American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. Lia Addadi
 Institution:  Weizmann Institute of Science
 Year Elected:  2020
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Born in Padova, Italy, Prof. Lia Addadi obtained her MSc degree in organic chemistry at the Università degli Studi di Padova (1973) and earned a PhD in structural chemistry from the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1979. After conducting postdoctoral research at the Weizmann Institute and at Harvard University, she joined the ranks of the Institute’s Department of Structural Chemistry (now the Department of Structural Biology) in 1982. Prof. Addadi served as Head of the Department of Structural Biology (1994-2001) and as Dean of the Faculty of Chemistry (2001-2004). In 2008, she became Dean of the Feinberg Graduate School, a position she held until 2014. Since 2018, she is the President’s Advisor for Advancing Women in Science. She received numerous prizes and honors, among them the 1998 Prelog Medal in Stereochemistry, and the 2011 Aminoff Prize by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. In 2017 she was elected to the US National Academy of Sciences, and in 2018 she received an honorary PhD from the ETH in Zurich. In her research, Lia Addadi addresses questions related to the formation of crystals in organisms, either fulfilling a physiological function, or pathologically induced, such as in atherosclerosis or osteoporosis. She studies the interactions between crystals and their biological environments, spanning several orders of magnitude from the molecular level to the cell and tissue level. In collaboration with Steve Weiner she investigates the strategies and design principles of mineralized tissues in biomineralization, from the formation pathways to the architecture, and finally to structure-function relations. Lia Addadi was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2020.
 
2Name:  Dr. Pierre Aigrain
 Institution:  Université de Paris VII
 Year Elected:  1981
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1924
 Death Date:  October 30, 2002
   
3Name:  Dr. Hannes Olof G. Alfvén
 Institution:  Royal Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  1971
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1908
 Death Date:  4/2/95
   
4Name:  Dr. Claude Jean Allègre
 Institution:  Institut Physique du Globe de Paris
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  105. Physical Earth Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Claude Allègre was a professor of geochemistry at the University of Paris VI (Pierre and Marie Curie) since 1970, and became professor emeritus at the Institut Physique du Globe de Paris in 2009. He is a world leader in isotope geochemistry and is responsible for bringing this research area into flower in France. His research in a wide variety of isotopic problems with particular emphasis on earth structure and earth dynamics has been of continuing excitement to the scientific community throughout the world. He has been active in unifying the earth sciences community in Europe and is a founder of the European Union of Geosciences, for which he served as president. Dr. Allègre has also been active politically, having served as Minister of Education of France from 1997 to 2000. He has been a major leader in revitalizing science education and research in France. A brilliant and stimulating speaker with wide interests, Dr. Allègre is the author of three books on the development of geosciences for a general audience. His scientific accomplishments have been recognized with many medals and honors, including the Day Medal of the Geological Society of America and the V.M. Goldschmidt Medal of the Geochemical Society. In 1986 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded him the Crafoord Prize for his work in isotope geochemistry with G.J. Wasserburg.
 
5Name:  Dr. M. Ali Alpar
 Institution:  Sabanci University; The Science Academy, Istanbul
 Year Elected:  2013
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
M. Ali Alpar is the founding president of the Science Academy, Istanbul, Turkey and Professor of Physics at Sabanci University. He has made important contributions in theoretical astrophysics, to our understanding of superfluid dynamics in neutron stars, to the evolution of millisecond pulsars. His current research focuses on neutron star glitches and on neutron star evolution with fallback disks. He is a member of the Academia Europaea. He was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 2013.
 
