American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Justice Rosalie Silberman Abella
 Institution:  Supreme Court of Canada
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Justice Rosalie Abella, born in a displaced persons’ camp to survivors of Theresienstadt and Buchenwald and brought to Canada as a young child, has been honored around the world as a leading voice for human rights among judges of the world’s high courts. Abella is an expert on human rights law and has taught at McGill Law School. She has authored several books and over 75 articles. She was called to the Ontario bar in 1972 and appointed to the Canadian Supreme Court in 2004. Her 14 years on the Canadian Supreme Court have been distinguished for the clarity and wisdom of her opinions. At an earlier phase of her career, her work on equal employment opportunity established an analytical framework that the Canadian Supreme Court and courts around the world have adopted. In the past she has been a member of the Human Rights Commission of Ontario, of the Ontario Public Service Labour Relations Tribunal, and was the first woman chair of the Ontario Labour Relations Board. Rosalie Silberman Abella was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
2Name:  Mr. David Adjaye
 Institution:  Adjaye Associates
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1966
   
 
Adjaye Associates was established in June 2000 by founder and principal architect, David Adjaye OBE. Receiving ever-increasing worldwide attention, the practice's largest commission is the design of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of African American History and Culture on the National Mall in Washington, DC. Further projects range in scale from private houses, exhibitions and temporary pavilions to major arts centres, civic buildings and masterplans in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Renowned for an eclectic material and color palette and a capacity to unfold cinematically, the buildings differ in form and style, yet are unified by their ability to challenge typologies and to generate a dynamic cultural discourse.
 
3Name:  The Honorable Robert Badinter
 Institution:  Paris University I, Pantheon Sorbonne; French Council
 Year Elected:  2009
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1928
   
 
Robert Badinter is the President of the OSCE Court of Conciliation and Arbitration, a Senator in the Senate of France, and a Professor of Law Emeritus at the Paris University I, Panthéon Sorbonne. He has served as the President of the Arbitration Commission for the Former Yugoslavia, a member of the Brussels Convention for the European Constitution, and a member of the United Nations High Level Panel. Robert Badinter has dedicated his long career to a more human justice and fundamental freedoms. As Minister of Justice, he was the author of the bill of abolition of the death penalty in France in 1981. He has been active in the creation of the international tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague and the International Criminal Court. He is the author of many books, including: The Execution, 1973; Libertés, Libertés, 1975; (with E. Badinter) Condorcet: An Intellectual in Politics, 1988; Free and Equals: The Emancipation of the Jews (1789-1791), 1989; Another Justice, 1990; The Penitentiary System of the Republic, 1992; The Republican Prison (1873-1914), 1993; Ordinary Antisemitism: Vichy and the Jewish Lawyers, 1997; The Abolition, 2000; A European Constitution, 2002; The Greatest Good, 2004; Against Death Penalty, 2006. He was inducted into the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2006.
 
4Name:  Earl of Bessborough
 Institution:  House of Lords
 Year Elected:  1988
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1913
 Death Date:  12/5/93
   
5Name:  Heinrich Böll
 Year Elected:  1983
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1917
 Death Date:  7/16/87
   
6Name:  Lord Alec Broers
 Institution:  University of Cambridge; Royal Academy of Engineering
 Year Elected:  2001
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Sir Alec Broers' career has greatly illuminated the industrial application of physics. Specifically, his primary research interests concern the application of ultra violet light, electrons and x-rays to microscopy. Dr. Broers spent almost 20 years working for IBM in the United States; upon leaving the company in 1984, he became professor of electrical engineering at the University of Cambridge. He has served on numerous British government, EEC, and NATO committees including the U.K. Engineering and Physics Science and Research Council (EPSRC), the Cabinet Office Foresight Panel on Information Technology, and the NATO Special Panel on Nanoscience. A member of the Royal Society, he is also a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. For six years he was Master of Churchill College and was elected Vice Chancellor of Cambridge University in 1996. He is currently Vice Chancellor Emeritus and Professor of Electrical Engineering Emeritus at Cambridge as well as president of the Royal Academy of Engineering.
 
