American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. Anne Cutler
 Institution:  University of Western Sydney, Australia
 Year Elected:  2007
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1945
 Death Date:  June 7, 2022
   
 
Born in Australia, as a postwar baby-boomer, Anne Cutler could benefit from a little-known side-effect of the wartime disruption of Europe: the extraordinarily high quality of language teaching in 1950s Australian schools. Overqualified refugee academics surviving by teaching their native language included her Belgian high-school teacher of French, and her Austrian teacher of German (with a University of Vienna Ph.D.). This background led her to study languages - at Melbourne University, where, thanks to regulations mandating a "science subject" in BA degrees, she discovered psychology as well. Psycholinguistics, investigating language with the methods of experimental psychology, emerged as an independent discipline in nice time for her Ph.D. study (at the University of Texas). Her research has centred on the recognition of spoken language, beginning (in her Ph.D.) with the role of rhythm and intonation in comprehension; since these vary greatly across languages, this prompted her to cross-linguistic comparisons. Her most important discoveries have concerned how adult processing of spoken language is exquisitely adapted to suit the native language (making for great efficiency in listening to the native language, but difficulty in listening to structurally different foreign languages). Her research was conducted from 1982 to 1993 at the Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Unit in Cambridge, UK (which she joined after postdoctoral fellowships at MIT and the University of Sussex), and from 1993 at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, where she served as director until 2013. She is currently Research Professor at Australia's MARCS Institute at the University of Western Sydney. Her awards include the Spinoza Prize of the Dutch Science Council (1999); further, she is a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences, the Academia Europaea, the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, and the National Academy of Sciences (US).
 
2Name:  Dr. Stanislas Dehaene
 Institution:  Collège de France
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1965
   
 
Stanislas Dehaene was initially trained in mathematics, at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1984), before receiving his PhD in cognitive psychology at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (1989), under the direction of psycholinguist Jacques Mehler. He simultaneously developed neuronal models of cognitive functions with molecular neurobiologist Jean-Pierre Changeux (1987-present). After a post-doctoral stay with Michael Posner at the University of Oregon, he oriented his research towards the cognitive neuroscience of language and mathematical abilities. His experiments use brain imaging methods to investigate the mechanisms of cognitive functions such as reading, calculation and language processing, with a particular interest for the differences between conscious and non-conscious processing. Since 2005, he teaches at the Collège de France, where he holds the chair of Experimental Cognitive Psychology. He also directs the INSERM-CEA Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit at NeuroSpin in Saclay, just south of Paris -- France’s advanced neuroimaging research center.
 
3Name:  Dr. Gerd Gigerenzer
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute for Human Development
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Gerd Gigerenzer is Director at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Director of the Harding Center for Risk Literacy in Berlin. He is former Professor of Psychology at the University of Chicago and John M. Olin Distinguished Visiting Professor, School of Law at the University of Virginia. He is also Member of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, the German Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and Batten Fellow at the Darden Business School, University of Virginia. He received honorary doctorates from the University of Basel and the Open University of the Netherlands. Awards for his work include the AAAS Prize for the best article in the behavioral sciences, the Association of American Publishers Prize for the best book in the social and behavioral sciences, the German Psychology Award and the Communicator Award of the German Research Foundation. His award-winning popular books Calculated Risks, Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious, and Risk Savvy: How to make good decisions have been translated into 21 languages. His academic books include Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart, Rationality for Mortals, Simply Rational, and Bounded Rationality (with Reinhard Selten, a Nobel Laureate in economics). In Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions (with Sir Muir Gray) he shows how better informed doctors and patients can improve healthcare while reducing costs. Together with the Bank of England, he works on the project "Simple heuristics for a safer world." Gigerenzer has trained U.S. Federal Judges, German physicians, and top managers in decision-making and understanding risks and uncertainties.
 
4Name:  Dr. Willem J. M. Levelt
 Institution:  Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics; Nijmegen University
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1938
   
 
Willem "Pim" Levelt's own research and his strong intellectual leadership of the Max Planck Institute made it the leading center in the world for psycholinguistic research. He served at its Director 1980-2006. Dr. Levelt's work on lexical access in speech production and related topics is outstanding. His 1989 book, Speaking, and his many research articles on all aspects of speech production have brought him recognition as one of the world's leading psycholinguists. He has, in addition, played a broad and important role in the organization and development of Dutch social sciences. Recognition of this fact is evident in his election as president of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts & Sciences, which he served 2002-2005.
 
5Name:  Dr. Jacques Mehler
 Institution:  SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies
 Year Elected:  2009
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1936
 Death Date:  February 11, 2020
   
 
Jacques Mehler investigates language processing and language acquisition in the first year of life. After having explored processing in speakers of various languages he proposed that syllables play a salient role in speech perception. More recently he devoted his investigations to explore properties of speech signals that could act as triggers of mechanisms that allow infants to bootstrap into language. His group has found that the rhythmic-class of the native language is computed by humans even a few days after birth. Human neonates distinguish when a language switch involves a change in rhythmic-class. His group is now adopting non-invasive brain-imaging methods to complement previously obtained behavioral measures with neonates. He has investigated why it is that the human brain/mind system acquires natural languages with greatest facility at a young age. He has also explored the consequences of continuous exposure to two languages during the first year of life. In 1964 he obtained a Ph.D. from Harvard University. He worked at CNRS (Paris, France) from 1967 until 2001. He became Directeur de Recherche at CNRS in 1980 and he was elected Directeur d'Études at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in 1982. In 1972 he founded "Cognition," International Journal of Cognitive Science, acting as Editor-in-Chief until 2007. In 2001 he moved to SISSA (International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, Italy) where he directs the Language, Cognition and Development laboratory. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2001) and of the Academia Europaea. He was awarded a Doctor Honoris Causa from Université Libre de Bruxelles (1995) and from University and Politechnic of Torino (2009). He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2009. His publications are available at http://www.sissa.it/cns/lcd/publications.htm.
 
6Name:  Dr. Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers
 Institution:  University of Amsterdam
 Year Elected:  2012
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Jeroen G.W. Raaijmakers received his Ph.D. from the University of Nijmegen in 1979. In collaboration with Richard M. Shiffrin, he developed a new model (SAM, for Search of Associative Memory) for retrieval from long-term memory that gave a quantitative description of search processes in memory. Key features of the model were a precise description of the effects of combining several retrieval cues and the role of context in retrieval from memory. Over the past 30 years the model has been successfully applied to explain a large number of empirical phenomena and is generally considered as one of the most encompassing models of human memory and a standard in current memory research. In 1985, Dr. Raaijmakers moved to the TNO Institute for Perception (now called TNO Human Factors) to set up a new group on Applied Cognitive Psychology, focusing on knowledge systems and human decision making. In 1992, Dr. Raaijmakers became (full) professor in Cognitive Psychology at the University of Amsterdam. One of the activities there was the creation of a new interuniversity Graduate Program in Experimental Psychology. In 1993, the Graduate Research Institute for Experimental Psychology EPOS was formed with Dr. Raaijmakers as its first director. Between 2006 and 2010, Dr. Raaijmakers was director of the Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, focusing on the stimulation of interdisciplinary research in Cognitive Science by bringing together researchers from neurobiology, cognitive psychology, linguistics, behavioral economics and information science to work on common issues in human (and animal) cognition. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2012. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2017
 
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