6Name:  Prof. Edoardo Amaldi
 Institution:  Universita "La Sapienza"
 Year Elected:  1961
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1908
 Death Date:  12/6/89
   
7Name:  Professor Vladimir I. Arnold
 Institution:  Steklov Institute of Mathematics & Academy of Sciences, Russia & CEREMADE, University of Paris, Dauphine, France
 Year Elected:  1990
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1937
 Death Date:  June 3, 2010
   
 
Vladimir Arnold was born in 1937 in Odessa (then U.S.S.R, presently Ukraine). One of the most distinguished mathematicians in the world, he was educated at Moscow State University and became famous at age 19 for his brilliant solution to Hilbert's 13th problem. In this solution, Dr. Arnold was able to prove that each continuous function of three variables is representable as a super position of continuous functions of two variables -- the exact opposite of what people expected. Dr. Arnold is also one of the founders of KAM theory. In this theory, if one perturbs a completely integratable Hamiltonian system the resulting system still possesses infinitely many invariant tori. The theory has many applications in celestial mechanics and plasma physics, among other fields. In his examination of infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems, Dr. Arnold studied the Euler equations of ideal gas flow as equations of geodesics on an infinite dimensional lie group of smooth volume preserving transformation. He has conducted path-breaking work on singularity theory and its use in caustics and wave fronts, discovering connections with regular polyhedra and crystallographic symmetry groups - fundamental work connecting real algebraic topology and modern topology and in symplectic and variational problems. The author of a number of outstanding textbooks, Dr. Arnold held professorial positions at Moscow State University for twenty-five years. At present he teaches at Steklove Mathematical Institute in Moscow and the Universite Paris 9. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the French Academy of Science and the Royal Society of London, among others. He is the recipient of many awards, including the 1982 Crafoord Prize of the Swedish Academy, the 2001 Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics, the 2001 Wolf Prize in Mathematics, the 2007 State Prize of the Russian Federation and the 2008 Shaw Prize in Mathematical Sciences.
 
8Name:  Sir Michael Atiyah
 Institution:  University of Edinburgh
 Year Elected:  1991
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  January 11, 2019
   
 
One of the greatest mathematicians of his times, Sir Michael Atiyah made fundamental contributions to many areas of mathematics, but especially to topology, geometry and analysis. From his first major contribution - topological K-theory - to his later work on quantum field theory, Sir Michael has been influential in the development of new theoretical tools and has supplied far-reaching insights. He was a notable collaborator, with his name linked with other oustanding mathematicians through their joint research. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1966 and was President of the Royal Society and Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. A superb lecturer, he possesses the ability to explain sophisticated mathematics in a simple geometric way. Formerly a professor at both Oxford and Cambridge Universities and the Institute for Advanced Study, he was an inspiring teacher who instructed an outstanding group of former students. Sir Michael Atiyah was the recipient of many honors and awards, including election as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1962, a knighthood in 1983 and the Order of Merit in 1992. He served as Chancellor of the University of Leicester from 1995-2005, as President of the Royal Society London from 1990-1995, as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh from 2005-2008, and was later an Honorary Professor at Edinburgh University in Scotland. In 1993 he was awarded the American Philosophical Society's Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences. The citation read "in recognition of significant contributions to a remarkable range of mathematical topics, which established links between differential geometry, topology, and analysis; and creating useful mathematical tools for physicists." Sir Michael Atiyah died on January 11, 2019 at the age of 89.
 
9Name:  Sir Derek H. R. Barton
 Institution:  Texas A & M University
 Year Elected:  1978
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1918
 Death Date:  3/16/98
   
10Name:  Dr. Eshel Ben-Jacob
 Institution:  Tel Aviv University; Rice University
 Year Elected:  2014
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1952
 Death Date:  June 5, 2015
   