7Name:  Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland
 Institution:  World Health Organization
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Gro Harlem Brundtland is a pioneering physician and international civil servant who has used her combination of scientific training, political skill and moral leadership to draw the world's attention to the challenges of sustainability and global health. She was appointed Prime Minister of Norway for the first time in 1981, at the age of 41, becoming the first woman and then the youngest person to hold that office. Dr. Brundtland served as Head of Government for more than 10 years. As chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, she was responsible for the report "Our Common Future" in April 1987. This report introduced the influential concept of sustainability as humanity's capacity to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This report led to the first Earth Summit, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and to many subsequent activities to promote environmental protection with economic development. As Director-General of the World Health Organization since July 1998 (again, the first woman to hold that office), Dr. Brundtland has mobilized resources and provided moral and technical leadership to improve people's health everywhere. In 2007 she was chosen by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as a special envoy to the U.N. in addressing climate change.
 
8Name:  Professor Sir David Cannadine
 Institution:  British Academy; Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2019
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
David Cannadine is currently President of the British Academy, Dodge Professor of History at Princeton University, and Visiting Professor of History at Oxford University. He earned his D.Phil. from Oxford University in 1975. His work history includes St. John's College and Christ's College at Cambridge University, being Moore Collegiate Professor of History at Columbia University, being Director of the Institute of Historical Research and Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Professor of British History at University of London, and Whitney J. Oates Senior Research Scholar and Lecturer with the rank of Professor at Princeton University. David Cannadine is a distinguished historian of modern Britain (knighted for his work in 2009) who for many years has led a trans-Atlantic life, teaching at Princeton and Oxford while publishing a steady stream of well-received books. The first in his family to attend university, he has a deep research interest in the role of class in British life and history. He is active in many British learned societies and became president of the British Academy in 2017. Among his honors are the Lionel Trilling Prize in 2009, the Dean's Distinguished Award in the Humanities of Columbia University in 1996, the Dickinson Medal of the Newcomen Society in 2003, Knight Bachelor in 2008, Tercentenary Medal of the Society of Antiquaries in 2008, and the Minerva Medal of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow in 2012. He is a member of the Royal Historical Society (1981), the Royal Society of Arts (1998), the Royal Society of Literature (1999), the British Academy (1999), the Society of Antiquaries of London (2005), and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2018). His works include Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy (1990), The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain (1998), Ornamentalism: How the British Saw the Empire (2001), Margaret Thatcher: A Life (2016), and Victorious Century: The United Kingdom 1800-1906 (2017). David Cannadine was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2019.
 
9Name:  Lord Caradon
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1907
 Death Date:  9/5/90
   
