companies trace their roots to LINKABIT. From 1959 to 1966, Dr. Jacobs was an assistant, then associate professor of electrical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). From 1966 to 1972 he served as professor of computer science and engineering at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). While at MIT, Dr. Jacobs co-authored with Jack Wozencraft a textbook in digital communications Principles of Communication Engineering. First published in 1965, the book remains in use today. Dr. Jacobs received a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1956 from Cornell University and Master of Science and Doctor of Science degrees in electrical engineering from MIT in 1957 and 1959, respectively. He holds fourteen CDMA patents. Dr. Jacobs was named Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Salk Institute In November 2006 and served as Chair of the National Academy of Engineering from 2008 to 2012. He serves on the UCSD Foundation Board of Trustees in addition to the UC San Diego Health System Advisory Board and is past chairman of the University of California President’s Engineering Advisory Council. In June 2011, he was appointed by The Secretary of Education to serve on the Board of the National Center for Research in Advanced Information and Digital Technologies (aka, Digital Promise). Additionally, Dr. Jacobs is a board member of the Lang Lang Foundation, the Technion Board of Governors, the International Innovation and Entrepreneurship Board of Overseers of KACST in Saudi Arabia, the Pacific Council on International Policy, and has served on the Advisory Board of the Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management since its formation in 2000. He is the recipient of numerous industry, education and business awards, including the National Medal of Technology in 1994 and the IEEE Medal of Honor in 2013. Irwin Jacobs was elected a member of the American Philosophical Socity in 2013. In 2015 he was awarded the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy.
 
17Name:  Prof. Jack St. Clair Kilby
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  June 20, 2005
   
18Name:  Dr. Augustus B. Kinzel
 Year Elected:  1963
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1900
 Death Date:  10/23/87
   
19Name:  Dr. Vijay Kumar
 Institution:  University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1962
   
 
Vijay Kumar is the Nemirovsky Family Dean of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Computer and Information Science and Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He studies control systems and collective behaviors in biological and robotic systems. His GRASP lab has developed multi-robot systems and microscale aerial robots that are capable of impressive coordination, such as swarming and teamwork. From 2012-14 he was assistant director of Robotics and Cyber Physical Systems in the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. As Dean and as a researcher he has contributed greatly to the standing of the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and to the surrounding community. He has been a member of the editorial boards of the IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, the ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics and the Springer Tract in Advanced Robotics (STAR). He served as Editor of the ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics from 2014-17. Vijay Kumar was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
20Name:  Dr. Robert A. Laudise
 Institution:  Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies & Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Rutgers University
 Year Elected:  1997
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1930
 Death Date:  8/20/98
   
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