 
Eshel Ben-Jacob was a professor of Physics and Astronomy, Maguy-Glass Prof. in Physics of Complex Systems and Member of the Sagol School of Neuroscience at Tel Aviv University, Israel. He was also an Adjunct Prof. of Biosciences and Senior Investigator at the Center of Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) at Rice University. Prof. Ben-Jacob finished his PhD in Physics (1982) at Tel Aviv University, during which he investigated the nonlinear dynamics and noise effects in networks of superconductors. He spent three years (1981-1984) as a post doctoral fellow at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP; today KITP) at the University of California Santa Barbara and made his first groundbreaking work during that time. He and his collaborators solved the long standing "snowflake" problem, formulated by Kepler back in 1610, and lay the foundations of self-organization and pattern formation in open systems far from equilibrium - a field he pioneered and in which he made several breakthroughs (e.g., comprehending the singular interplay between the micro and macro level dynamics, formulating new self-consistent selection principles, founding a new theory of morphology selection). At the same time, Ben-Jacob suggested and showed, theoretically and experimentally, that Coulomb effect can be utilized to control single electron quantum tunneling in sub-micron systems. This led him to the invention (1988) of a transistor operating by single electron tunneling. He was awarded the Landau Prize for research in 1986. Ben-Jacob continued to study quantum effects in small systems, predicting (in the 90s) that flux solitons can behave as quantum relativistic particles. Enthralled by the even greater challenge posed by self-organization in living systems, Ben-Jacob embarked on a new direction of applying physics principles and investigation methods to biology. His first and ongoing effort was bacterial colony development, believing that the foundations of cognition are rooted in these most fundamental life forms - in their abilities to assess the environment, process the information they sense, and adapt accordingly. Among his achievements in the last two decades in physical microbiology were revealing the principles of self organization in bacterial colonies and of collective decision making by social bacteria. While continuing to work on bacteria, Ben-Jacob turned to apply what he learned there to studies of neural network organization and task performance. Here, his most noticeable accomplishment was the first imprinting of multiple memories in live neuronal networks outside the brain utilizing his new "functional holography" analysis of the network activity. Being recognized as a revolutionary step in Networks Neuroscience, this endeavor was selected by Scientific American as one of the 50 most important achievements in all fields of science and technology in 2007. Ben-Jacob then utilized the "functional holography" method for analyzing recorded human brain activity with application to epilepsy. He applied his methods in clinical studies of brain repair from stroke and traumatic brain injuries by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Ben-Jacob's last endeavor was applying what he learned from the microbial world in cancer research. Here he promoted the idea that cancer cells, like bacteria, use advanced communication and cooperation through which they migrate, colonize new organs, develop drug resistance, deceive the immune system and enslave stromal cells. In line of this paradigm, he worked on revealing the operational principles underlying these lethal traits and developing a new theoretical framework to studying new classes of therapeutic strategies intended to defeat cancer by means of "cyberwar", i.e. targeting its communication, cooperation and control. Prof. Ben-Jacob served as vice president (1998-2001) and President (2001-2004) of the Israel Physical Society. He was granted the award of Cavaliere dell'Ordine della Stella della solidarietà Italiana for promotion of science and science culture (2008). He was awarded the Weizmann prize in Physical Sciences in 2013 for "innovative application of physical methods to the study of biological communities such as bacteria colonies, neural networks, and tumors" and inducted an International member of the American Philosophical Society in mathematical and physical sciences in 2014. He died on June 5, 2015, in Tel Aviv, Israel, at the age of 63.
 
11Name:  Professor Sir Michael Victor Berry
 Institution:  University of Bristol
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Michael Berry is Melville Wills Professor of Physics (Emeritus) at the University of Bristol, UK, where he has been for more than twice as long he has not. He is a physicist, focusing on the physics of the mathematics...of the physics. Applications include the geometry of singularities (caustics on large scales, vortices on fine scales) in optics and other waves, connections between classical and quantum physics, and the physical asymptotics of divergent series. He delights in finding the arcane in the mundane - abstract and subtle concepts in familiar or dramatic phenomena: *Singularities of smooth gradient maps in rainbows and tsunamis; *The Laplace operator in oriental magic mirrors; *Elliptic integrals in the polarization pattern of the clear blue sky; *Geometry of twists and turns in quantum indistinguishability; *Matrix degeneracies in overhead-projector transparencies; *Gauss sums in the light beyond a humble diffraction grating.
 