10Name:  His Majesty Juan Carlos
 Institution:  King of Spain
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon was born in 1938 in Rome, where the Spanish Royal Family was living at that time, having had to leave Spain when the Republic was proclaimed in 1931. He is the son of Don Juan de Borbon y Battenberg, Count of Barcelona and Head of the Spanish Royal Household ever since King Alfonso XIII had relinquished this status, and Dona Maria de las Mercedes de Borbon y Orleans. At the express wish of his father, he was educated in Spain, which he visited for the first time at the age of ten. In 1954 he completed his Baccalaureate at the San Isidro School in Madrid, and in 1955 began his studies at the Academies and Military Colleges of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. During this time he carried out his practice voyage as a midshipman on the training ship Juan Sebastian Elcano and qualified as a military pilot. In 1960-61 he completed his education at Madrid's Complutense University, where he studied constitutional and international law, economics and taxation. On May 14th, 1962, he married Princess Sofia of Greece, the eldest daughter of King Paul I and Queen Federika, in Athens. After their honeymoon, the Prince and Princess went to live at the Palacio de la Zarzuela, on the outskirts of Madrid, which is still their residence. In 1963 the first of their three children, Princess Elena, was born, followed, two years later, by Princess Cristina and finally, in 1968, by Prince Felipe. After his designation as future successor to the Head of State in 1969, he embarked on a series of official activities, touring Spain and visiting many foreign countries, including France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United States, Japan, China and India. Upon the death of the previous Head of State, Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos was proclaimed King on November 22nd, 1975. In his first message to the nation he expressed the basic ideas of his reign, to restore democracy and become King of all Spaniards, without exception. The transition to democracy, under the guidance of a new Government, began with the Law on Political Reform in 1976. In May 1977, the Count of Barcelona transferred to the King his dynasty rights and his position as head of the Spanish Royal Household, at a ceremony which confirmed the fulfillment of the role incumbent on the Crown in the restoration of democracy. A month later the first democratic election since 1936 was held, and the new parliament drafted the text of the current Constitution, which was approved in a referendum on December 6th, 1978. The Constitution established as the form of government of the Spanish State that of a parliamentary monarchy, in which the King is the arbiter and overseer of the proper working of the institutions. By giving the royal assent to this Constitution, King Juan Carlos expressly proclaimed his firm intention to abide by it and serve it. In fact, it was the actions of the Monarch that saved the Constitution and democracy during the night of February 23, 1981, when the constitutional powers had been retained in the Parliament building in an attempted coup. In the course of 18 years the King has toured Europe, Latin America, the United States and Canada, the Middle East, China, Japan, Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand and many countries in Africa. He has also addressed many international organizations: the United Nations, the institutions of the European Union, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States, UNESCO, the International Labour Organization and the Arab League. The King has encouraged a new style in conducting relations with Latin America, emphasizing the identifying features of a cultural community based on a common language, and pointing out the need to generate common initiatives and take part in suitable kinds of cooperative activity. The countries of that area have shown great generosity in agreeing on the need to create a permanent framework capable of expressing this new situation, setting objectives and organizing programs and specific lines of action. This is the rationale behind the Latin American Conferences, the first of which was held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in 1991. As a convinced European and a winner of the Charlemagne Award in 1982, Juan Carlos delivers insistent reminders of Spain's European calling throughout its history. The importance of the European Union in the contemporary world and in particular in the areas which are most akin to it, including Latin America, has been stressed by the King in many messages, such as the one he gave at the French National Assembly in 1993. King Juan Carlos, who pays constant attention to the world of intellectual developments and its capacity for innovation, has a special relationship with universities, both in Spain and abroad, where he has had conferred upon him honorary doctorates by the most renowned centers, including the Universities of Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge and Harvard, amongst many others. He is also an associate member of the Institut de France. He also pays special attention to the future of the Spanish language and the heritage of the community of Spanish speakers. The King is honorary president of the Board of Trustees of the Cervantes Institute, which is dedicated to the dissemination of the Spanish language worldwide, and the Foundation in support of the Royal Academy, to whose setting up in 1993 he contributed out of his own personal patrimony. As a keen practitioner of several sports, such as skiing and sailing, Juan Carlos supports and appreciates sport as a formative influence of unquestionable social value. The presence of the King and Queen and their encouragement of the Spanish Olympic teams during the Games in Barcelona in 1992 attest to the importance which Juan Carlos attaches to this activity. In 2014 Juan Carlos abdicated his throne in favor of his son, Felipe.
 
11Name:  Dr. J. M. Coetzee
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
J.M. Coetzee is one of the great novelists now writing in English. Impregnated with an austere moral vision, his novels have explored human dilemmas in settings ranging from imagined antiquity (Waiting for the Barbarians) to his native South Africa in the aftermath of apartheid. His novel The Master of Petersburg is a novelistic recreation of Dostoyevsky's sojourn in St. Petersburg when he went searching for traces of his stepson. His most recent book, Summertime (2009), continues his fictional autobiography from his earlier works, Boyhood and Youth. Dr. Coetzee is also a distinguished critic and essayist with an astonishing command of world literature, as evidenced in Stranger Shores, his collection of essays that appeared in 2002. Much of his critical work has also appeared in The New York Review of Books. Currently residing in Australia, Dr. Coetzee earned his Ph.D. from the University of Texas, Austin in 1969; has taught at the State University of New York, Buffalo (1968-71) and the University of Cape Town (1972-2000); and was a member of the University of Chicago's Committee on Social Thought. His many honors include the Booker Prize (1983, 1999) and the Nobel Prize for Literature (2003). His latest works include the collection Inner Workings: Literary Essays 2000-2005 (2007), the novel Diary of a Bad Year (2007), Here and Now: Letters 2008-2011 (2013), The Good Story: Exchanges on Truth, Fiction and Psychotherapy (with A. Kurtz, 2015), The Childhood of Jesus (2013), and The Schooldays of Jesus (2016).
 