12Name:  Dr. Jacques Blamont
 Institution:  University of Paris IV; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  April 13, 2020
   
 
A distinguished scholar, leader of space research and commander of the Legion of Honor, Jacques Blamont was an internationally recognized scientist and Professor at the University of Paris - VI and Conseiller du President du CNES. He pioneered planetary exploration, leading CNES in mission design and planning, including joint efforts with the USSR. He promoted a rapprochement between the U.S. and USSR in troubled times. Working with NASA, Dr. Blamont exhibited remarkable creativeness in the design of space vehicles, scientific instruments and research approaches. His work and guidance have proven of enormous benefit to the United States. A broad intellectual, he wrote an almost poetical work on the evolution of science. His publications include Vénus dévoilée, Voyage autour d'une planète (1987); Le Chiffre et le Songe, Histoire politique de la découverte (1993); Le Lion et le Moucheron, Histoire des Marrances de Toulouse (2000); and Introduction au Siècle des Menaces (2004). Jacques Blamont died April 13, 2020 in Chatillon, France at the age of 93.
 
13Name:  Dr. Aage Bohr
 Institution:  University of Copenhagen
 Year Elected:  1965
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1922
 Death Date:  September 8, 2009
   
 
Born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1922, Aage Bohr is the son of Margrethe and Niels Bohr. Growing up among physicists like Wolfgang Pauli and Werner Heisenberg, he became a notable nuclear physicist in his own right. In 1946 he became an associate at the Niels Bohr Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, ultimately serving as director of the institute from 1963-70. From 1950 Dr. Bohr worked closely with Ben Mottelson to develop the understanding of nuclear structure. They presented the status of the field in a monograph of two volumes. The first volume, Single-Particle Motion, appeared in 1969, and the second volume, Nuclear Deformations, in 1975. Their efforts on this project and their collaboration on nuclear theory led them to receive the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Leo James Rainwater, for research on the quantum mechanical description of nucleons orbiting inside a wobbly rotating droplet. Dr. Bohr was also the second recipient of the American Physical Society's Dannie Heinemann Prize for his investigations of the interaction of the nucleus with the electron shell and his contributions to the understanding of nuclear spectroscopy. Author of numerous articles in scientific journals, Dr. Bohr is a man of deep and broad interests. Having lived and worked in Denmark, Sweden, England and the United States, he currently holds an Emeritus position at the University of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Institute.
 
14Name:  Dr. Armand Borel
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study
 Year Elected:  1985
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1923
 Death Date:  August 11, 2003
   
15Name:  Dr. Louis-Victor de Broglie
 Year Elected:  1939
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1892
 Death Date:  3/9/87
   
16Name:  Dr. Jocelyn Bell Burnell
 Institution:  University of Oxford; Royal Society of Edinburgh; Trinity College Dublin
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Jocelyn Bell Burnell is widely recognized as the individual responsible for the 1967 discovery of pulsars. With skill and perseverance she overcame the skepticism and resistance of her senior colleagues to make one of the most important and dramatic discoveries in 20th century astrophysics. In 2018 her essential role in the discovery was recognized by the Breakthrough Prize Foundation with a Special Breakthrough Prize. Bell Burnell donated the associated prize money to the Institute of Physics to support scholarships for individuals from underrepresented groups. Later in her career she worked in infrared, X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics. More recently she turned her attention to education including the public understanding of science where according to the Royal Society, her contribution "has been uniquely valuable." The Royal Society web site refers to Jocelyn Bell Burnell as "one of the most influential scientists in the UK." She was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2018.
 
17Name:  Prof. Hendrik B. G. Casimir
 Institution:  University of Leiden
 Year Elected:  1971
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1909
 Death Date:  May 4, 2000
   
18Name:  Dr. Robin J. H. Clark
 Institution:  University College London
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1935
 Death Date:  December 6, 2018
   
 
Robin Clark’s work employing Raman microscopy changed the thinking of art historians and conservators on much artwork and many archaeological artifacts. His identification of the blue pigment on the priceless Lindisfarne Gospels (715 AD) in the British Library as solely indigo, not lazurite, removed the need for the then (2004) current but improbable proposition that trade in lazurite from Afghanistan to Northumbria existed in 715 AD; in fact we know from Clark’s work that it was not established until more than two centuries later. The identification of key pigments on "Young Woman Seated on a Virginal" provided persuasive evidence consistent with a reattribution of this painting to Vermeer, in consequence of which it was sold in London for 30 million dollars in 2004. However, many Egyptian papyri supposedly worth $3 million each and dating to 1250 BC were easily identified to have been illuminated with at least 7 modern pigments, including copper phthalocyanine blue (first made in Manchester in 1936); they thus proved to be virtually worthless. Robin Clark was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2010. He died in London on December 6, 2018 at the age of 83.
 
19Name:  Sir David Cox
 Institution:  Nuffield College, Oxford
 Year Elected:  1990
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1924
 Death Date:  January 18, 2022
   
 
A statistician of considerable distinction, Sir David Cox has been instrumental in the exploration and expansion of statistical methodology. The new methods and formations he has proposed include: discrimination between non-contagious families of distributions (1961); databased choice of transformations (1964); and introduction of the Cox model of survival analysis (1972). He received his Ph.D. from the University of Leeds in 1949 and has taught at the University of Cambridge (assistant lecturer, 1950-55) , Birkbeck College (reader in and professor of statistics, 1956-66) and the Imperial College of Science and Technology (professor of statistics, 1966-88, and head of the math department, 1970-74). Currently affiliated with the Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, where he is also an Honorary Fellow of Nuffield College, Sir David also served as Warden of the College from 1988-94. His academic awards include the Guy Medal in Silver and Guy Medal in Gold, both from the Royal Statistical Society; the Weldon Memorial Prize, University of Oxford; the Kettering Prize and Gold Medal for Cancer Research; the Max Planck Forschungspreise; the International Prize in Statistics (2016); and the BBVA Foundations Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Basic Sciences (2017).
 
20Name:  Dr. Paul J. Crutzen
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1933
 Death Date:  January 28, 2021
   
 
Paul Crutzen was a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography's Center for Atmospheric Sciences from 1992 to 2008. He was also Professor Emeritus at the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Utrecht University, and the former director of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. He has made substantial and fundamental contributions to our understanding of the formation and decomposition of ozone - processes that are also affected by our emissions of different kinds of gas. In particular, he has shown the importance of nitrogen oxides for the ozone balance. Crutzen has also made contributions to the understanding of how the reactions that decompose ozone are considerably reinforced by cloud particles in the stratosphere. That the dilution of the ozone layer is strongest just above the poles of the earth - in particular over Antarctica - is due to this effect. The extremely low temperatures lead to the creation of a very large amount of cloud particles. Research on the chemical mechanisms in the ozone layer has shown signs of the negative impact of humans. There are now far-reaching international agreements on the prohibition of emission of freons and other gases destroying ozone in the so-called Montreal Protocol. Crutzen has also studied how ozone is created in the lower stratum of the atmosphere, the troposphere, where the amount of ozone has increased in the last century due to car exhausts and other emissions. Besides contributing to the greenhouse effect, ozone close to the ground also causes damage to crops and human health. Paul Crutzen shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Mario Molina and Sherwood Rowland. His most recent interests are in the following areas: global modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (2-D, 3-D) for troposphere, stratosphere and lower mesosphere; interactions of atmospheric chemistry with climate; studies of the potential role of halogen photochemistry with ozone in the marine boundary layer; and tropospheric chemistry, including the role of biomass burning in the tropics and subtropics. More recently Crutzen has involved himself with studies of geo-engineering to reduce the heating of Earth's climate by carbon dioxide emissions. He also published a paper showing that the production of biofuels (e.g. ethanol from maize and biodiesel from rapeseed) to replace fossil fuels may not cool climate. Crutzen also proposed that over the past 200 years human activities have grown so much that the introduction of a new geologic epoch, the Anthropocene, is justified. He died on January 28, 2021.
 
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