12Name:  Dr. Nili Cohen
 Institution:  Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities; Tel Aviv University
 Year Elected:  2022
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Nili Cohen was born in 1947 in Kfar Saba and graduated from the Ironi Dalet High School in Tel Aviv. She started her academic path in the Faculty of Law at Tel Aviv University and completed her LL.B magna cum laude. In 1971 she started her LL.M degree and gained it summa cum laude in 1975. In 1978, Nili Cohen was awarded her Ph.D. from Tel Aviv University for her thesis “The Protection of Obligation against Interference by Third Parties”, which was supervised by Israel Prize Laureate and former Minister of Justice, Prof. Daniel Friedmann. She became a full professor at Tel Aviv University in 1989. Her research deal with contract law, tort law, the law of unjust enrichment, and law and literature, a field she has developed in recent years. Her main work in the field of contract, co-authored with Prof. Daniel Friedmann, is reflected in the four-volume series Contracts, which is frequently cited in Israel’s courts. Over the years, Nili Cohen has been involved in Comparative Law enterprises around the world. She is a member of the American Law Institute in which she took part in the advisory committee to Restitution3rd. She co-authored two chapters in the International Encyclopaedia of Comparative Law, and she took part in the project of the Common Core of European Private Law. Nili Cohen has won a number of awards for her academic activities, including: The Sussman Prize for her book Interference with Contractual Relations, the Zeltner Prize for her book Inducing Breach of Contract. She was again awarded the Sussman Prize for Contracts (with Prof. Daniel Friedmann), and in 2002, she was awarded the Minkoff Prize for Excellence in Law. In the academic years 2003/4, 2004/5, and 2014/15 she won the Rector’s Prize at Tel Aviv University for Excellence in Teaching. In 1994 Nili Cohen was elected for the position of Vice Rector at Tel Aviv University and between 1997 and 2001 she served as the University’s Rector. A member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities since 2004, she served as its President in 2015-2021. In this capacity, she promoted academic research in Israel, encouraged the role of women in science, advanced young researchers, promoted international academic ties, contributed to the development and shaping of legal and academic research in Israeli society and to opening the Academy’s gates to the general public. Since 2004 she organizes the open series on Law and Literature at Tel-Aviv University, within which the most prominent Israeli authors, Amos Oz, A"B Yehoshua, David Grossman, Meir Shalev, Haim Beer, Zeruya Shalev take part. Nili Cohen is an Israel Prize Laureate in the field of legal research for 2017, a member of Academia Europaea, a member of the American Philosophical Society and holds an honorary professorship from the University of Buenos Aires, as well as honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Haifa and from the University of Ben-Gurion. Her late husband Amiram was a lawyer. They have three children and eight grandchildren.
 
13Name:  Lord Dainton
 Institution:  University of Sheffield
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  12/5/97
   
14Name:  The Duke of Devonshire
 Institution:  Eleventh Duke of Devonshire
 Year Elected:  1996
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  May 3, 2004
   
15Name:  Dr. John R. Evans
 Institution:  Torstar Corporation & Canada Foundation for Innovation & University of Toronto
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  February 13, 2015
   
 
Dr. John Evans spent more than 35 years playing a central role in the health, research and innovation sectors. As Chair of the Canada Foundation for Innovation, Dr. Evans helped to create a dynamic environment for innovation, providing researchers with the equipment and facilities they needed to undertake leading-edge research. He also served as Chair of the MaRS Discovery District, a not-for-profit corporation that brings together the academic, business and scientific communities to facilitate the commercialization of academic science in Canada. He served as past Chair of the Institute of Clinical Evaluative Sciences and was Chairman of the TORSTAR Corporation until his retirement in 2005. As Chair and CEO of Allelix Inc., he established Canada's first biotechnology company, creating a model for Canada's biotechnology industry. As founding dean of McMaster University Medical School, he moved away from the traditional models to set the benchmark for training effective physicians, and as founding Director of the Population, Health and Nutrition Department of the World Bank, he developed programs in population health throughout the world. Dr. Evans received his medical degree from the University of Toronto in 1952 and, as a Rhodes Scholar, his Doctoral degree at Oxford University in 1955. Dr. Evans received honourary degrees from 17 universities. He was a Companion of the Order of Canada and Officer of the Order of Ontario. Dr. Evans was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame and the Canadian Business Hall of Fame. He was a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, the Royal College of Physicians, London and Master of the American College of Physicians. Dr. Evans died February 13, 2015, at the age of 85.
 
16Name:  Dr. Wolfgang F. Fruehwald
 Institution:  Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation; Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1935
 Death Date:  January 18, 2019
   
 
Wolfgang Fruehwald died on January 18, 2019 in Augsburg, Germany at the age of 83. Below is a biographical essay he wrote following his election to the American Philosophical Society in 2010. Augsburg, where I was born in August 1935, is a city in the Swabian part of Bavaria with about 250,000 residents. Thus, until today I speak with a Swabian accent. I grew up in a small family of four persons, father, mother and my brother who is four years my senior. We lived in a small green suburb, called "garden-town," that means we had a big garden with flowers, fruits and vegetables, and a huge forest was nearby. When I was four years old, the world turned into fire and war. The Nazis started the Second World War, and some years later my school was bombed. But as luck would have it our family survived. In April 1945, peace was a brand new experience for me. It was a godsend that the following decades, the decades of my life as a boy and a man, are the longest periods of peace which Europe ever experienced in modern history. In autumn 1945, the schools were reopened. I went to high school and studied Latin, Greek, English, a little bit of French and Hebrew. When I received my high school-diploma in 1954 I was 19 years old. My fiancée, Victoria Schwarzkopf, was my classmate in the last classes of high school. We married four years later and are lucky enough to have now been married for more than 50 years. We have five children, two daughters and three sons (also three daughters in law), and 11 grandchildren. In 1954, when I began to study at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, I was an outsider in my family. I studied German Language and Literature, History, Geography and Philosophy to become a high school-teacher in Bavaria. My grandfather and my father were railway employees in Germany. My brother chose the same career. In 1958, I received my first university degree (Staatsexamen) and was appointed assistant professor at the Institute of German Philology at Munich University. I received my Ph.D. in 1961, with a dissertation about medieval sermons from the 13th century, in 1969 I received the postdoctorate qualification (Habilitation) with a book about the German poet Clemens Brentano. My first appointment as full professor of History of German Literature was in 1970 at the University Trier-Kaiserslautern. In 1974, I accepted an offer for a chair at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich. I declined offers from the University of Augsburg (1973) and the Free University of Berlin (1985). In 1985, I accepted an invitation as Distinguished Max Kade Visiting Professor at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. In 1984, when I was elected a member and four years later chairman of a reviewers committee (Fachausschuss) of the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), a busy period began in my life. Working for nongovernmental organizations of science and scholarship in Germany, Austria, Israel and the European Union I met very experienced colleagues and learned something new every day. It is not possible to enumerate all the functions and appointments which I had in science policy, science management and science organizations during more than twenty years. But, in addition to my chair at an institute with more than 6,000 students, my work for the German Research Association and the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation were the main obligations which I held. I was elected a member of the senate and the grants committee of the German Research Association in 1986. In 1991, I was elected and 1994 reelected President of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. After six years in office (two terms, 1991 - 1997) I returned to my chair in Munich. In 1999, I was elected President of the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation. The foundation has alumni-clubs in more than 50 countries of the world. During the eight years of my presidency (1999 - 2007) I visited 32 of them on different continents, in Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, in the United States, in Canada and in some countries of South America. I travelled once or twice every year around the world and I met new and old members of the worldwide Humboldt-Family. Looking back at 45 years as a scholar and a science manager I am very grateful that in many difficult situations and in each country which I visited I found collaborators, members and friends of the big science community which gave me the confidence that we are together able to increase the quality of life. Since 2003, I have been Professor Emeritus, since 2008 Honorary President of the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation.
 
17Name:  Ms. Nadine Gordimer
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  July 13, 2014
   
 
Author of fourteen novels and eighteen short story collections, Nadine Gordimer has won prodigious acclaim and respect as a writer and activist, both in her native South Africa and abroad. Her works deal with the moral and psychological issues endemic to her racially divided home country, the political tensions that inevitably result, and the ability of citizens to cope with, and overcome, these divisions. In her stories of ordinary South Africans, Gordimer reveals the layers of moral ambiguity and choice that underlie and shape daily life. From her active opposition to South Africa's apartheid government (her books were banned as a result) to her recent explorations of the AIDS crisis and the complexities of post-apartheid society, Gordimer has used her art as a mirror on, and vehicle for change within, South Africa. For these achievements she was recognized with the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature, which noted that Gordimer "through her magnificent epic writing has been of very great benefit to humanity". Her most recent book is No Time Like the Present", published in 2012. Nadine Gordimer was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
 
18Name:  Dame Zaha Hadid
 Institution:  Zaha Hadid Architects
 Year Elected:  2013
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1950
 Death Date:  March 31, 2016
   
19Name:  President Václav Havel
 Institution:  Former President of the Czech Republic
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1935
 Death Date:  December 18, 2011
   
 
One of the world's shining lights in the struggle for truth and freedom, playwright, essayist and prisoner of conscience Vaclav Havel served as president of the Czech (formerly Czecho-Slovak) Republic 1989 to 2003. Living proof of the proposition that intellectuals can greatly influence that struggle, Mr. Havel authored the "Velvet Revolution" in his country that peacefully swept the Communist regime from power and put the Czechs at the forefront of the Central and Eastern European nations converting to democracy. As an author, Mr. Havel had been awarded numerous international prizes, including the Austrian State Prize for European Literature (1968), the Olof Palme Prize (1989) and the Simon Bolivar Prize (1990). Among his many books and plays are Garden Party (1963), Protest (1978), Slum Clearance (1988), Disturbing the Peace (1990) and The Art of the Impossible (1997). His memoir, To the Castle and Back, was published in 2007, and his first play in 18 years, "Odchazeni" ("On Departure") had its premiere at the Archa Theater in Prague in 2008. Prior to his country's democratization, Mr. Havel's work was frequently suppressed by Czecho-Slovak authorities, and as spokesman for the Charter 77 human rights movement, he was variously persecuted, imprisoned and placed under house arrest for "subversive" and "antistate" activities. As a politician, he has been honored worldwide and in 1994 was presented with the presitigious Philadelphia Liberty Medal. In 1990 he led his nation to free elections, and even as former Czech Head of State, he continued to be recognized as a moral authority due to his courageous and unyielding stance through the years of Communist totality. Vaclav Havel died on December 18, 2011 at the age of 75 in norther Bohemia, Czech Republic.
 
20Name:  Dr. Seamus Heaney
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2000
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1939
 Death Date:  August 30, 2013
   
 
Born and educated in Northern Ireland, Seamus Heaney is widely recognized as Ireland's greatest poet since William Butler Yeats. His carefully crafted work received international praise for its powerful imagery, meaningful content, musical phrasing and compelling rhythms. In 1996, Seamus Heaney was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Educated at St. Columb's College and Queen's University in Belfast, he worked as a teacher at college and university level in Belfast in the 1960s, moving with his family to the Irish Republic in 1972. After some years as an independent writer, he resumed work as a college lecturer. In 1982 he began his long association with Harvard University, coming and going for a term each year until 1996. At that time, he resigned the Boylston Professorship to begin a more flexible affiliation as Ralph Waldo Emerson Poet in Residence, a position he resigned in 2007. Between 1989 and 1994 he also served as Professor of Poetry at Oxford University. Since the publication of Death of a Naturalist in 1966, Mr. Heaney produced many works of poetry, criticism and translation. Opened Ground: Poems 1966-1996 appeared in 1998 and Finders Keepers, his selected prose, in 2002. Other recent publications include Beowulf: A New Verse Translation (1998) and Electric Light (2001). His version of Sophocles' Antigone, entitled The Burial at Thebes, was produced as part of the Abbey Theatre's centenary celebrations. In 2007 he won the T.S. Eliot Prize for Poetry for his latest collection, District and Circle and in 2009 he won the Royal Irish Academy's Cunningham Medal. Seamus Heaney was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2000. He died on August 30, 2013, at the age of 74, in Dublin.
 
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